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Technical Paper

General Motors 4T65-E Electronic Four-Speed Automatic Transaxle

The 4T65-E transmission produced by General Motors is the third evolution of GM's original 4-speed F.W.D. automatic. This most recent redesign introduced for the 1997 model year meets new corporate goals for fuel economy and reduced noise, along with the ability to adjust shift character to meet the brand image of the various nameplates. Improving fuel economy and cooling at increased engine power levels was enabled by designing a larger diameter torque converter with the aid of 3-D modeling. The new converter has reduced internal leakage and incorporates a controlled slip clutch. Improvements in NVH have been achieved through a revised oil pump design and the use of the new phased drive chain, made affordable by the joint development of powdered metal technology required for the unique sprocket design.
Technical Paper

Elemental Composition Determination and Stoichiometric Air-Fuel Ratios of Gasoline Containing Ethanol

Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are major elements in modern fuels. Varying combinations of these elements in motor fuel alter the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio (A/F). Stoichiometric A/F ratio is an important parameter in engine calibration affecting vehicle performance, emissions and fuel economy. With increasing use of ethanol in automotive fuels in recent years, since it can be made from renewable feedstocks, oxygen contents in fuel are increasing. Oxygen contents can be around 1.7 mass % in European E5 gasoline or 3.5 mass % in U.S. E10 gasoline and up to 29 mass % in E85 fuel. The increase in oxygen content of fuel has resulted in changes in other physical and chemical properties due to the differences between ethanol and hydrocarbons refined from fossil oil. A previous paper (SAE 2010-01-1517) discussed the change in energy content of automotive fuel and the estimation of net heating values from common fuel properties.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of Diamond-Like Carbon Coating for a Switching Roller Finger Follower

An advanced variable valve actuation system is developed that requires a coating with high stress loading capability on the sliding interfaces to enable compact packaging solutions for gasoline passenger car applications. The valvetrain system consists of a switching roller bearing finger follower (SRFF) combined with a dual feed hydraulic lash adjuster and an oil control valve. The SRFF contains two slider pads and a single roller to provide discrete variable valve lift capability on the intake valves. These components are installed on a four cylinder gasoline engine. The motivation for designing this type of variable valve actuation system is targeted to improve fuel economy by reducing the air pumping losses during partial load engine operation. This paper addresses the technology developed to utilize a Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on the slider pads of the SRFF.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy and Engine-Out Emissions from a Single-Cylinder Two-Valve Direct-Injection S.I. Engine Operating in the Stratified-Combustion Regime

This study is an experimental and computational investigation of the influence of injection timing, fuel spray orientation, and in-cylinder air motion on the combustion, fuel economy, and engine-out emissions of a single-cylinder, 2-valve, spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine, operating under stratified-charged conditions. For the best compromise between fuel consumption, combustion stability, engine-out hydrocarbon emissions and smoke, the engine required relatively retarded injection timings (in comparison to other charge- or wall-controlled DI engines), high swirl levels, and a spray orientation that is directed towards the intake-valve side and targets the ridge wall of the piston.
Technical Paper

General Motors “VTi” Electronic Continuously Variable Transaxle

The VT25-E transmission introduced by General Motors for the 2002 model year is the first variant of GM VTi variable transmission family. The VTi is an electronically controlled Continuously Variable Transaxle (CVT). It is the first North American, high volume production CVT. This CVT enables fuel economy improvements over traditional step gear transmissions, with an improved packaging, wider ratio spread, neutral idle and complete absence of shifts for driver comfort. The VT25-E utilizes a controlled slip converter clutch in conjunction with electronically scheduled ratios and an integrated electronic throttle control to operate the powertrain at its most efficient level. A dual-lobed fixed displacement vane pump and jet nozzle filter arrangement provide the source pressure to a multi-tiered hydraulic control system. The multi-tiered hydraulic control system helps to achieve the precise control necessary to meet the durability requirements of this demanding market.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Drivability Assessment of a Single-Motor Strong Hybrid at Engine Start

Using a clutch to disconnect and shut-off the engine when engine power is not required, the single-motor strong hybrid has the potential for significant fuel economy improvement with reduced costs and less system complexity. However, it is a challenge for the single-motor strong hybrid to maintain acceptable drivability at engine start since it requires diverting motor torque through a slipping clutch to start the engine. In this study, dynamic simulations of the hybrid transmission driveline with hydraulic and motor controls have been employed to assess the feasibility of the single-motor strong hybrid, to address drivability issues specific to this hybrid architecture at engine start, and to develop control methods to manage driveline disturbances to an acceptable level.
Journal Article

Estimation of Elemental Composition of Diesel Fuel Containing Biodiesel

Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are major elements in vehicle fuels. Knowledge of fuels elemental composition is helpful in addressing its performance characteristics. Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen composition is an important parameter in engine calibration affecting vehicle performance, emissions and fuel economy. Biodiesel, a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids also known as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters(FAME), derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, has become an important commercial marketplace automotive fuel in the United States (US) and around the world over last few years. FAME biodiesels have many chemical and physical property differences compared to conventional petroleum based diesel fuels. Also, the properties of biodiesel vary based on the feedstock chosen for biodiesel production. One of the key differences between petroleum diesel fuels and biodiesel is the oxygen content.
Journal Article

Truck Utility & Functionality in the GM 2-Mode Hybrid

The present production General Motors 2-Mode Hybrid system for full-size SUVs and pickup trucks integrates truck utility functions with a full hybrid system. The 2-mode hybrid system incorporates two electro-mechanical power-split operating modes with four fixed-gear ratios. The combination provides fuel savings from electric assist, regenerative braking and low-speed electric vehicle operation. The combination of two power-split modes reduces the amount of mechanical power that is converted to electric power for continuously variable transmission operation, meeting the utility required for SUVs and trucks. This paper describes how fuel economy functionality was blended with full-size truck utility functions. Truck functions described include: Manual Range Select, Cruise Control, 4WD-Low and continuous high load operation.