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Real time Renewable Energy Availability for EV Charging

Battery Electric Vehicles and Extended Range Electric Vehicles, like the Chevrolet Volt, can use electrical energy from the Grid to meet the majority of a driver�s transportation needs. This has the positive societal effects of displace petroleum consumption and associated pollutants from combustion on a well to wheels basis, as well as reduced energy costs for the driver. CO2 may also be lower, but this depends upon the nature of the grid energy generation. There is a mix of sources � coal-fired, gas -fired, nuclear or renewables, like hydro, solar, wind or biomass for grid electrical energy. This mix changes by region, and also on the weather and time of day. By monitoring the grid mix and communicating it to drivers (or to their vehicles) in real-time, electrically driven vehicles may be recharged to take advantage of the lowest CO2, and potentially lower cost charging opportunities.
Technical Paper

Active Fuel Management™ Technology: Hardware Development on a 2007 GM 3.9L V-6 OHV SI Engine

In the North American automotive market, cylinder deactivation by means of engine valve deactivation is becoming a significant enabler in reducing the Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) of large displacement engines. This allows for the continued market competitiveness of large displacement spark ignition (SI) engines that provide exceptional performance with reduced fuel consumption. As an alternative to a major engine redesign, the Active Fuel Management™ (AFM™) system is a lower cost and effective technology that provides improved fuel economy during part-load conditions. Cylinder deactivation is made possible by utilizing innovative new base engine hardware in conjunction with an advanced control system. In the GM 3.9L V-6 Over Head Valve (OHV) engine, the standard hydraulic roller lifters on the engine's right bank are replaced with deactivating hydraulic roller lifters and a manifold assembly of oil control solenoids.
Technical Paper

Integration of Independent Front Axles for Gear Mesh Energy

The need for improved axle NVH integration has increased significantly in recent years with industry trends toward full-time and automatic four wheel drive (4wd) systems. Along with seamless 4wd operation, quiet performance has become a universal expectation. Axle gear-mesh noise can be transmitted to the vehicle passenger compartment through airborne paths (not discussed in this paper) and structure-borne paths (the focus of this paper.) A variety of mounting configurations are used in an attempt to provide improved axle isolation and reduce structure-borne transmission of gear-mesh noise. The configuration discussed in this paper is a 4-point vertical mount design for an Independent Front Drive Axle (IFDA). A significant benefit of this configuration is improved isolation in the range of drive torques where axle-related NVH issues typically exist.
Technical Paper

Magnesium Powertrain Mount Brackets: New Application of Material Being used in this Sub-System for Vehicle Mass Reduction

The need for fuel economy gains is crucial in todays automotive market. There is also growing interest and knowledge of greenhouse gases and their effect on the environment. Paulstra's magnesium powertrain brackets were a solution that was presented not just to reduce the weight of the engine mounting system (which was already under its weight target before magnesium introduction), but in response of the OEM's desire to further reduce the weight of the vehicle for CAFE and weight class impact. This new engine mounting system has three powertrain mount brackets that are high-pressure die cast AZ91D magnesium alloy. This paper will show that these brackets to have a dramatic weight reduction compared to the standard aluminum die-cast material that they replaced. This paper describes the process of approval: concept and material sign-off by the OEM, FEA for strength and modal performance, corrosion, and the final product.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Implementation of a GM RWD Six-Speed Integrated-Friction-Launch Automatic Transmission

Friction Launch transmissions use a wet multi-plate clutch to replace the torque converter in an automatic transmission. By using one of the range clutches inside the transmission, the benefits of this integrated friction launch technology (IFL), such as reduction in mass, packaging, and cost, can be enhanced. The availability of new automatic transmissions with higher number of speeds and wider ratio spreads makes IFL technology more viable than ever before. The new GM Rear-Wheel-Drive (RWD) six-speed transmission has paved the way for a full implementation of integrated friction launch technology in a GM full size Sport-Utility Vehicle (SUV). This project focuses on both hardware and control issues with the friction launch clutch. The hardware issues include designing the clutch for launch energy, cooling, and durability.
Technical Paper

Impact of Engine Operating Conditions on Low-NOx Emissions in a Light-Duty CIDI Engine Using Advanced Fuels

The control of NOx emissions is the greatest technical challenge in meeting future emission regulations for diesel engines. In this work, a modal analysis was performed for developing an engine control strategy to take advantage of fuel properties to minimize engine-out NOx emissions. This work focused on the use of EGR to reduce NOx while counteracting anticipated PM increases by using oxygenated fuels. A DaimlerChrysler OM611 CIDI engine for light-duty vehicles was controlled with a SwRI Rapid Prototyping Electronic Control System. Engine mapping consisted of sweeping parameters of greatest NOx impact, starting with OEM injection timing (including pilot injection) and EGR. The engine control strategy consisted of increased EGR and simultaneous modulation of both main and pilot injection timing to minimize NOx and PM emission indexes with constraints based on the impact of the modulation on BSFC, Smoke, Boost and BSHC.
Technical Paper

Conductive Polyphenylene Ether/Polyamide Blend for Saturn Exterior Body Panels

The evolution toward the use of electrostatic painting processes has been driven primarily by environmental legislation and efforts to improve efficiencies in the painting process. The development of conductive substrate material compliments the industry trend toward a green environment through further reductions in emissions of volatile organic compounds during the painting process. Traditionally, electrostatic painting of thermoplastics requires that a conductive primer be applied to the substrate prior to topcoat application. The conductive polymer blend of polyphenylene ether and polyamide provides sufficient conductivity to eliminate usage of conductive primers. Additional benefits include improved transfer efficiencies of the primer and top coat systems, uniform film builds across the part, and improved painting of complex geometries.
Technical Paper

Achievements and Exploitation of the AUTOSAR Development Partnership

Reductions of hardware costs as well as implementations of new innovative functions are the main drivers of today's automotive electronics. Indeed more and more resources are spent on adapting existing solutions to different environments. At the same time, due to the increasing number of networked components, a level of complexity has been reached which is difficult to handle using traditional development processes. The automotive industry addresses this problem through a paradigm shift from a hardware-, component-driven to a requirement- and function-driven development process, and a stringent standardization of infrastructure elements. One central standardization initiative is the AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (AUTOSAR). AUTOSAR was founded in 2003 by major OEMs and Tier1 suppliers and now includes a large number of automotive, electronics, semiconductor, hard- and software companies.
Technical Paper

Development of a System Level Soot-NOx Trap Aftertreatment Device Model

A Soot-NOx Trap (SNT) is a combinatorial aftertreatment device intended to decrease both particulate and NOx emissions simultaneously. A system-level Soot-NOx Trap model was developed by adding Lean NOx Trap kinetics to a 1D Diesel Particulate Filter model. The hybrid model was validated against each parent model for the limiting cases, then exercised to investigate the interacting redox behavior. Modulations in temperature and exhaust air-fuel ratio were investigated for their ability to facilitate particulate oxidation and NOx reduction in the trap.
Technical Paper

Use of Single Point Interface Measures for Characterization of Attachments

Often components or subsystems are attached to other systems through multiple fasteners at multiple locations. Examples may include things like compressors, alternators, engine cradles, powertrain mounting systems, suspension systems, body structures or almost any other interface between components or subsystems. Often during early design stages, alternative component or subsystem configurations are being considered that can have very different interface characteristics, such as alternators with different number of mounting fasteners, or suspension systems with different number of body structure interface attachments. Given these different mounting configurations, it can be difficult to meaningfully compare the interface performance of the two components or subsystems.
Technical Paper

Design Enhancement of the Rear Composite Structure for the 2005 Chevrolet Corvette Coupe and Z06

This paper describes the design and development of the rear compartment structure of the sixth generation Corvette, C6, which starts in the 2005 model year. The improved design integrates the rear compartment packaging to address issues seen on fifth generation Corvette, C5. The molded composite fiberglass reinforced, tub and surround panels are similar to the C5. These large panels are modified to fit the new styling theme of the C6, while also addressing the packaging requirements of the updated underbody structure and exhaust system. New composite side support brackets and cross car reinforcement combine to address several desired improvements. These side support brackets are designed to package the rear audio speakers, electrical modules, wiring and cable routing while also addressing build variation and localized stiffness improvement. The side brackets support the surround panel increasing the manufacturing control of the surround panel.
Technical Paper

Rapid Spherical Near-Field Antenna Measurements for Vehicle Applications

As more wireless services such as satellite radio (SDARS), navigation systems, OnStar, and mobile telephones are installed on GM vehicles, there is a need to make quick and accurate vehicle antenna pattern measurements. The interaction between vehicle and antenna must be included to ensure accurate vehicle antenna measurements. This implies that the size of the effective antenna should include both the antenna and vehicle interaction dimensions. For the frequency range of 500 MHz to 6 GHz, one solution is to use a spherical near-field system. The Satimo rapid probe array technology was selected to develop a vehicle antenna test system (ATS), which minimizes test time and maintains data accuracy. The ATS was designed to operate inside of an existing GM electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) anechoic chamber equipped with a nine-meter turntable.
Technical Paper

Calculations of Wind Tunnel Circuit Losses and Speed with Acoustic Foams

The GM Aerodynamics Laboratory (GMAL) was modified in 2001 to reduce the background noise level and provide a semi-anechoic test section for wind noise testing. The walls and ceiling of the test section were lined with acoustic foam and foam-filled turning vanes were installed in the corners. Portions of the wind tunnel circuit were also treated with fiberglass material covered by perforated sheet metal panels. High skin drag due to roughness of the foam surfaces, along with high blockage due to the large turning vanes, increased the wind tunnel circuit losses so that the maximum wind speed in the test section was reduced. The present study calculates the averaged total pressure losses at three locations to evaluate the reductions in skin drag and blockage from proposed modifications to the circuit, which were intended to increase the test section wind speed without compromising noise levels.
Technical Paper

Experimental Characterization of the Unsteady Flow Field behind Two outside Rear View Mirrors

The unsteady flow fields behind two different automobile outside side rear view mirrors were examined experimentally in order to obtain a comprehensive data base for the validation of the ongoing computational investigation effort to predict the aero-acoustic noise due to the outside rear view mirrors. This study is part of a larger scheme to predict the aero-acoustic noise due to various external components in vehicles. To aid with the characterization of this complex flow field, mean and unsteady surface pressure measurements were undertaken in the wake of two mirror models. Velocity measurements with particle image velocimetry were also conducted to develop the mean velocity field of the wake. Two full-scale mirror models with distinctive geometrical features were investigated.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Ignition Hazard Posed by Onboard Refueling Vapor Recovery Canisters

ORVR (Onboard Refueling Vapor Recovery) canisters trap vapors during normal operations of a vehicle's engine, and during refueling. This study evaluates the relative risks involved should a canister rupture in a crash. A canister impactor was developed to simulate real-world impacts and to evaluate the canisters' rupture characteristics. Numerous performance aspects of canisters were evaluated: the energy required to rupture a canister; the spread of carbon particles following rupture; the ease of ignition of vapor-laden particles; the vapor concentration in the area of ruptured, vapor-laden canisters; and the potential of crashes to rupture and ignite canisters. Results from these five items were combined into a risk analysis.
Technical Paper

Investigations into the Effects of Thermal and Compositional Stratification on HCCI Combustion – Part I: Metal Engine Results

This study utilized a 4-valve engine under HCCI combustion conditions. Each side of the split intake port was fed independently with different temperatures and reactant compositions. Therefore, two stratification approaches were enabled: thermal stratification and compositional stratification. Argon was used as a diluent to achieve higher temperatures and stratify the in-cylinder temperature indirectly via a stratification of the ratio of specific heats (γ = cp/cv). Tests covered five operating conditions (including two values of A/F and two loads) and four stratification cases (including one homogeneous and three with varied temperature and composition). Stratifications of the reactants were expected to affect the combustion control and upper load limit through the combustion phasing and duration, respectively. The two approaches to stratification both affect thermal unmixedness. Since argon has a high γ, it reached higher temperatures through the compression stroke [1].
Technical Paper

Preliminary Design of a Bio-Diesel Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle as part of EcoCAR 2: Plugging-in to The Future

With a growing need for a more efficient consumer based automotive platform, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (ERAU) chose to redesign the 2013 Chevrolet Malibu as a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle(PHEV). A Series architecture was chosen for its low energy consumption and high consumer acceptability when compared to the Series/Parallel-through-the-road and the Pre-Transmission designs. A fuel selection process was also completed and B20 Biodiesel was selected as the primary fuel due to lower GHG (Greenhouse Gases) emissions and Embry-Riddle's ability to produce biodiesel onsite using the cafeteria's discarded vegetable oil.
Technical Paper

Simulating Complex Automotive Assembly Tasks using the HUMOSIM Framework

Efficient methods for simulating operators performing part handling tasks in manufacturing plants are needed. The simulation of part handling motions is an important step towards the implementation of virtual manufacturing for the purpose of improving worker productivity and reducing injuries in the workplace. However, industrial assembly tasks are often complex and involve multiple interactions between workers and their environment. The purpose of this paper is to present a series of industrial simulations using the Human Motion Simulation Framework developed at the University of Michigan. Three automotive assembly operations spanning scenarios, such as small and large parts, tool use, walking, re-grasping, reaching inside a vehicle, etc. were selected.
Technical Paper

A Robust Procedure for Convergent Nonparametric Multivariate Metamodel Design

Fast-running metamodels (surrogates or response surfaces) that approximate multivariate input/output relationships of time-consuming CAE simulations facilitate effective design trade-offs and optimizations in the vehicle development process. While the cross-validated nonparametric metamodeling methods are capable of capturing the highly nonlinear input/output relationships, it is crucial to ensure the adequacy of the metamodel error estimates. Moreover, in order to circumvent the so-called curse-of-dimensionality in constructing any nonlinear multivariate metamodels from a realistic number of expensive simulations, it is necessary to reliably eliminate insignificant inputs and consequently reduce the metamodel prediction error by focusing on major contributors. This paper presents a robust data-adaptive nonparametric metamodeling procedure that combines a convergent variable screening process with a robust 2-level error assessment strategy to achieve better metamodel accuracy.
Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis of Single and Combined Hybrid Electrically Variable Transmission Operating Modes

Electrically variable transmissions divide power between the electrical and mechanical paths using input, output, or compound split schemes. When combined with an electrical energy storage element such as a battery, these systems allow numerous fuel saving and performance benefits. This paper examines the design tradeoffs in each of the three topologies in order to balance fuel economy, system performance against requirements, and electrical component size. A general EVT analysis method is presented and used to study the fuel economy and performance sensitivity of the three configurations to motor, inverter, and battery constraints, and planetary gear ratios. To evaluate fuel economy, the three systems are assessed for each of the primary fuel economy mechanisms enabled by hybridization. To evaluate performance tradeoffs, system performance against typical vehicle performance design points is compared.