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Technical Paper

Simulating Complex Automotive Assembly Tasks using the HUMOSIM Framework

2009-06-09
2009-01-2279
Efficient methods for simulating operators performing part handling tasks in manufacturing plants are needed. The simulation of part handling motions is an important step towards the implementation of virtual manufacturing for the purpose of improving worker productivity and reducing injuries in the workplace. However, industrial assembly tasks are often complex and involve multiple interactions between workers and their environment. The purpose of this paper is to present a series of industrial simulations using the Human Motion Simulation Framework developed at the University of Michigan. Three automotive assembly operations spanning scenarios, such as small and large parts, tool use, walking, re-grasping, reaching inside a vehicle, etc. were selected.
Technical Paper

Industry and Academic Relations - Engineering Education and the Future of the Engineering Workforce

2010-10-19
2010-01-2300
With the current increase in concern and awareness regarding sustainability and energy, a new focus has been placed on the field of engineering. In this realm of focus, how to educate engineers, more specifically how to continually educate engineers to keep up with technology and the changing workforce has become a very important topic of interest. There exists a gap between graduate studies and professional implementation of technology which the Energy Systems Engineering [ESE] program currently in deployment and development between the University of Michigan and General Motors seeks to address. This work outlines current efforts in encouraging new engineers to enter the field, but focuses primarily on continuing and re-educating the workforce to meet the needs of new technologies. Examples of academic-industry cooperation will be discussed, with some focus on the benefit and experience of the student.
Technical Paper

Brake Response Time Measurement for a HIL Vehicle Dynamics Simulator

2010-04-12
2010-01-0079
Vehicle dynamics simulation with Hardware In the Loop (HIL) has been demonstrated to reduce development and validation time for dynamic control systems. For dynamic control systems such as Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) and Electronic Stability Control (ESC), an accurate vehicle dynamics performance simulation system requires the Electronic Brake Control Module (EBCM) coupled with the vehicles brake system hardware. This kind of HIL simulation-specific software tool can further increase efficiency by means of automation and optimization of the development and validation process. This paper presents a method for HIL vehicle dynamics simulator optimization through Brake Response Time (BRT) correlation. The paper discusses the differences between the physical vehicle and the HIL vehicle dynamics simulator. The differences between the physical and virtual systems are used as factors in the development of a Design Of Experiment (DOE) quantifying HIL simulator performance.
Technical Paper

An Approach of the Engine Cylinder Block Material

2013-10-07
2013-36-0113
The increasing demand for energy savings in cars of high production volume, especially those classified as emerging market vehicles, has led the automotive industry to focus on several strategies to achieve higher efficiency levels from their systems and components. One of the most diffuse initiatives is reducing weight through the application of the so-called light alloys. An engine cylinder block can contribute nearly two percent of the vehicle's total mass. Special attention and soon repercussion are given when someone decides to apply a light alloy such as the aluminum to this component. Nonetheless, it is known that peculiarities in terms of physical, chemical and mechanical properties, due to the material nature, associated with regional market characteristics make the initial feasibility analysis study definitely one of the most important stages for the material choice decision.
Technical Paper

A Qualitative and Quantitative Aerodynamic Study of a Rotating Wheel inside a Simplified Vehicle Body and Wheel Liner Cavity

2019-04-02
2019-01-0658
As automotive OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturer) struggle to reach a balance between Design and Performance, environmental legislations continues to demand more rapid gains in vehicle efficiency. As a result, more attention is being given to the contributions of both tire and wheels. Not only tire rolling resistance, but also tire and wheel aerodynamics are being shown to be contributors to overall efficiency. To date, many studies have been done to correlate CFD simulations of rotating wheels both in open and closed wheeled environments to windtunnel results. Whereas this ensures proper predictive capabilities, little focus has been given to thoroughly explaining the physics that govern this complex environment. This study seeks to exhaustively investigate the complex interactions between the ground, body, and a rotating tire/wheel.
Journal Article

Functional Requirements to Exceed the 100 kW/l Milestone for High Power Density Automotive Diesel Engines

2017-09-04
2017-24-0072
The paper describes the challenges and results achieved in developing a new high-speed Diesel combustion system capable of exceeding the imaginative threshold of 100 kW/l. High-performance, state-of-art prototype components from automotive diesel technology were provided in order to set-up a single-cylinder research engine demonstrator. Key design parameters were identified in terms boost, engine speed, fuel injection pressure and injector nozzle flow rates. In this regard, an advanced piezo injection system capable of 3000 bar of maximum injection pressure was selected, coupled to a robust base engine featuring ω-shaped combustion bowl and low swirl intake ports. The matching among the above-described elements has been thoroughly examined and experimentally parameterized.
Technical Paper

Use of Single Point Interface Measures for Characterization of Attachments

2005-05-16
2005-01-2388
Often components or subsystems are attached to other systems through multiple fasteners at multiple locations. Examples may include things like compressors, alternators, engine cradles, powertrain mounting systems, suspension systems, body structures or almost any other interface between components or subsystems. Often during early design stages, alternative component or subsystem configurations are being considered that can have very different interface characteristics, such as alternators with different number of mounting fasteners, or suspension systems with different number of body structure interface attachments. Given these different mounting configurations, it can be difficult to meaningfully compare the interface performance of the two components or subsystems.
Technical Paper

Engine Component Effects on Spark-Ignition Caused Radio Frequency Interference (RFI)

2007-04-16
2007-01-0360
The objective of this paper is to propose a new model in the identification of a contributing factor to the generation of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) due to the operation of a spark-ignited engine. This model incorporates parameters in the electrical operation of the ignition system components and their interaction with the engine mechanical structure, which is also used as a circuit component (the ignition system “ground”). T he model was developed as a result of analysis of numerous studies that have been conducted over the years in an attempt to identify why RFI characteristics can differ when using identical components on different engines, or locating the components in different locations on identical engines. This situation is a problem due to the resulting uncertainty with respect to the determination of what is the optimum vehicle ignition system configuration to meet all electrical and RFI or electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) requirements.
Technical Paper

A Correlation Study between the Full Scale Wind Tunnels of Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors

2008-04-14
2008-01-1205
A correlation of aerodynamic wind tunnels was initiated between Chrysler, Ford and General Motors under the umbrella of the United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR). The wind tunnels used in this correlation were the open jet tunnel at Chrysler's Aero Acoustic Wind Tunnel (AAWT), the open jet tunnel at the Jacobs Drivability Test Facility (DTF) that Ford uses, and the closed jet tunnel at General Motors Aerodynamics Laboratory (GMAL). Initially, existing non-competitive aerodynamic data was compared to determine the feasibility of facility correlation. Once feasibility was established, a series of standardized tests with six vehicles were conducted at the three wind tunnels. The size and body styles of the six vehicles were selected to cover the spectrum of production vehicles produced by the three companies. All vehicles were tested at EPA loading conditions. Despite the significant differences between the three facilities, the correlation results were very good.
Technical Paper

Perforation Corrosion Performance of Autobody Steel Sheet in On-Vehicle and Accelerated Tests

2003-03-03
2003-01-1238
The Auto/Steel Partnership Corrosion Project Team has completed a perforation corrosion test program consisting of on-vehicle field exposures and various accelerated tests. Steel sheet products with eight combinations of metallic and organic coatings were tested, utilizing a simple crevice coupon design. On-vehicle exposures were conducted in St. John's and Detroit for up to seven years to establish a real-world performance standard. Identical test specimens were exposed to the various accelerated tests, and the results were compared to the real-world standard. This report documents the results of these tests, and compares the accelerated test results (including SAE J2334, GM9540P, Ford APGE, CCT-I, ASTM B117, South Florida Modified Volvo, and Kure Beach (25-meter) exposures) to the on-vehicle tests. The results are compared in terms of five criteria: extent of corrosion, rank order of material performance, degree of correlation, acceleration factor, and control of test environment.
Technical Paper

Development of a Luxury Vehicle Acoustic Package using SEA Full Vehicle Model

2003-05-05
2003-01-1554
Interior noise has become a significant performance attribute in modern passenger vehicles and this is extremely important in the luxury market segment where a quiet interior is the price of entry. With the elimination of early prototype vehicles to reduce development costs, high frequency analytical SEA models are used to design the vehicle sound package to meet targets for interior noise quality. This function is important before representative NVH prototypes are available, and later to support parameter variation investigations that would be cost prohibitive in a hardware test. This paper presents the application of an analytical full vehicle SEA model for the development of the acoustic package of a cross over luxury utility vehicle. The development concerns addressed were airborne powertrain noise and road noise. Power flow analysis was used to identify the major noise paths to the interior of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

The Use of in Vehicle STL Testing to Correlate Subsystem Level SEA Models

2003-05-05
2003-01-1564
For the assessment of vehicle acoustics in the early design stages of a vehicle program, the use of full vehicle SEA models is becoming the standard analysis method in the US automotive industry. One benefit is that OEM's and Tier 1 suppliers are able to cascade lower level acoustic performance targets for NVH systems and components. Detailed SEA system level models can be used to assess the performance of systems such as dash panels, floors and doors, however, the results will be questionable until test data Is available. Correlation can be accomplished with buck testing, which is a common practice in the automotive industry for assessing the STL (sound transmission loss) of vehicle level components. The opportunity to conduct buck testing can be limited by the availability of representative bodies to be cut into bucks and the availability of a transmission loss suite with a suitably large opening.
Technical Paper

GM's Evolving Epsilon Midsize Car Platform

2005-04-11
2005-01-1028
This paper reviews the history of the General Motor's Epsilon Platform from a Body Structure perspective. From the time that it was conceived in 1996 to the present, the platform has evolved to meet many changing requirements. The focus of this paper will cover basic body requirements such as crash performance, modal requirements, packaging issues, changes for wheelbase and powertrains, mass, different body styles, etc, including the differences between European and US requirements. It will demonstrate that this globally developed platform met all its initial requirements and continued to evolve over time to meet additional changing requirements.
Technical Paper

Achievements and Exploitation of the AUTOSAR Development Partnership

2006-10-16
2006-21-0019
Reductions of hardware costs as well as implementations of new innovative functions are the main drivers of today's automotive electronics. Indeed more and more resources are spent on adapting existing solutions to different environments. At the same time, due to the increasing number of networked components, a level of complexity has been reached which is difficult to handle using traditional development processes. The automotive industry addresses this problem through a paradigm shift from a hardware-, component-driven to a requirement- and function-driven development process, and a stringent standardization of infrastructure elements. One central standardization initiative is the AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (AUTOSAR). AUTOSAR was founded in 2003 by major OEMs and Tier1 suppliers and now includes a large number of automotive, electronics, semiconductor, hard- and software companies.
Technical Paper

Rapid Spherical Near-Field Antenna Measurements for Vehicle Applications

2005-04-11
2005-01-0569
As more wireless services such as satellite radio (SDARS), navigation systems, OnStar, and mobile telephones are installed on GM vehicles, there is a need to make quick and accurate vehicle antenna pattern measurements. The interaction between vehicle and antenna must be included to ensure accurate vehicle antenna measurements. This implies that the size of the effective antenna should include both the antenna and vehicle interaction dimensions. For the frequency range of 500 MHz to 6 GHz, one solution is to use a spherical near-field system. The Satimo rapid probe array technology was selected to develop a vehicle antenna test system (ATS), which minimizes test time and maintains data accuracy. The ATS was designed to operate inside of an existing GM electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) anechoic chamber equipped with a nine-meter turntable.
Technical Paper

Driver Performance Research Regarding Systems for Use While Backing

2006-03-01
2006-01-1982
General Motors has pursued research to develop systems intended to assist drivers in recognizing people or objects behind them when they are backing, and this paper summarizes results from this research. We are currently working with ultrasonic rear parking assist systems, rear radar backing warning systems, and rear camera systems, which are briefly described and their utility for assisting drivers in recognizing people or objects behind them discussed. Our research on driver performance with a prototype long range backing warning system found that audible and visual warning combinations may not be effective in warning distracted drivers about unexpected objects. Driver expectancy is thought to play a significant role in this result. However, further research found drivers were more likely to notice an unexpected obstacle behind their vehicle with a prototype rear view video camera system compared to ultrasonic rear parking assist and trials that had no system.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Sternum Morphomics and Injury Data

2019-04-02
2019-01-1217
Crash safety researchers have an increased concern regarding the decreased thoracic deflection and the contributing injury causation factors among the elderly population. Sternum fractures are categorized as moderate severity injuries, but can have long term effects depending on the fragility and frailty of the occupant. Current research has provided detail on rib morphology, but very little information on sternum morphology, sternum fracture locations, and mechanisms of injury. The objective of this study is two-fold (1) quantify sternum morphology and (2) document sternum fracture locations using computed tomography (CT) scans and crash data. Thoracic CT scans from the University of Michigan Hospital database were used to measure thoracic depth, manubriosternal joint, sternum thickness and bone density. The sternum fracture locations and descriptions were extracted from 63 International Center for Automotive Medicine (ICAM) crash cases, of which 22 cases had corresponding CT scans.
Technical Paper

Effectiveness of Workload-Based Drowsy Driving Countermeasures

2019-04-02
2019-01-1228
This study evaluated the effectiveness of alternative workload-based interventions intended to restore driver alertness following drowsy episodes. Unlike traditional drowsy driving studies, this experiment did not target sleep-deprived individuals, but rather studied normally rested drivers under the assumption that low-workload environments could trigger drowsy driving episodes. The study served as a proof of concept for varying the nature and onset of countermeasure interventions intended to disrupt the drowsiness cycle. Interventions to combat drowsiness attempted to target driver workload, either physical or cognitive, and included two primary treatment conditions: 1) physical workload to increase driver steering demands and 2) trivia-based interactive games to mentally challenge drivers. A benchmark comparison condition using music was also investigated to contrast the relative influence of workload-based interventions with passive listening to musical arrangements.
Technical Paper

Active Fuel Management™ Technology: Hardware Development on a 2007 GM 3.9L V-6 OHV SI Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-1292
In the North American automotive market, cylinder deactivation by means of engine valve deactivation is becoming a significant enabler in reducing the Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) of large displacement engines. This allows for the continued market competitiveness of large displacement spark ignition (SI) engines that provide exceptional performance with reduced fuel consumption. As an alternative to a major engine redesign, the Active Fuel Management™ (AFM™) system is a lower cost and effective technology that provides improved fuel economy during part-load conditions. Cylinder deactivation is made possible by utilizing innovative new base engine hardware in conjunction with an advanced control system. In the GM 3.9L V-6 Over Head Valve (OHV) engine, the standard hydraulic roller lifters on the engine's right bank are replaced with deactivating hydraulic roller lifters and a manifold assembly of oil control solenoids.
Technical Paper

HELS Based Acoustic Holographic Measurements to Evaluate Structure-Borne Noise

2007-05-15
2007-01-2281
General Motors (GM) recently purchased an acoustic holography system based on the Helmholtz Equation Least Squares (HELS) methodology. Typically acoustic holography has utilized planar transformation of the Fourier acoustic equations. General Motors conducted a variety of experiments on a simple well understood structure. This enabled us to understand the setup parameters and confirm the manufacturer's claims for accuracy. Measurements on the structure were taken using the HELS based equipment and a laser vibrometer. Conclusions are drawn on how to set up the equipment for future testing on vehicles.
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