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Video

Real time Renewable Energy Availability for EV Charging

2012-03-29
Battery Electric Vehicles and Extended Range Electric Vehicles, like the Chevrolet Volt, can use electrical energy from the Grid to meet the majority of a driver�s transportation needs. This has the positive societal effects of displace petroleum consumption and associated pollutants from combustion on a well to wheels basis, as well as reduced energy costs for the driver. CO2 may also be lower, but this depends upon the nature of the grid energy generation. There is a mix of sources � coal-fired, gas -fired, nuclear or renewables, like hydro, solar, wind or biomass for grid electrical energy. This mix changes by region, and also on the weather and time of day. By monitoring the grid mix and communicating it to drivers (or to their vehicles) in real-time, electrically driven vehicles may be recharged to take advantage of the lowest CO2, and potentially lower cost charging opportunities.
Video

The Utility and Fuel Consumption of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

2012-03-27
There are now a wide variety of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles in or near production. They reduce or displace petroleum consumption with of various combinations of conventional IC engine, mechanical transmission, liquid fuel storage, electrical energy storage, electrical and electro-mechanical energy conversion, and vehicle-to-grid energy interface. These Electrified types of vehicles include Mild Hybrid, Full Hybrid, Plug-In Hybrid, Extended Range Electric, and Battery Electric. Some types differ in their actual usability for the real mixes of driving trips, and further that differ in their effectiveness to reduce or displace fuel in actual real world driving use. Vehicle size is also a factor in total vehicle utility in transporting people. If we may segment drivers by their driving needs, in each segment, we see a particular type of electrified vehicle that is better suited than others at minimizing fuel cost and petroleum consumption for the purposes of transporting people.
Technical Paper

The Immersed Boundary CFD Approach for Complex Aerodynamics Flow Predictions

2007-04-16
2007-01-0109
Standard CFD methods require a mesh that fits the boundaries of the computational domain. For a complex geometry the generation of such a grid is time-consuming and often requires modifications to the model geometry. This paper evaluates the Immersed Boundary (IB) approach which does not require a boundary-conforming mesh and thus would speed up the process of the grid generation. In the IB approach the CAD surfaces (in Stereo Lithography -STL- format) are used directly and this eliminates the surface meshing phase and also mitigates the process of the CAD cleanup. A volume mesh, consisting of regular, locally refined, hexahedrals is generated in the computational domain, including inside the body. The cells are then classified as fluid, solid and interface cells using a simple ray-tracing scheme. Interface cells, correspond to regions that are partially fluid and are intersected by the boundary surfaces.
Technical Paper

Magnesium Powertrain Mount Brackets: New Application of Material Being used in this Sub-System for Vehicle Mass Reduction

2007-04-16
2007-01-1031
The need for fuel economy gains is crucial in todays automotive market. There is also growing interest and knowledge of greenhouse gases and their effect on the environment. Paulstra's magnesium powertrain brackets were a solution that was presented not just to reduce the weight of the engine mounting system (which was already under its weight target before magnesium introduction), but in response of the OEM's desire to further reduce the weight of the vehicle for CAFE and weight class impact. This new engine mounting system has three powertrain mount brackets that are high-pressure die cast AZ91D magnesium alloy. This paper will show that these brackets to have a dramatic weight reduction compared to the standard aluminum die-cast material that they replaced. This paper describes the process of approval: concept and material sign-off by the OEM, FEA for strength and modal performance, corrosion, and the final product.
Technical Paper

Impact of Engine Operating Conditions on Low-NOx Emissions in a Light-Duty CIDI Engine Using Advanced Fuels

2002-10-21
2002-01-2884
The control of NOx emissions is the greatest technical challenge in meeting future emission regulations for diesel engines. In this work, a modal analysis was performed for developing an engine control strategy to take advantage of fuel properties to minimize engine-out NOx emissions. This work focused on the use of EGR to reduce NOx while counteracting anticipated PM increases by using oxygenated fuels. A DaimlerChrysler OM611 CIDI engine for light-duty vehicles was controlled with a SwRI Rapid Prototyping Electronic Control System. Engine mapping consisted of sweeping parameters of greatest NOx impact, starting with OEM injection timing (including pilot injection) and EGR. The engine control strategy consisted of increased EGR and simultaneous modulation of both main and pilot injection timing to minimize NOx and PM emission indexes with constraints based on the impact of the modulation on BSFC, Smoke, Boost and BSHC.
Technical Paper

Conductive Polyphenylene Ether/Polyamide Blend for Saturn Exterior Body Panels

2001-03-05
2001-01-0446
The evolution toward the use of electrostatic painting processes has been driven primarily by environmental legislation and efforts to improve efficiencies in the painting process. The development of conductive substrate material compliments the industry trend toward a green environment through further reductions in emissions of volatile organic compounds during the painting process. Traditionally, electrostatic painting of thermoplastics requires that a conductive primer be applied to the substrate prior to topcoat application. The conductive polymer blend of polyphenylene ether and polyamide provides sufficient conductivity to eliminate usage of conductive primers. Additional benefits include improved transfer efficiencies of the primer and top coat systems, uniform film builds across the part, and improved painting of complex geometries.
Technical Paper

Control Validation Project at GM for Hybrid Vehicle Air Conditioning

2006-04-03
2006-01-1446
Software development tools can be used in conjunction with test automation tools to validate controller software. Test automation tools must have an open architecture to interface with all the different software and hardware components, within a control validation project. Therefore software development tools like Matlab/Simulink will be able to exchange data via real time interface software with test automation tools. The test automation tool must be flexible to pass data back and forth from/to Microsoft standard software programs like Excel.
Technical Paper

Eliminating Caliper Piston Knock Back In High Performance Vehicles

2006-10-08
2006-01-3197
Powerful vehicles that are adequately designed to corner at high speeds can generate very high lateral forces at tire-road interface. These forces are counter balanced by chassis, suspension and brake components allowing the vehicle to confidently maneuver around a corner. Although these components may not damage under such high cornering loads, elastic deflections can significantly alter a vehicles performance. One such phenomenon is increased brake pedal travel, to engage brakes, after severe cornering maneuvers. Authors of this paper have worked together to solve exactly this problem on a very powerful luxury segment car.
Technical Paper

Developing Safety Standards for FCVs and Hydrogen Vehicles

2007-04-16
2007-01-0436
The SAE FCV Safety Working Group has been addressing fuel cell vehicle (FCV) safety for over 7 years. The initial document, SAE J2578, was published in 2002. SAE J2578 has been valuable to the FCV development with regard to the identification of hazards and the definition of countermeasures to mitigate these hazards such that FCVs can be operated in the same manner as conventional gasoline IC-powered vehicles. The document is currently being updated to clarify and update requirements so that the document will continue to be relevant and useful in the future. In addition to developing draft revisions to SAE J2578, the working group has updated SAE J1766 and is developing a new recommended practice on vehicular hydrogen systems (SAE J2579). The documents are written from the standpoint of systems-level, performance-based requirements. A risk-based approach was used to identify potential electrical and fuel system hazards and provide criteria for acceptance.
Technical Paper

Defining the General Motors 2-Mode Hybrid Transmission

2007-04-16
2007-01-0273
The new General Motors 2-Mode Hybrid transmission for full-size, full-utility SUVs integrates two electro-mechanical power-split operating modes with four fixed gear ratios and provides fuel savings from electric assist, regenerative braking and low-speed electric vehicle operation. A combination of two power-split modes reduces the amount of mechanical power that must be converted to electricity for continuously variable transmission operation. Four fixed gear ratios further improve power transmission capacity and efficiency for especially demanding maneuvers such as full acceleration, hill climbing, and towing. This paper explains the basics of electro-mechanical power-split transmissions, input-split and compound-split modes, and the addition of fixed gear ratios to these modes to create the 2-Mode Hybrid transmission for SUVs.
Technical Paper

Rapid Spherical Near-Field Antenna Measurements for Vehicle Applications

2005-04-11
2005-01-0569
As more wireless services such as satellite radio (SDARS), navigation systems, OnStar, and mobile telephones are installed on GM vehicles, there is a need to make quick and accurate vehicle antenna pattern measurements. The interaction between vehicle and antenna must be included to ensure accurate vehicle antenna measurements. This implies that the size of the effective antenna should include both the antenna and vehicle interaction dimensions. For the frequency range of 500 MHz to 6 GHz, one solution is to use a spherical near-field system. The Satimo rapid probe array technology was selected to develop a vehicle antenna test system (ATS), which minimizes test time and maintains data accuracy. The ATS was designed to operate inside of an existing GM electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) anechoic chamber equipped with a nine-meter turntable.
Technical Paper

A Correlation Study between the Full Scale Wind Tunnels of Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors

2008-04-14
2008-01-1205
A correlation of aerodynamic wind tunnels was initiated between Chrysler, Ford and General Motors under the umbrella of the United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR). The wind tunnels used in this correlation were the open jet tunnel at Chrysler's Aero Acoustic Wind Tunnel (AAWT), the open jet tunnel at the Jacobs Drivability Test Facility (DTF) that Ford uses, and the closed jet tunnel at General Motors Aerodynamics Laboratory (GMAL). Initially, existing non-competitive aerodynamic data was compared to determine the feasibility of facility correlation. Once feasibility was established, a series of standardized tests with six vehicles were conducted at the three wind tunnels. The size and body styles of the six vehicles were selected to cover the spectrum of production vehicles produced by the three companies. All vehicles were tested at EPA loading conditions. Despite the significant differences between the three facilities, the correlation results were very good.
Technical Paper

Calculations of Wind Tunnel Circuit Losses and Speed with Acoustic Foams

2008-04-14
2008-01-1203
The GM Aerodynamics Laboratory (GMAL) was modified in 2001 to reduce the background noise level and provide a semi-anechoic test section for wind noise testing. The walls and ceiling of the test section were lined with acoustic foam and foam-filled turning vanes were installed in the corners. Portions of the wind tunnel circuit were also treated with fiberglass material covered by perforated sheet metal panels. High skin drag due to roughness of the foam surfaces, along with high blockage due to the large turning vanes, increased the wind tunnel circuit losses so that the maximum wind speed in the test section was reduced. The present study calculates the averaged total pressure losses at three locations to evaluate the reductions in skin drag and blockage from proposed modifications to the circuit, which were intended to increase the test section wind speed without compromising noise levels.
Technical Paper

A Response Surface Based Tool for Evaluating Vehicle Performance in the Pedestrian Leg Impact Test

2008-04-14
2008-01-1244
An interactive tool for predicting the performance of vehicle designs in the pedestrian leg impact test has been developed. This tool allows users to modify the design of a vehicle front structure through the use of a graphical interface, and then evaluates the performance of the design with a response surface. This performance is displayed in the graphical interface, providing the user with nearly instantaneous feedback to his design changes. An example is shown that demonstrates how the tool can be used to help guide the user towards vehicle designs that are likely to improve performance. As part of the development of this tool, a simplified, parametric finite element model of the front structure of the vehicle was created. This vehicle model included eleven parameters that could be adjusted to change the structural dimensions and structural behavior of the model.
Technical Paper

Experimental Characterization of the Unsteady Flow Field behind Two outside Rear View Mirrors

2008-04-14
2008-01-0476
The unsteady flow fields behind two different automobile outside side rear view mirrors were examined experimentally in order to obtain a comprehensive data base for the validation of the ongoing computational investigation effort to predict the aero-acoustic noise due to the outside rear view mirrors. This study is part of a larger scheme to predict the aero-acoustic noise due to various external components in vehicles. To aid with the characterization of this complex flow field, mean and unsteady surface pressure measurements were undertaken in the wake of two mirror models. Velocity measurements with particle image velocimetry were also conducted to develop the mean velocity field of the wake. Two full-scale mirror models with distinctive geometrical features were investigated.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Ignition Hazard Posed by Onboard Refueling Vapor Recovery Canisters

2001-03-05
2001-01-0731
ORVR (Onboard Refueling Vapor Recovery) canisters trap vapors during normal operations of a vehicle's engine, and during refueling. This study evaluates the relative risks involved should a canister rupture in a crash. A canister impactor was developed to simulate real-world impacts and to evaluate the canisters' rupture characteristics. Numerous performance aspects of canisters were evaluated: the energy required to rupture a canister; the spread of carbon particles following rupture; the ease of ignition of vapor-laden particles; the vapor concentration in the area of ruptured, vapor-laden canisters; and the potential of crashes to rupture and ignite canisters. Results from these five items were combined into a risk analysis.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Design of a Bio-Diesel Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle as part of EcoCAR 2: Plugging-in to The Future

2012-09-10
2012-01-1770
With a growing need for a more efficient consumer based automotive platform, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (ERAU) chose to redesign the 2013 Chevrolet Malibu as a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle(PHEV). A Series architecture was chosen for its low energy consumption and high consumer acceptability when compared to the Series/Parallel-through-the-road and the Pre-Transmission designs. A fuel selection process was also completed and B20 Biodiesel was selected as the primary fuel due to lower GHG (Greenhouse Gases) emissions and Embry-Riddle's ability to produce biodiesel onsite using the cafeteria's discarded vegetable oil.
Technical Paper

Application of Micro-Perforated Composite Acoustic Material to a Vehicle Dash Mat

2011-05-17
2011-01-1623
In recent years several variants of lightweight multi-layered acoustic treatments have been used successfully in vehicles to replace conventional barrier-decoupler interior dash mats. The principle involved is to utilize increased acoustic absorption to offset the decrease in insertion loss from the reduced mass such that equivalent vehicle level performance can be achieved. Typical dual density fibrous constructions consist of a relatively dense cap layer on top of a lofted layer. The density and flow resistivity of these layers are tuned to optimize a balance of insertion loss and absorption performance. Generally these have been found to be very effective with the exception of dash mats with very high insertion loss requirements. This paper describes an alternative treatment which consists of a micro-perforated film top layer and fibrous decoupler layer.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Identification of the Neck Muscle Activities During Head and Neck Flexion Whiplash

2002-03-04
2002-01-0017
A previously developed finite element human head/cervical spine model was further enhanced to include the major muscles in the neck. The head/cervical spine model consists of the skull, C1-C7, disks, facets, and all the ligaments in this region. The vertebral bodies are simulated by deformable bodies and the soft tissues in the cervical spine are modeled by nonlinear anisotropic viscoelastic material. The motion segments in the cervical spine model were validated against three-dimensional cadaver test data reported in the literature. To simulate the passive and active muscle properties, the classical Hill muscle model was implemented in the LS-DYNA code and model parameters were based on measurements of cadaver neck musculature. The head/neck model was used to simulate a human volunteer flexion whiplash test reported in the literature. Simulation results showed that the neck muscle contraction and relaxation activities had a significant effect on the head/neck motion.
Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis of Single and Combined Hybrid Electrically Variable Transmission Operating Modes

2005-04-11
2005-01-1162
Electrically variable transmissions divide power between the electrical and mechanical paths using input, output, or compound split schemes. When combined with an electrical energy storage element such as a battery, these systems allow numerous fuel saving and performance benefits. This paper examines the design tradeoffs in each of the three topologies in order to balance fuel economy, system performance against requirements, and electrical component size. A general EVT analysis method is presented and used to study the fuel economy and performance sensitivity of the three configurations to motor, inverter, and battery constraints, and planetary gear ratios. To evaluate fuel economy, the three systems are assessed for each of the primary fuel economy mechanisms enabled by hybridization. To evaluate performance tradeoffs, system performance against typical vehicle performance design points is compared.
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