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Technical Paper

Real-Time Estimation of Wheel Imbalances for Chassis Prognosis

2010-04-12
2010-01-0245
“Wheel balancing” is one of the common automotive repairs that the owners of an automobile usually experience. An unbalanced set of a tire and a rim or wheel on which the tire is mounted could cause vibration while driving. Such vibrations may be sensed by the driver at the steering wheel (known as smooth road shake). If left untreated for a long period of time, the vibration, induced by the imbalance, may propagate to chassis components such as bearing and bushing. This in turn causes excessive wear that eventually leads to a premature failure. Therefore, an early detection of wheel imbalances can not only significantly reduce the cost and time for diagnosis and repair of the wheel, but also prevent further damage to chassis components. This paper studies the feasibility of real-time detection of wheel imbalances in real world driving conditions, using recursive least square estimation method. The simulation study shows promising results for implementation in a real vehicle.
Technical Paper

Signal Age Fault Detection in Distributed Embedded Automotive Systems

2010-04-12
2010-01-0205
More and more advanced features such as adaptive cruise control and collision avoidance are being adopted in road vehicles and these features are usually implemented as distributed systems across multiple ECU nodes that are connected by communication busses. In order to tolerate transient faults affecting a safety critical signal transmitted via bus in such distributed systems, the last used value or a default safe value for a safety critical signal is usually used among different ECU nodes on the bus for a pre-defined time interval before taking some other fault mitigation actions such as disabling a feature. Thus it becomes very important to monitor a signal's age and detect any signal age fault, where a signal age fault is defined as the use of an older or default signal value for longer than or equal to the pre-defined time interval.
Technical Paper

Algorithm-in-the-Loop with Plant Model Simulation, Reusable Test Suite in Production Codes Verification and Controller Hardware-in-the-Loop Bench Testing

2010-04-12
2010-01-0367
In a math-based control algorithm design, model-based simulation and testing are very important as an integral part of design process. There are many advantages of using modeling and simulation in the algorithm design. In this paper, Algorithm-in-the-Loop and Hardware-in-the-Loop approaches are adopted for a transmission control algorithm development. A practical approach is introduced on how to test the control algorithms with a reliable plant (virtual engine, transmission, and vehicle) model in the closed-loop simulation. In using combination of open-loop and closed-loop simulations, various key behavior test cases are developed and documented for the success of control algorithms development. Secondly, the same test cases are reused and verified against the production codes, which are automatically generated from the math-based control algorithm models.
Technical Paper

Effects of Wind Speed and Longitudinal Direction on Fire Patterns from a Vehicle Fire in a Compact Car

2017-03-28
2017-01-1353
This paper compares the material consumption and fire patterns which developed on four nearly identical compact sedans when each was burned for exactly the same amount of time, but with different wind speed and direction during the burns. This paper will also compare the effects of environmental exposure to the fire patterns on the vehicles. The burn demonstrations were completed at an outdoor facility in southeast Michigan on four late model compact sedans. The wind direction was controlled by placing the subject vehicle with either the front facing into the wind, or rear facing into the wind. Two of the burns were conducted when the average observed wind speed was 5-6kph and two of the burns were conducted at an average observed wind speed of 19kph.
Technical Paper

Fast and Stable Quasi-Static Bending Simulations in LS-DYNA: Identification of Optimal Finite Element Model Parameters

2016-04-05
2016-01-1392
The quality of material model input files for finite element analysis (FEA) is a fundamental factor governing the fidelity and accuracy of simulations at a sub-system or a vehicle level, dictating an investment of due diligence in developing and validating the material models. Several material models conventionally employed for FEA typically allow accounting for only uniaxial tensile behavior of the material; however, the models may be required to predict component-level response in a complex loading scenario. Therefore in developing LSDYNA material input files for such models, it becomes critical to validate their performance in alternative loading scenarios. For out-ofplane loading, typically a three or four-point bending load-case is used for validation. Simulating three point bending (TPB), particularly in the quasi-static regime, requires detailed representation of the moving pin impacting the specimen, and sliding of the specimen on the stationary pins.
Technical Paper

Development of a Small Rear Facing Child Restraint System Virtual Surrogate to Evaluate CRS-to-Vehicle Interaction and Fitment

2015-04-14
2015-01-1457
Automotive interior design optimization must balance the design of the vehicle seat and occupant space for safety, comfort and aesthetics with the accommodation of add-on restraint products such as child restraint systems (CRS). It is important to understand the range of CRS dimensions so that this balance can be successfully negotiated. CRS design is constantly changing. In particular, the introduction of side impact protection for CRS as well as emphasis on ease of CRS installation has likely changed key design points of many child restraints. This ever-changing target creates a challenge for vehicle manufacturers to assure their vehicle seats and occupant spaces are compatible with the range of CRS on the market. To date, there is no accepted method for quantifying the geometry of child seats such that new designs can be catalogued in a simple, straightforward way.
Technical Paper

An Investigative Study of Sudden Pressure Increase Phenomenon Across the DPF

2014-04-01
2014-01-1516
Diesel particulate filter (DPF) is a widely used emission control device on diesel vehicles. The DPF captures the particulate matter coming from the engine exhaust and periodically burns the collected soot via the regeneration process. There are various trigger mechanisms for this regeneration, such as distance, time, fuel and simulation. Another method widely used in the industry is the pressure drop across the filter. During calibration, relation between the pressure sensor reading and soot mass in the filter is established. This methodology is highly effective in successful DPF operation as pressure sensor is a live signal that can account for any changes in engine performance over time or any unforeseen hardware failures. On the other hand, any erroneous feedback from the sensor can lead to inaccurate soot mass prediction causing unnecessary regenerations or even needless DPF plugging concerns.
Journal Article

Adjoint-Driven Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Based on a Combination of Steady State and Transient Flow Solutions

2016-04-05
2016-01-1599
Aerodynamic vehicle design improvements require flow simulation driven iterative shape changes. The 3-D flow field simulations (CFD analysis) are not explicitly descriptive in providing the direction for aerodynamic shape changes (reducing drag force or increasing the down-force). In recent times, aerodynamic shape optimization using the adjoint method has been gaining more attention in the automotive industry. The traditional DOE (Design of Experiment) optimization method based on the shape parameters requires a large number of CFD flow simulations for obtaining design sensitivities of these shape parameters. The large number of CFD flow simulations can be significantly reduced if the adjoint method is applied. The main purpose of the present study is to demonstrate and validate the adjoint method for vehicle aerodynamic shape improvements.
Technical Paper

Combined Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction and Digital Image Correlation Technique for Measurement of Austenite Transformation with Strain in TRIP-Assisted Steels

2016-04-05
2016-01-0419
The strain-induced diffusionless shear transformation of retained austenite to martensite during straining of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) assisted steels increases strain hardening and delays necking and fracture leading to exceptional ductility and strength, which are attractive for automotive applications. A novel technique that provides the retained austenite volume fraction variation with strain with improved precision is presented. Digital images of the gauge section of tensile specimens were first recorded up to selected plastic strains with a stereo digital image correlation (DIC) system. The austenite volume fraction was measured by synchrotron X-ray diffraction from small squares cut from the gage section. Strain fields in the squares were then computed by localizing the strain measurement to the corresponding region of a given square during DIC post-processing of the images recorded during tensile testing.
Technical Paper

Directional Mahalanobis Distance and Parameter Sensitivities

2016-04-05
2016-01-0289
Mahalanobis Distance (MD) is gaining momentum in many fields where classification, statistical pattern recognition, and forecasting are primary focus. It is a multivariate method and considers correlation relationships among parameters for computing generalized distance measure to separate groups or populations. MD is a useful statistic in multivariate analysis to test that an observed random sample is from a multivariate normal distribution. This capability alone enables engineers to determine if an observed sample is an outlier (defect) that falls outside the constructed (good) multivariate normal distribution. In Mahalanobis-Taguchi System (MTS), MD is suitably scaled and used as a measure of severity in abnormality assessment. It is obvious that computed MD depends on values of parameters observed on a random sample. All parameters may not equally impact MD. MD could be highly sensitive with respect to some parameters and less sensitive to some other parameters.
Journal Article

Strain Field Measurement in the Vicinity of Ductile Rupture from Digital Image Correlation

2008-04-14
2008-01-0856
A methodology that enables two-dimensional strain field measurement in the vicinity of ductile rupture is described. Fully martensitic steel coupons were strained to fracture using a miniature tensile stage with custom data and image acquisition systems. Rupture initiated near the center of each coupon and progressed slowly toward the gage section edges. A state-of-the-art digital image correlation technique was used to compute the true strain field before rupture initiation and ahead of the resulting propagating macroscopic crack before final fracture occurred. True strains of the order of 95% were measured ahead of the crack at later stages of deformation.
Journal Article

Mapping of Global Road Systems Based on Statistical Discriminant Analysis

2010-04-12
2010-01-0924
Automotive manufacturers are facing continuously changing Global environment. Traditionally, these manufacturers relied on structural and general durability tests to validate vehicles. For these tests to remain representative of customer usage in a Global environment, the overall surface conditions of the Global road systems must be studied. Understanding and classifying these road systems conditions is an important step in dealing with vehicle durability in the Global environment. In this paper, an approach to mapping the world road systems into Established Roads (ER) and Developing Roads (DR), utilizing Statistical Discriminant Analysis (SDA), is presented. The classification of Global regions as DR and ER road systems can be effectively used to recommend appropriate development and validation tests for each road system. A few examples are presented to demonstrate how the ER vs.
Journal Article

Lab Evaluation and Comparison of Corrosion Performance of Mg Alloys

2010-04-12
2010-01-0728
More Mg alloys are being considered for uses in the automotive industry. Since the corrosion performance of Mg alloy components in practical service environments is unknown, long term corrosion testing at automotive proving grounds will be an essential step before Mg alloy components can be implemented in vehicles. However, testing so many Mg alloy candidates for various parts is labor intensive for the corrosion engineers at the proving grounds. This report presents preliminary results in evaluating corrosion performance of Mg alloys based on rapid corrosion and electrochemical tests in the lab. In this study, four Mg alloy candidates for transmission cases and oil pans: AE44, AXJ530, MRI153M and MRI230D were tested in the lab and at General Motors Corporation Milford Proving Ground and their corrosion results were compared.
Technical Paper

Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) for Third Generation Advanced High-Strength Steel Development

2015-04-14
2015-01-0459
This paper presents an overview of a four-year project focused on development of an integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) toolset for third generation advanced high-strength steels (3GAHSS). Following a brief look at ICME as an emerging discipline within the Materials Genome Initiative, technical tasks in the ICME project will be discussed. Specific aims of the individual tasks are multi-scale, microstructure-based material model development using state-of-the-art computational and experimental techniques, forming, toolset assembly, design optimization, integration and technical cost modeling. The integrated approach is initially illustrated using a 980MPa grade transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel, subject to a two-step quenching and partitioning (Q&P) heat treatment, as an example.
Technical Paper

Normally-Engaged Dual-Piston Clutch for Engine Stop-Start Application

2015-04-14
2015-01-1141
For the conventional 6 speed automatic transmission with engine stop-start powertrain, an electrically-driven auxiliary pump is implemented to maintain the transmission line pressure as required to lock-up the CB1234 clutch during engine auto-stop conditions. Upon releasing the brake pedal, the transmission engages into first gear with the objective to accelerate the vehicle in a responsive manner. In this study, a novel normally-engaged dual-piston clutch concept is designed to keep the CB1234 clutch locked-up during engine auto-stop conditions with the intention to eliminate the auxiliary pump without compromising vehicle performance. This dual piston clutch concept requires a relatively low line pressure to release the normally-engaged clutch when needed, thus, minimizing the hydraulic pumping work. To explore the functionality of this concept under a wide-open-throttle (WOT) auto-start transition, modeling and simulation of the normally-engaged dual-piston clutch is completed.
Journal Article

Comparing Laser Welding Technologies with Friction Stir Welding for Production of Aluminum Tailor-Welded Blanks

2014-04-01
2014-01-0791
A comparison of welding techniques was performed to determine the most effective method for producing aluminum tailor-welded blanks for high volume automotive applications. Aluminum sheet was joined with an emphasis on post weld formability, surface quality and weld speed. Comparative results from several laser based welding techniques along with friction stir welding are presented. The results of this study demonstrate a quantitative comparison of weld methodologies in preparing tailor-welded aluminum stampings for high volume production in the automotive industry. Evaluation of nearly a dozen welding variations ultimately led to down selecting a single process based on post-weld quality and performance.
Journal Article

FEA Development of Spot Weld Modeling with Fracture Forming Limit Diagram(FFLD) Failure Criteria and Its Application to Vehicle Body Structure

2015-04-14
2015-01-1316
Spot weld separation in vehicle development stage is one of the critical phenomena in structural analyses regarding quasi-static test condition, like roof strength or seat/belt pull. It directly reduces structural performance by losing connected load path and occasionally introduces tearing on surrounding sheet metals. Traditionally many efforts have been attempted to capture parent metal ductile fracture, but not applied to spot weld separations in automotive FEA simulations. [1,2,3] This paper introduces how to develop FFLD failure criteria from a series of parametric study on ultra high strength sheet steel and deals with failure criteria around spot weld and parent metal. Once the fracture strains for sheet steels are determined, those developed values were applied to traditional spot weld coupon FEA simulations and tests. Full vehicle level roof strength FEA simulations on a typical automotive body structure were performed and verified to the physical tests.
Journal Article

Simulation Fidelity Improvement of H350 Lower Tibia Indices

2015-04-14
2015-01-0578
Finite element dummy models have been more and more widely applied in virtual development of occupant protection systems across the automotive industry due to their predictive capabilities. H350 dyna dummy model [1] is a finite element representation of the Hybrid III male dummy [2], which is designed to represent the average of the United States adult male population. Lower extremity injuries continue to occur in front crash accidents despite increasing improvement of vehicle crashworthiness and occupant restraint system. It is therefore desirable to predict lower tibia injury numbers in front occupant simulations. Though lower tibia loading/index predictions are not studied as much as the FMVSS 208 regulated injury numbers, the tibia indices are injury criteria that need to be assessed during IIHS and Euro NCAP frontal offset occupant simulations. However during front crash simulations, it is very difficult to achieve good correlations or predictions of lower tibia loadings.
Journal Article

General Motors Front Wheel Drive Seven Speed Dry Dual Clutch Automatic Transmission

2015-04-14
2015-01-1093
General Motors has introduced a new front wheel drive seven speed dry dual clutch automatic transmission in 2014. The 250 Nm input torque rated gear box was designed and engineered for a global market in both front wheel drive and all-wheel drive configurations. The transmission has integrated start/stop capability enabled by the use of an electric motor driven pump and a pressurized accumulator. The architecture selected was chosen for optimization of packaging, fuel economy, mass, shift pleasability, and NVH. High mileage durability and world class drivability were the cornerstone deliverables during the engineering and design process Fuel efficiency is estimated to be 3% - 10% improvement over a conventional six speed automatic transmission. FWD variant wet mass of 78.1 kg was achieved through the rigorous engineering processes used to optimize the transmission system.
Journal Article

Performance Characterization of Automatic Transmission Upshifts with Reduced Shift Times

2015-04-14
2015-01-1086
As the number of fixed gear ratios in automatic transmissions continues to increase in the pursuit of powertrain system efficiency, particular consideration must continue to be focused on optimizing the design for shifting performance. This investigation focuses on the effect of shift time on the performance attributes of shift quality, durability, on schedule fuel consumption and enablers to further reduce shift time. A review of fundamental design features that enable reduced shift times in both planetary and dual clutch transmissions is presented along with key operating features of both the transmission and engine/prime mover. A lumped parameter metric is proposed to assess and compare the upshift controllability of new transmission architectures and powerflows using simple analysis. The durability of fast shift times during performance maneuvers are quantified through calculation of shifting clutch energy and power from analysis and form measurements on a powertrain dynamometer.
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