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Technical Paper

Needle Roller Bearing Lubricant Flow CFD Simulations

2013-01-09
2013-26-0041
This work analyzes the lubricant supply to critical regions of needle roller bearing of an automatic transmission. The needle roller bearing is a critical component of an automatic transmission and it has several rotating cylindrical needle rollers that are having relative motion with inner surface of the pinion. Supply of lubricant to the needle roller bearings is very essential to prevent failure of the bearings due to frictional contact between rollers and inner surface of pinion. The supply of lubricant to the needle roller bearings depends on the location of oil supply hole. Lubricant supply to the needle roller bearings of an automatic transmission is studied using commercial 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software for different oil supply positions. CFD simulation is performed for the region between the pinion supply hole and end of the needle bearings including all needles. Lubricant is supplied to the needle bearing from the pinion pin oil supply hole.
Journal Article

Mapping of Global Road Systems Based on Statistical Discriminant Analysis

2010-04-12
2010-01-0924
Automotive manufacturers are facing continuously changing Global environment. Traditionally, these manufacturers relied on structural and general durability tests to validate vehicles. For these tests to remain representative of customer usage in a Global environment, the overall surface conditions of the Global road systems must be studied. Understanding and classifying these road systems conditions is an important step in dealing with vehicle durability in the Global environment. In this paper, an approach to mapping the world road systems into Established Roads (ER) and Developing Roads (DR), utilizing Statistical Discriminant Analysis (SDA), is presented. The classification of Global regions as DR and ER road systems can be effectively used to recommend appropriate development and validation tests for each road system. A few examples are presented to demonstrate how the ER vs.
Technical Paper

Algorithm-in-the-Loop with Plant Model Simulation, Reusable Test Suite in Production Codes Verification and Controller Hardware-in-the-Loop Bench Testing

2010-04-12
2010-01-0367
In a math-based control algorithm design, model-based simulation and testing are very important as an integral part of design process. There are many advantages of using modeling and simulation in the algorithm design. In this paper, Algorithm-in-the-Loop and Hardware-in-the-Loop approaches are adopted for a transmission control algorithm development. A practical approach is introduced on how to test the control algorithms with a reliable plant (virtual engine, transmission, and vehicle) model in the closed-loop simulation. In using combination of open-loop and closed-loop simulations, various key behavior test cases are developed and documented for the success of control algorithms development. Secondly, the same test cases are reused and verified against the production codes, which are automatically generated from the math-based control algorithm models.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Estimation of Wheel Imbalances for Chassis Prognosis

2010-04-12
2010-01-0245
“Wheel balancing” is one of the common automotive repairs that the owners of an automobile usually experience. An unbalanced set of a tire and a rim or wheel on which the tire is mounted could cause vibration while driving. Such vibrations may be sensed by the driver at the steering wheel (known as smooth road shake). If left untreated for a long period of time, the vibration, induced by the imbalance, may propagate to chassis components such as bearing and bushing. This in turn causes excessive wear that eventually leads to a premature failure. Therefore, an early detection of wheel imbalances can not only significantly reduce the cost and time for diagnosis and repair of the wheel, but also prevent further damage to chassis components. This paper studies the feasibility of real-time detection of wheel imbalances in real world driving conditions, using recursive least square estimation method. The simulation study shows promising results for implementation in a real vehicle.
Journal Article

Locating Wire Short Fault for In-Vehicle Controller Area Network with Resistance Estimation Approach

2016-04-05
2016-01-0065
Wire shorts on an in-vehicle controller area network (CAN) impact the communication between electrical control units (ECUs), and negatively affects the vehicle control. The fault, especially the intermittent fault, is difficult to locate. In this paper, an equivalent circuit model for in-vehicle CAN bus is developed under the wire short fault scenario. The bus resistance is estimated and a resistance-distance mapping approach is proposed to locate the fault. The proposed approach is implemented in an Arduino-based embedded system and validated on a vehicle frame. The experimental results are promising. The approach presented in this paper may reduce trouble shooting time for CAN wire short faults and may enable early detection before the customer is inconvenienced.
Technical Paper

Minimum Cycle Requirement for SAE J2562

2014-04-01
2014-01-0073
SAE J2562 defines the background, apparatus and the directions for modifying the Scaled Base Load Sequence for a given a wheel rated load for a wheel design. This practice has been conducted on multiple wheel designs and over one hundred wheel specimens. All of the wheels were tested to fracture. Concurrently, some of the wheel designs were found to be unserviceable in prior or subsequent proving grounds on-vehicle testing. The remainder of the wheel designs have sufficient fatigue strength to sustain the intended service for the life of the vehicle. This is termed serviceable. Using the empirical data with industry accepted statistics a minimum requirement can be projected, below which a wheel design will likely have samples unserviceable in its intended service. The projections of serviceability result in a recommendation of a minimum cycle requirement for SAE J2562 Ballasted Passenger Vehicle Load Sequence.
Technical Paper

Combined Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction and Digital Image Correlation Technique for Measurement of Austenite Transformation with Strain in TRIP-Assisted Steels

2016-04-05
2016-01-0419
The strain-induced diffusionless shear transformation of retained austenite to martensite during straining of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) assisted steels increases strain hardening and delays necking and fracture leading to exceptional ductility and strength, which are attractive for automotive applications. A novel technique that provides the retained austenite volume fraction variation with strain with improved precision is presented. Digital images of the gauge section of tensile specimens were first recorded up to selected plastic strains with a stereo digital image correlation (DIC) system. The austenite volume fraction was measured by synchrotron X-ray diffraction from small squares cut from the gage section. Strain fields in the squares were then computed by localizing the strain measurement to the corresponding region of a given square during DIC post-processing of the images recorded during tensile testing.
Technical Paper

A Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) Bench Test of a GT-Power Fast Running Model for Rapid Control Prototyping (RCP) Verification

2016-04-05
2016-01-0549
A GT-Power Fast Run Model simplified from detail model for HIL is verified with a bench test using the dSPACE Simulator. Firstly, the conversion process from a detailed model to FRM model is briefly described. Then, the spark timing, fuel pulse with control for FAR, and torque level control are developed for proof of concept. Moreover a series of FRM/Simulink co-simulation and HIL tests are conducted. In the summary, the test results are presented and compared with GT detailed model simulations. The test results show that the FRM/dSPACE HIL stays consistent in most variables of interest under 0.7-0.9 real-time factor condition between 1000 - 5000 RPM. The same steady-state can be reached by RCP controllers or with GT-Power internal controllers. The transient states are close using different control algorithm. The main purpose of HIL application is achieved, despite inconsistencies in performance data like fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Directional Mahalanobis Distance and Parameter Sensitivities

2016-04-05
2016-01-0289
Mahalanobis Distance (MD) is gaining momentum in many fields where classification, statistical pattern recognition, and forecasting are primary focus. It is a multivariate method and considers correlation relationships among parameters for computing generalized distance measure to separate groups or populations. MD is a useful statistic in multivariate analysis to test that an observed random sample is from a multivariate normal distribution. This capability alone enables engineers to determine if an observed sample is an outlier (defect) that falls outside the constructed (good) multivariate normal distribution. In Mahalanobis-Taguchi System (MTS), MD is suitably scaled and used as a measure of severity in abnormality assessment. It is obvious that computed MD depends on values of parameters observed on a random sample. All parameters may not equally impact MD. MD could be highly sensitive with respect to some parameters and less sensitive to some other parameters.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Exhaust Pressure Control with Dynamic Feedforward for Engine Protection

2014-04-01
2014-01-1163
The need to reduce fuel consumption and harmful pollutants from engines is an important task for automotive industry. It has led to technological advances in new engine design, such as engine downsizing. Due to the reduction of displacement, engine power output is reduced and thus its overall performance is limited. In order to increase torque and power, engines are typically boosted by turbochargers or superchargers. Meanwhile, the improvement on turbo design makes it possible to operate VGT (variable geometry turbocharger) at harsher exhaust environment for gasoline engines as well (e.g., with much higher exhaust temperature than that of diesel engines). This makes VGT related control problems more challenging and requires attention to protecting corresponding engine hardware during an entire engine life.
Technical Paper

HIL Driveline Dyno

2014-04-01
2014-01-1738
Today's sophisticated state-of-the-art powertrains with various intelligent control units (xCU) need to be calibrated and tested stand-alone as well as in interaction. Today the majority of this work is still carried out with prototype vehicles on test tracks. Moving prototype vehicle tests from the road into the lab is key in achieving shorter development times and saving development cost. This kind of frontloading requires a modular and powerful simulation of all vehicle components, test track, and driver in steady state and dynamic operation. The described HIL (Hardware In the Loop) high performance driveline dyno test bed uses driveline components and models from the engine all the way to the wheel ends. The test cell was built to do real time vehicle maneuvers and NVH testing. This test setup can emulate any road surface and grade and vehicle inertia including wheels and engine as close to reality as possible.
Technical Paper

Modeling Engine Oil Variable Displacement Vane Pumps in 1D to Predict Performance, Pulsations, and Friction

2014-04-01
2014-01-1086
Variable displacement vane pumps are becoming more popular for engine oil circuits due to their fuel savings over traditional fixed displacement pumps. As a result, engineers need to analyze these pumps to ensure the pump design meets the demands of the oil circuit while having good friction characteristics and avoiding issues like high pressure amplitude and resonance. By employing 1D flow simulation to these pumps, the user can analyze the most important issues surrounding vane pumps at a fraction of the time as 3D CFD. This paper showcases the prediction of several major performance quantities of a variable displacement vane pump including flow rate, pressure rise, and friction torque vs. engine speed and temperature. The simulation results show good correlation to measurement data. In addition, the pressure pulsation at several locations including in the vane chamber and at the outlet is compared directly with 3D CFD for a different pump.
Technical Paper

Cadillac ATS “Loads Management Striker Cap” Development

2014-04-01
2014-01-0928
The automotive industry is under great pressure to reduce vehicle mass for both cost and fuel economy gains. A significant contributor to body and suspension structure mass is peak vertical loads, primarily entering the body structure through the jounce bumper to body interface. This paper focuses on the successful development of “Loads Management Striker Caps” for the 2013 Cadillac ATS front and rear suspension. Component design and development of the striker caps was executed using explicit finite element analysis tools. Multi-body dynamics vehicle models were used to set component requirements and confirm striker cap performance for the vehicle during peak vertical events. The “Loads Management Striker Caps” ultimately reduced peak strut/shock tower loads by 40% in the front suspension and 25% in the rear suspension. This resulted in significant body and chassis mass savings, contributing to the Cadillac ATS's class leading curb weight.
Technical Paper

Fixed Weld Reduction Method for Optimal Spot Weld Pattern Design

2003-03-03
2003-01-1304
A new solution methodology for optimal spot-weld pattern design is presented. The objective of the optimization is to minimize the total number of welds in a structure while maintaining structural properties above a required level. Two approaches were developed, based on the representation of welds in a finite element model. In the approach ‘without ranking’ welds are represented in a traditional way, as rigid connections. In ‘with ranking’ approach welds are treated as elastic elements subjected to stresses and deformations under given loading conditions. The information on weld stress is utilized in the solution process to reduce the number of design variables and improve the quality of the solution. The applicability of the method to large automotive structures was demonstrated, as well as the capacity for optimization with respect to multiple load sets.
Technical Paper

Moving from Single-Core to Multicore: Initial Findings on a Fuel Injection Case Study

2016-04-05
2016-01-0017
Several application developers are currently faced with the problem of moving a complex system from a single-core to a multicore platform. The problem encompasses several issues that go from modeling issues (the need to represent the system features of interest with sufficient accuracy) to analysis and optimization techniques, to the selection of the right formulations for constraints that relate to time. We report on the initial findings in a case study in which the application of interest is a fuel injection system. We provide an analysis on the limitations of AUTOSAR and the existing modeling tools with respect to the representation of the parameters of interest for timing analysis, and we discuss applicable optimization methods and analysis algorithms.
Technical Paper

Fixed-Point Model Development Assistant Tool

2016-04-05
2016-01-0018
Development of the software using fixed-point arithmetic is known to be tedious and error-prone. Difficulty of selecting the correct data type can outwear software developers. The common retreats often sought after include manual calculation of the approximate ranges, exhaustive simulations with extreme input values and conservative development approach by using excessive word length. The first two retreats - manual calculation and exhaustive simulations - increase the software development time, and the third retreat - conservative development - leads to the excessive memory (RAM and ROM) utilization by the software. The model-based development environment such as the Simulink has graphical nature to the software with flow of data defined by connecting signal lines. The model-based software therefore gives an opportunity to trace signal flow in the software. Input-tracing method is presented to trace the flow of the input signals of the user selected block in the software model.
Technical Paper

Safety Belt Testing Apparatus

2015-04-14
2015-01-1485
A new apparatus for testing modern safety belt systems was developed. The apparatus design, dynamic behavior and test procedure are described. A number of tests have been conducted using this apparatus. These tests allowed identification of key performance parameters of pretensioners and load limiting retractors which are relevant to occupant protection in a crash environment. Good test repeatability was observed, which allowed comparison of different safety belt designs. The apparatus may be used for better specification and verification of safety belt properties on a subsystem level as well as for the validation of CAE models of safety belts used in simulations of occupant response to crash events.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Front Bumper Beam for RCAR Performance using Design of Six Sigma and Finite Element Analysis

2015-04-14
2015-01-1493
Research Council for Automotive Repairs (RCAR) has developed a bumper test at 10 km/h to assess the damageability and repairing cost during a low speed collusion. For minimum damage and minimum repairing cost during low speed collusion it is necessary to design a bumper beam which provides structural stiffness and reduced deflection. Often it is challenging to design a front bumper beam to meet all safety requirements including, RCAR, high speed offset barrier and pedestrian protection, since these requirements are not necessarily compatible with each other. Design changes in rails and packaging constraints add to this challenge. In this study, design of six sigma (DFSS) and finite element analysis are used to study the parameters that affect the stiffness and deflection of the front bumper beam.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) on Passenger Cars to Improve Emission Robustness

2015-04-14
2015-01-1013
Emission compliance at the production level has been a challenge for vehicle manufacturers. Diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) plays a very important role in controlling the emissions for the diesel vehicles. Vehicle manufacturers tend to ‘over design’ the diesel oxidation catalyst to ‘absorb’ the production variations which seems an easier and faster solution. However this approach increases the DOC cost phenomenally which impacts the overall vehicle cost. The main objective of this paper is to address the high variation in CO tail pipe emissions which were observed on a diesel passenger car during development. This variation was posing a challenge in consistently meeting the internal product requirement/specification.
Technical Paper

Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) for Third Generation Advanced High-Strength Steel Development

2015-04-14
2015-01-0459
This paper presents an overview of a four-year project focused on development of an integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) toolset for third generation advanced high-strength steels (3GAHSS). Following a brief look at ICME as an emerging discipline within the Materials Genome Initiative, technical tasks in the ICME project will be discussed. Specific aims of the individual tasks are multi-scale, microstructure-based material model development using state-of-the-art computational and experimental techniques, forming, toolset assembly, design optimization, integration and technical cost modeling. The integrated approach is initially illustrated using a 980MPa grade transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel, subject to a two-step quenching and partitioning (Q&P) heat treatment, as an example.
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