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Technical Paper

Effect of Pre-treatment on Corrosion Performance of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy Panel

2010-04-12
2010-01-0725
AZ31B Mg sheet is being considered for automotive applications. This study investigates the effect of pre-treatments, such as heat-treatments and surface treatments, on the corrosion performance of AZ31B sheet, with a goal of learning which pre-treatment can improve corrosion resistance of the sheet material in production. It is found that the heat-treatment and oxidation during a warm and hot forming (WHF) process will not deteriorate the corrosion performance of the AZ31B sheet; polishing and acid etching can clean the surface and significantly increase the corrosion resistance, but corrosion can be accelerated by sandblasting which contaminates the surface. The change in corrosion performance can be associated with surface cleaning or contamination of the sheet by these pre-treatments. Furthermore, the influence of a pre-treatment on the uncoated AZ31B sheet may affect its corrosion behavior after coating.
Technical Paper

Optimal Production Trimming Process for AHSS Sheared Edge Stretchability Improvement

2014-04-01
2014-01-0994
Edge fracture is one of the major issues for stamping Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS). Recent studies have showed this type of fracture is greatly affected by an improper trimming process. The current production trimming process used for the conventional mild steels has not been modified for AHSS trimming. In addition to the high-energy requirement, the current mechanical trimming process would generate a rough edge (burr) with microcracks in trimmed edges for AHSS trimming, which could serve as the crack initiation during forming. The purpose of this study is to develop a proper production trimming process for AHSS and elucidate the effect of the trimmed edge conditions on edge fracture. A straight edge shearing device with the capability of adjusting the shearing variables is used in this study.
Technical Paper

Technological Comparison for Dual Phase and Advanced High Strength Low Alloy Steels Regarding Weldability and Mechanical Properties

2014-04-01
2014-01-0988
This paper presents a technological comparison of weldability and mechanical properties between a dual phase steel (DP) and an advanced high strength low alloy steel (AHSLA) used for automotive structural parts in order to demonstrate some unclear characteristics of each. Samples were spot welded and had their hardness and microstructure analyzed, also a shear test was applied on the weld button area. The edge stretchability was analyzed using hole expansion tests and tensile tests to determine the tensile and yield strength, anisotropic coefficients and total elongation. Data were used to estimate crash energy absorption. The results showed an AHSLA steel with higher than typical ductility. Finally, while DP showed improved stretchability, it was also concluded that such AHSLA could perform better bendability, drawability, flangeability and weldability.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Metal Gainers for Advanced High Strength Steel Flanging

2014-04-01
2014-01-0985
Forming a metal gainer is a common technique used to gather material in a high stretch region along an edge in preparation for a subsequent flanging operation. This technique has proven to be successful for mild steels, but needs to be evaluated for the applicability to advanced high strength steels (AHSS). The Auto/Steel Partnership High Strength Stamping Team launched a project for this study. Experimental trials were conducted on gainer forming, trimming and flanging. Twelve (12) AHSS have been tested with tensile strengths ranging from 460 to 1240 MPa. Edge stretch limits for flanging have been evaluated and compared to flanging without gainers. Different trimming and flanging approaches have also been tried. The results show that metal gainers are not advantageous for flanging of higher strength AHSS.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Acoustic Performance using Key Design Parameters of Headliners

2015-06-15
2015-01-2339
Sound absorption materials can be key elements for mass-efficient vehicle noise control. They are utilized at multiple locations in the interior and one of the most important areas is the roof. At this location, the acoustic treatment typically comprises a headliner and an air gap up to the body sheet metal. The acoustic performance requirement for such a vehicle subsystem is normally a sound absorption curve. Based on headliner geometry and construction, the sound absorption curve shape can be adjusted to increase absorption in certain frequency ranges. In this paper an overall acoustic metric is developed to relate design parameters to an absorption curve shape which results in improved in-vehicle performance. This metric is based on sound absorption coefficient and articulation index. Johnson-Champoux-Allard equivalent fluid model and diffuse field equations are used. The results are validated using impedance tube measurements.
Technical Paper

Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) for Third Generation Advanced High-Strength Steel Development

2015-04-14
2015-01-0459
This paper presents an overview of a four-year project focused on development of an integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) toolset for third generation advanced high-strength steels (3GAHSS). Following a brief look at ICME as an emerging discipline within the Materials Genome Initiative, technical tasks in the ICME project will be discussed. Specific aims of the individual tasks are multi-scale, microstructure-based material model development using state-of-the-art computational and experimental techniques, forming, toolset assembly, design optimization, integration and technical cost modeling. The integrated approach is initially illustrated using a 980MPa grade transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel, subject to a two-step quenching and partitioning (Q&P) heat treatment, as an example.
Technical Paper

Combined Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction and Digital Image Correlation Technique for Measurement of Austenite Transformation with Strain in TRIP-Assisted Steels

2016-04-05
2016-01-0419
The strain-induced diffusionless shear transformation of retained austenite to martensite during straining of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) assisted steels increases strain hardening and delays necking and fracture leading to exceptional ductility and strength, which are attractive for automotive applications. A novel technique that provides the retained austenite volume fraction variation with strain with improved precision is presented. Digital images of the gauge section of tensile specimens were first recorded up to selected plastic strains with a stereo digital image correlation (DIC) system. The austenite volume fraction was measured by synchrotron X-ray diffraction from small squares cut from the gage section. Strain fields in the squares were then computed by localizing the strain measurement to the corresponding region of a given square during DIC post-processing of the images recorded during tensile testing.
Journal Article

Further Research into the Role of the Caliper Piston in Brake Roughness

2015-09-27
2015-01-2667
Previously published research [1] covering the role of piston material properties in brake torque variation sensitivity and roughness concluded that phenolic pistons have significantly higher low-pressure range compliance than steel pistons, which promotes lower roughness propensity. It also determined that this property could be successfully characterized using a modern generation of direct-acting servo hydraulically actuated brake component compression test stands. This paper covers a subsequent block of research into the role of the caliper piston in brake torque variation sensitivity (BTV sensitivity) and thermal roughness of a brake corner. It includes measurements of hydraulic stiffness of pistons in a “wet” fixture, both with and without a brake pad and multi-layer bonded noise shim.
Journal Article

FEA Development of Spot Weld Modeling with Fracture Forming Limit Diagram(FFLD) Failure Criteria and Its Application to Vehicle Body Structure

2015-04-14
2015-01-1316
Spot weld separation in vehicle development stage is one of the critical phenomena in structural analyses regarding quasi-static test condition, like roof strength or seat/belt pull. It directly reduces structural performance by losing connected load path and occasionally introduces tearing on surrounding sheet metals. Traditionally many efforts have been attempted to capture parent metal ductile fracture, but not applied to spot weld separations in automotive FEA simulations. [1,2,3] This paper introduces how to develop FFLD failure criteria from a series of parametric study on ultra high strength sheet steel and deals with failure criteria around spot weld and parent metal. Once the fracture strains for sheet steels are determined, those developed values were applied to traditional spot weld coupon FEA simulations and tests. Full vehicle level roof strength FEA simulations on a typical automotive body structure were performed and verified to the physical tests.
Journal Article

Locating Wire Short Fault for In-Vehicle Controller Area Network with Resistance Estimation Approach

2016-04-05
2016-01-0065
Wire shorts on an in-vehicle controller area network (CAN) impact the communication between electrical control units (ECUs), and negatively affects the vehicle control. The fault, especially the intermittent fault, is difficult to locate. In this paper, an equivalent circuit model for in-vehicle CAN bus is developed under the wire short fault scenario. The bus resistance is estimated and a resistance-distance mapping approach is proposed to locate the fault. The proposed approach is implemented in an Arduino-based embedded system and validated on a vehicle frame. The experimental results are promising. The approach presented in this paper may reduce trouble shooting time for CAN wire short faults and may enable early detection before the customer is inconvenienced.
Journal Article

Effect of Prior Austenite Grain Size on Impact Toughness of Press Hardened Steel

2016-04-05
2016-01-0359
Impact toughness (or resistance to fracture) is a key material property for press hardened steel used in construction of the safety-critical elements of automotive body structures. Prior austenite grain size, as primarily controlled by the incoming microstructure and austenitization process, is a key microstructural feature that influences the impact toughness of press hardened steel. In this paper, a special Charpy V-notch impact test is developed to quantify the impact toughness of press hardened steel sheets with various prior austenite grain sizes, by stacking a number of thin sheets via mechanical riveting. Both the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature and upper shelf energy are analyzed in an effort to establish a correlation between impact toughness and prior austenite grain size. Within tested conditions, impact performance shows only a slight decrease as the prior austenitic grain size increases from 18 to 38 microns.
Journal Article

Adjoint-Driven Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Based on a Combination of Steady State and Transient Flow Solutions

2016-04-05
2016-01-1599
Aerodynamic vehicle design improvements require flow simulation driven iterative shape changes. The 3-D flow field simulations (CFD analysis) are not explicitly descriptive in providing the direction for aerodynamic shape changes (reducing drag force or increasing the down-force). In recent times, aerodynamic shape optimization using the adjoint method has been gaining more attention in the automotive industry. The traditional DOE (Design of Experiment) optimization method based on the shape parameters requires a large number of CFD flow simulations for obtaining design sensitivities of these shape parameters. The large number of CFD flow simulations can be significantly reduced if the adjoint method is applied. The main purpose of the present study is to demonstrate and validate the adjoint method for vehicle aerodynamic shape improvements.
Journal Article

A Correlation Study of Wind Tunnels for Reduced-Scale Automotive Aerodynamic Development

2016-04-05
2016-01-1598
Wind tunnel testing of reduced-scale models is a valuable tool for aerodynamic development during the early stages of a new vehicle program, when basic design themes are being evaluated. Both full-and reduced-scale testing have been conducted for many years at the General Motors Aerodynamics Laboratory (GMAL), but with increased emphasis on aerodynamic drag reduction, it was necessary to identify additional facilities to provide increased test capacity. With vehicle development distributed among engineering teams around the world, it was also necessary to identify facilities local to those teams, to support their work. This paper describes a cooperative effort to determine the correlation among five wind tunnels: GMAL, the Glenn L.
Journal Article

Strain Field Measurement in the Vicinity of Ductile Rupture from Digital Image Correlation

2008-04-14
2008-01-0856
A methodology that enables two-dimensional strain field measurement in the vicinity of ductile rupture is described. Fully martensitic steel coupons were strained to fracture using a miniature tensile stage with custom data and image acquisition systems. Rupture initiated near the center of each coupon and progressed slowly toward the gage section edges. A state-of-the-art digital image correlation technique was used to compute the true strain field before rupture initiation and ahead of the resulting propagating macroscopic crack before final fracture occurred. True strains of the order of 95% were measured ahead of the crack at later stages of deformation.
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