Refine Your Search




Search Results


Exhaust Particle Sensor for OBD Application

This session focuses on particle emissions from combustion engines, including measurement methods and fuel effects. Presenter Leonidas D. Ntziachristos, Aristotle University Thessaloniki
Technical Paper

Toothed Couplings for Diesel Engines: An Example of Steel Substitution With Fiber Reinforced Plastics

The replacement with plastic of an important component, formerly in steel, in the timing drive of a heavily duty diesel engine has been studied and realized. The substituted part is the toothed coupling connecting the injection pump to the timing drive. Torque that stresses the coupling has been measured with laboratory tests. The tooth stresses have been calculated with FEM analysis. Finally, fatigue tests have been carried out directly on the engine at different loadings. The test results are consistent with the predicted behavior of this component.
Technical Paper

Crash Performance of Rtm Composites for Automotive Applications

This paper describes the experimental activity carried out at Aerospace Engineering Department of Politecnico di Milano about energy absorption capability of glass-epoxy RTM specimens, representative of automotive crash front structure sub-components. After the analysis of some automotive crashworthiness aspects, especially relevant to the structural adoption of composite materials, the specimen used and the technological route to produce them are described. Then experimental arrangements, test procedure and measurement technique, relevant to static and crash test are presented. Finally test results, reported in the form of numerical values, diagrams and high-velocity films are shown and critically commented.
Technical Paper

Development of a Multi-Dimensional Parallel Solver for Full-Scale DPF Modeling in OpenFOAM®

A new fast and efficient parallel numerical solver for reacting and compressible flows through porous media has been developed in the OpenFOAM® (Open Field Operation and Manipulation) CFD Toolbox. With respect to the macroscopic model for porous media originally available in OpenFOAM®, a different mathematical approach has been followed: the new implemented solver makes use of the physical normal components resulting from the velocity expansion in the unit orthogonal vector basis to compute the Darcy pressure drop across the porous medium. Also, an additional sink term to account for the increased flow friction over the porous wall has been included into the momentum equation. In the new solver, the pressure correction equation is still able to achieve a faster convergency at very low permeability of the medium, also when it is associated with grid non-orthogonality.
Technical Paper

Flow Maldistribution Effects on DPF Performance

This paper focuses on some of the DPF system design issues where 3-dimensional modeling is necessary. The study is based on an existing 3-dimensional DPF model (axitrap) which is coupled to a commercial CFD code (Star-CD, CD-Adapco). The main focus is the effect of the inlet pipe geometry on soot distribution in the filter during loading and regeneration mode. The results show that due to the self-balancing effect, the resulting soot distribution in the filter under typical loading modes with low flow rates is quite uniform. With the assumption of adiabatic inlet pipe, the effect of non-symmetric inlet pipe is also negligible even during regeneration. However, under the realistic assumption of a non-adiabatic inlet pipe, the effect of inlet pipe geometry becomes very significant. Especially, for the case of a bent-shaped inlet pipe, the risk of impartial regeneration of the filter increases significantly.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Biodiesel on PAHs, Nitro-PAHs and Oxy-PAHs Emissions from a Light Vehicle Operated Over the European and the Artemis Driving Cycles

This study examines the effects of neat soy-based biodiesel (B100) and its 50% v/v blend (B50) with low sulphur automotive diesel on vehicle PAH emissions. The measurements were conducted on a chassis dynamometer with constant volume sampling (CVS) according to the European regulated technique. The vehicle was a Euro 2 compliant diesel passenger car, equipped with a 1.9 litre common-rail turbocharged direct injection engine and an oxidation catalyst. Emissions of PAHs, nitro-PAHs and oxy-PAHs were measured over the urban phase (UDC) and the extra-urban phase (EUDC) of the type approval cycle (NEDC). In addition, for evaluating realistic driving performance the non-legislated Artemis driving cycles (Urban, Road and Motorway) were used. Overall, 12 PAHs, 4 nitro-PAHs, and 6 oxy-PAHs were determined. The results indicated that PAH emissions exhibited a reduction with biodiesel during all driving modes.
Technical Paper

Development of Metal Foam Based Aftertreatment System on a Diesel Passenger Car

An alternative metal foam substrate for exhaust aftertreatment applications has been recently presented and characterized. The present paper focuses on the potential of the metal foam technology as an efficient DOC and CDPF substrates on real-world conditions. The target platform is a mid-size passenger car and the methodology includes both modeling and experiments. The experimental testing starts from small-scale reactor characterization of the basic heat/mass transfer properties and chemical kinetics. The results show that the foam structure exhibits excellent mass-transport properties offering possibilities for precious metal and catalyst volume savings for oxidation catalyst applications. These results are also used to calibrate an advanced 2-dimensional model which is able to predict the transient filtration and reaction phenomena in axial and radial flow systems.
Journal Article

Response Surface Generation for Kinematics and Injury Prediction in Pedestrian Impact Simulations

This study concerns the generation of response surfaces for kinematics and injury prediction in pedestrian impact simulations using human body model. A 1000-case DOE (Design of Experiments) study with a Latin Hypercube sampling scheme is conducted using a finite element pedestrian human body model and a simplified parametric vehicle front-end model. The Kriging method is taken as the approach to construct global approximations to system behavior based on results calculated at various points in the design space. Using the response surface models, human lower limb kinematics and injuries, including impact posture, lateral bending angle, ligament elongation and bone fractures, can be quickly assessed when either the structural dimensions or the structural behavior of the vehicle front-end design change. This will aid in vehicle front-end design to enhance protection of pedestrian lower limbs.
Technical Paper

Reduced Kinetic Mechanisms for Diesel Spray Combustion Simulations

Detailed chemistry represents a fundamental pre-requisite for a realistic simulation of combustion process in Diesel engines to properly reproduce ignition delay and flame structure (lift-off and soot precursors) in a wide range of operating conditions. In this work, the authors developed reduced mechanisms for n-dodecane starting from the comprehensive kinetic mechanism developed at Politecnico di Milano, well validated and tested in a wide range of operating conditions [1]. An algorithm combining Sensitivity and Flux Analysis was employed for the present skeletal reduction. The size of the mechanisms can be limited to less than 100 species and incorporates the most important details of low-temperature kinetics for a proper prediction of the ignition delay. Furthermore, the high-temperature chemistry is also properly described both in terms of reactivity and species formation, including unsaturated compounds such as acetylene, whose concentration controls soot formation.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Numerical and System Dynamics Methods for Modeling Wave Propagation in the Intake Manifold of a Single-Cylinder Engine

The automotive industry is striving to adopt model-based engine design and optimization procedures to reduce development time and costs. In this scenario, first-principles gas dynamic models predicting the mass, energy and momentum transport in the engine air path system with high accuracy and low computation effort are extremely important today for performance prediction, optimization and cylinder charge estimation and control. This paper presents a comparative study of two different modeling approaches to predict the one-dimensional unsteady compressible flow in the engine air path system. The first approach is based on a quasi-3D finite volume method, which relies on a geometrical reconstruction of the calculation domain using networks of zero-dimensional elements. The second approach is based on a model-order reduction procedure that projects the nonlinear hyperbolic partial differential equations describing the 1D unsteady flow in engine manifolds onto a predefined basis.
Technical Paper

Needle Roller Bearing Lubricant Flow CFD Simulations

This work analyzes the lubricant supply to critical regions of needle roller bearing of an automatic transmission. The needle roller bearing is a critical component of an automatic transmission and it has several rotating cylindrical needle rollers that are having relative motion with inner surface of the pinion. Supply of lubricant to the needle roller bearings is very essential to prevent failure of the bearings due to frictional contact between rollers and inner surface of pinion. The supply of lubricant to the needle roller bearings depends on the location of oil supply hole. Lubricant supply to the needle roller bearings of an automatic transmission is studied using commercial 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software for different oil supply positions. CFD simulation is performed for the region between the pinion supply hole and end of the needle bearings including all needles. Lubricant is supplied to the needle bearing from the pinion pin oil supply hole.
Technical Paper

A Modeling Study of Soot and De-NOx Reaction Phenomena in SCRF Systems

The development of thermally durable zeolite NH3/Urea-SCR formulations coupled with that of high porosity filters substrates has opened the way to integrate PM and NOx control into a single device, namely an SCR-coated Diesel Particulate Filter (SCRF). A few experimental works are already present in the literature regarding SCRF systems, mainly addressing the DeNOx performances of the system (in both presence and absence of soot) under both steady state and transient conditions. The purpose of the present work is to perform a simulation study focused on phenomena which are expected to play key roles in SCRF systems, such as coupling of reaction and diffusion phenomena, soot effect on DeNOx activity, SCR coating effect on soot regeneration and filtration efficiency and competition between soot oxidation and DeNOx processes involving NO2.
Technical Paper

Active Regeneration Characteristics in Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs)

Particulate matter (PM) captured in diesel particulate filters (DPF) consists of: (a) soot, the product of incomplete combustion of the fuel and (b) ash, produced by combustion of lubricating oil plus minor amounts of metal components in the fuel. Among the various types of DPFs, most efficient are the so-called wall flow filters, where the exhaust gas is forced to pass through porous walls of adjacent channels, which are plugged alternately at their opposite ends. Accumulation of PM in DPFs leads to increasing pressure drop across the filter. Since increased PM load in the filter and thus increased pressure drop across the filter deteriorates the engine performance, the filter load of the DPF has to be periodically removed during a process referred to as regeneration. During the regeneration process, soot PM captured in the DPF is expected to be oxidized. The temperature needed for oxidation of PM is usually exceeding ca. 550°C.
Technical Paper

Ceramic Foam Catalyst Substrates for Diesel Oxidation Catalysts: Pollutant Conversion and Operational Issues

In the field of automotive exhaust catalysts, foam-type substrates have been proposed as alternatives to the well-established honeycomb substrates. The ceramic foams developed and manufactured in our laboratory are capable of redistributing the flow of exhaust gases, enhancing turbulence, mass transfer and species mixing, without increasing flow resistance and pressure drop to prohibitive levels. Based on the characteristics of turbulent mass and heat transfer, ceramic foam based catalysts have the potential for achieving similar pollutant conversion performances as state of art honeycomb catalysts with substantially lower precious metal requirements. In this paper we demonstrate this potential with a small Diesel powered Heavy Duty truck with a ceramic foam Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC). Given the substantial differences in geometrical properties between foams and honeycombs a direct comparison with equal coating thickness, amount and precious metal amount is not feasible.
Journal Article

Removal of NOx from Diesel Exhausts: The New “Enhanced NH3-SCR” Reaction

Ammonia/urea-SCR is a mature technology, applied worldwide for the control of NOx emissions in combustion exhausts from thermal power plants, cogeneration units, incinerators and stationary diesel engines and more recently also from mobile sources. However a greater DeNOx activity at low temperatures is desired in order to meet more and more restrictive legislations. In this paper we report transient and steady state data collected over commercial Fe-ZSM-5 and V₂O₅-WO₃/TiO₂ catalysts showing high NOx reduction efficiencies in the 200 - 350°C T-range when NO and ammonia react with nitrates, e.g., in the form of an aqueous solution of ammonium nitrate. Under such conditions a new reaction occurs, the so-called "Enhanced SCR" reaction, 2 NH₃ + 2 NO + NH₄NO₃ → 3 N₂ + 5 H₂O.
Technical Paper

Computer Aided Assessment of Catalyst Ageing Cycles

In view of recent and future US and european regulations the design optimization of 3-way catalytic converters (3WCC) should also account for catalyst durability. The purpose of this paper is to extend the authors' approach for 3WCC modeling and evaluation in the direction of covering some aspects of ageing behavior. After a brief examination of the commonly accepted ageing mechanisms, a new methodology for the assessment of catalyst durability is formulated. This methodology takes into account the effect of thermal loading, high-temperature oxidation and poisoning of the catalyst. Based on the approach presented, along with the 3WCC and other related models and computer codes already in-use by the authors, a comparative assesment of engine bench ageing cycles may be computationally supported. Correlation of vehicle ageing cycles with engine bench cycles may also be accomplished as illustrated by a case study.
Technical Paper

Trap Protection by Limiting A/F Ratio During Regeneration

The purpose of this paper is to investigate a new, universally applicable technique to protect the filter from overheating that could overcome the need for trap bypassing; namely, the trap protection by limiting A/F ratio during regeneration. The technique is supported by control of A/F ratio, leading to an indirect control of exhaust oxygen content and consequently trap regeneration rate. Realisation of the above-mentioned, very simple idea, so as to work effectively in the multitude of possible trap failure scenarios occuring during vehicle driving, is shown to be a fairly complicated task. The new method of trap protection, now being at the stage of initial investigations, is expected to lead to a safe and reliable system with wide applicability, without the need to bypass the trap at any circumstances. As such, it will also be attractive for passenger car applications, supported by the recent advances in wide application of electronic fuel control.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of 3D Generic Cells to the Acoustic Modelling of Exhaust Systems

The acoustic simulation of internal combustion engine exhaust systems is an important aspect to meet customer expectations and legislation targets. One dimensional gas dynamic simulation tools are used for the calculation of the exhaust orifice noise in the early stages of the engine development process. This includes the prediction of the acoustic performance of individual components in the exhaust line. One common element used in exhaust systems to increase the acoustic damping is the plug flow muffler. This study looks at the prediction of acoustic performance of various plug mufflers at different flow velocities. These include a single plug muffler, a double plug muffler and an eccentric plug muffler with different porosities for the perforated sections. To this purpose a generic 3D cell approach was developed and applied.
Technical Paper

Handling Performance of a Vehicle Equipped with an Actively Controlled Differential

Vehicle handling is heavily influenced by the torque distribution to the driving wheels. This work presents a newly developed differential, designed to actively control the driving torque distribution to the wheels. The new device incorporates an electric machine, which can operate either as a motor or generator. A control unit monitors signals from various sources in the vehicle, such as steering angle, yaw acceleration and wheel rotational speed. Then, a control algorithm takes into account the steering angle rate and the vehicle speed in order to determine the suitable difference between output torque values. The handling improvement capabilities are evaluated by simulating in ADAMS/Car the driving behavior of a vehicle equipped with the new differential. The model that has been used to simulate vehicle handling is that of a Formula SAE type racing car.