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Technical Paper

Effects of Wind Speed and Longitudinal Direction on Fire Patterns from a Vehicle Fire in a Compact Car

This paper compares the material consumption and fire patterns which developed on four nearly identical compact sedans when each was burned for exactly the same amount of time, but with different wind speed and direction during the burns. This paper will also compare the effects of environmental exposure to the fire patterns on the vehicles. The burn demonstrations were completed at an outdoor facility in southeast Michigan on four late model compact sedans. The wind direction was controlled by placing the subject vehicle with either the front facing into the wind, or rear facing into the wind. Two of the burns were conducted when the average observed wind speed was 5-6kph and two of the burns were conducted at an average observed wind speed of 19kph.
Technical Paper

Experimental Characterization of Power Dissipation of Battery Cells for Space Environment

An experimental campaign is presented aiming at the characterization of thermal dissipation of batteries to be used on board of small satellites. A suitably designed device allows to manage automatically the orbital cycling simulation between battery cell charge and discharge. The cell thermal performance is characterized in various combinations of temperature, discharge current and Depth of Discharge. The gathered data are used for providing guidelines in the design of a family of Italian Small Satellites.
Journal Article

Development of Hybrid-Electric Propulsion System for 2016 Chevrolet Malibu

GM has developed an all-new gasoline-electric hybrid powertrain for the model year 2016 Chevrolet Malibu Hybrid vehicle, which was designed to achieve excellent fuel economy, performance, and drive quality. The powertrain shares the transmission architecture with the 2016 Chevrolet Volt extended range electric vehicle, but includes changes to optimize the system for engine driven charge sustaining operation in the range of conditions represented by the US EPA 5 cycle fuel economy tests. In this paper, we describe the Malibu Hybrid propulsion system features and components, including the battery pack, transaxle, electric motors and power electronics, engine, and thermal system. The modifications between the Volt and Malibu Hybrid propulsion systems are discussed and explained as resulting from the differences between the primarily electric and gasoline powered applications.
Journal Article

Process Robustness of Laser Braze-Welded Al/Cu Connectors

Laser welding of dissimilar metals such as Aluminum and Copper, which is required for Li-ion battery joining, is challenging due to the inevitable formation of the brittle and high electrical-resistant intermetallic compounds. Recent research has shown that by using a novel technology, called laser braze-welding, the Al-Cu intermetallics can be minimized to achieve superior mechanical and electrical joint performance. This paper investigates the robustness of the laser braze-welding process. Three product and process categories, i.e. choice of materials, joint configurations, and process conditions, are studied. It is found that in-process effects such as sample cleanness and shielding gas fluctuations have a minor influence on the process robustness. Furthermore, many pre-process effects, e.g. design changes such as multiple layers or anodized base material can be successfully welded by process adaption.
Technical Paper

Power Capability Testing of a Lithium-ion Battery Using Hardware in the Loop

The energy storage system (ESS) is the key enabler to hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) that offer improved fuel economy and reduced vehicle emissions. The power capability of a battery has significant impact on the fuel economy of HEVs. This paper presents the power capability testing of a lithium-ion battery with a conventional metal oxide cathode using the hardware in the loop (HIL) at a wide range of charge/discharge conditions and at different temperatures. The achieved test results provide critical data of battery power characteristics and effectively accelerate the development of battery power prediction algorithm.
Technical Paper

Application of CAEBAT Full Field Approach for a Liquid-Cooled Automotive Battery Pack

The Computer-Aided Engineering of Automotive Batteries (CAEBAT) Phase 1 project is a U.S. Department of Energy-funded, multi-year project which is aimed at developing a complete CAE tool set for the automotive battery pack design. This paper reports the application of the full field approach of the CAEBAT which is developed by the General Motors-led industry team, for a 24-cell liquid-cooled prototype battery pack. It also summarizes the verification of the approach by comparing the simulation results with the measurement data. The simulation results using the Full Field Approach are found to have a very good agreement with the measurement data.
Technical Paper

The GM RWD PHEV Propulsion System for the Cadillac CT6 Luxury Sedan

This paper describes the capabilities of a new two-motor plug-in hybrid-electric propulsion system developed for rear wheel drive. The PHEV system comprises a 2.0L turbocharged 4-cylinder direct-injected gasoline engine with the new hybrid transmission [1], a new traction power inverter module, a liquid-cooled lithium-ion battery pack, and on-board battery charger and 12V power converter module. The capability and features of the system components are described, and component performance and vehicle data are reported. The resulting propulsion system provides an excellent combination of electric-only driving, acceleration, and fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Next Generation “Voltec” Charging System

The electric vehicle on-board charger (OBC) is responsible for converting AC grid energy to DC energy to charge the battery pack. This paper describes the development of GM’s second generation OBC used in the 2016 Chevrolet Volt. The second generation OBC provides significant improvements in efficiency, size, and mass compared to the first generation. Reduced component count supports goals of improved reliability and lower cost. Complexity reduction of the hardware and diagnostic software was undertaken to eliminate potential failures.
Journal Article

Application of POD plus LTI ROM to Battery Thermal Modeling: SISO Case

The thermal behavior of a fluid-cooled battery can be modeled using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Depending on the size and complexity of the battery module and the available computing hardware, the simulation can take days or weeks to run. This work introduces a reduced-order model that combines proper orthogonal decomposition, capturing the variation of the temperature field in the spatial domain, and linear time-invariant system techniques exploiting the linear relationship between the resulting proper orthogonal decomposition coefficients and the uniform heat source considered here as the input to the system. After completing an initial CFD run to establish the reduction, the reduced-order model runs much faster than the CFD model. This work will focus on thermal modeling of a single prismatic battery cell with one adjacent cooling channel. The extension to the multiple input multiple output case such as a battery module will be discussed in another paper.