Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Video

GreenZone Driving for Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2012-05-29
Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) have a large battery which can be used for electric only powertrain operation. The control system in a PHEV must decide how to spend the energy stored in the battery. In this paper, we will present a prototype implementation of a PHEV control system which saves energy for electric operation in pre-defined geographic areas, so called Green Zones. The approach determines where the driver will be going and then compares the route to a database of predefined Green Zones. The control system then reserves enough energy to be able to drive the Green Zone sections in electric only mode. Finally, the powertrain operation is modified once the vehicle enters the Green Zone to ensure engine operation is limited. Data will be presented from a prototype implementation in a Ford Escape PHEV Presenter Johannes Kristinsson
Technical Paper

Toothed Couplings for Diesel Engines: An Example of Steel Substitution With Fiber Reinforced Plastics

1996-04-01
91A100
The replacement with plastic of an important component, formerly in steel, in the timing drive of a heavily duty diesel engine has been studied and realized. The substituted part is the toothed coupling connecting the injection pump to the timing drive. Torque that stresses the coupling has been measured with laboratory tests. The tooth stresses have been calculated with FEM analysis. Finally, fatigue tests have been carried out directly on the engine at different loadings. The test results are consistent with the predicted behavior of this component.
Technical Paper

Crash Performance of Rtm Composites for Automotive Applications

1996-04-01
91A120
This paper describes the experimental activity carried out at Aerospace Engineering Department of Politecnico di Milano about energy absorption capability of glass-epoxy RTM specimens, representative of automotive crash front structure sub-components. After the analysis of some automotive crashworthiness aspects, especially relevant to the structural adoption of composite materials, the specimen used and the technological route to produce them are described. Then experimental arrangements, test procedure and measurement technique, relevant to static and crash test are presented. Finally test results, reported in the form of numerical values, diagrams and high-velocity films are shown and critically commented.
Technical Paper

Computer Animation of the Crash Victim

1964-10-21
640842
A computer program was written to take the crash dynamics sequence obtained from a computer-simulation model, and “draw” the corresponding animated manikin on the computer cathode-ray tube. The series of momentary solutions is repeatedly photographed on 16 mm film and then projected at movie speed. The result is a “slow-motion” animation showing the motions of the simulated victim during the crash sequence.
Technical Paper

Environmentally Friendly and Low Cost Manufacturing – Implementation of MQL Machining (Minimum Quantity Lubrication)

2007-04-16
2007-01-1338
Near Dry or Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) Machining eliminates conventional flood coolant from the machining processes. In doing so, MQL reduces oil mist generation, biological contamination of coolant, waste water volume, costs for capital equipment and regulatory permitting. MQL also improves recycling and transport of coolant contaminated chips [1]. Although MQL machining technology has several advantages compared to wet machining, widespread implementation will require a paradigm shift among end-users, machine suppliers, and cutting tool suppliers. Successful implementation of MQL machining requires a high technical understanding and a solid infrastructure to support maintenance and on-going continuous improvement [2].
Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Effect of E85 vs. Gasoline on Exhaust System Surface Temperatures

2007-04-16
2007-01-1392
With concerns over increasing worldwide demand for gasoline and greenhouse gases, many automotive companies are increasing their product lineup of vehicles to include flex-fuel vehicles that are capable of operating on fuel blends ranging from 100% gasoline up to a blend of 15% gasoline/85% ethanol (E85). For the purpose of this paper, data was obtained that will enable an evaluation relating to the effect the use of E85 fuel has on exhaust system surface temperatures compared to that of regular unleaded gasoline while the vehicle undergoes a typical drive cycle. Three vehicles from three different automotive manufacturers were tested. The surface of the exhaust systems was instrumented with thermocouples at specific locations to monitor temperatures from the manifold to the catalytic converter outlet. The exhaust system surface temperatures were recorded during an operation cycle that included steady vehicle speed operation; cold start and idle and wide open throttle conditions.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Real-Time Measurements of NO and NO2 in Medium Duty Diesel Truck Exhaust

2007-04-16
2007-01-1329
The goal of the present work was to investigate the ability of the SEMTECH®-D Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS) to provide simultaneous, accurate, real-time (1Hz) measurements of NO and NO2 in vehicle exhaust. Extensive chassis dynamometer laboratory evaluation studies of the SEMTECH® system were conducted. The instantaneous (1Hz) NOx emissions were measured using a conventional chemiluminescence analyzer (CLA) and were compared to the sum of the instantaneous NO and NO2 measurements from the SEMTECH®-D. The sum of the NO and NO2 emissions measured by the SEMTECH® were in excellent agreement (within 95% in most cases) with the total NOx measurements from the conventional CLA. During the laboratory evaluation studies, several Federal Test Procedure (FTP) drive cycles were conducted. Examples of the NO and NO2 concentration and mass emissions measured using the SEMTECH®-D are presented along with the corresponding SEMTECH®-D detection limits.
Technical Paper

Modeling, Validation and Dynamic Analysis of Diesel Pushrod Overhead Bridged Valve Train

2007-04-16
2007-01-1256
A bridged valve train configuration exhibits complex dynamic behavior due to the uniqueness of the special elephant foot/bridge/valve structure. Consequently, this system arrangement presents significant design challenges in system stability at high speed, high load, wear, no-follow and valve seating velocity, etc. An efficient way to gain a thorough understanding of the behavior of this type of valve train system and to drive the valve train design improvement is through the use of an effective dynamic simulation tool. In this paper, an advanced CAE tool developed by Ford Motor Company for the bridged type valve train simulations has been described. This automated CAE tool provides a complete virtual ADAMS-based simulation environment for the pushrod bridged valve train system analysis. This paper also presents the correlation and validation between the simulations and the measurements. The design analysis for the bridged valve train has been discussed briefly in this paper.
Technical Paper

Design of Vehicle Air Conditioning Systems Using Heat Load Analysis

2007-04-16
2007-01-1196
The objective of this paper is to describe a Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) model and its applications for A/C system development at early design stages. This CAE tool calculates the heat load of the vehicle passenger compartment with considerations of solar radiation, conductive/convective heat transfer through the body shell, and any passengers present in the vehicle. A data bank of 6 glass types, 9 surface finishes and 15 material properties are available to increase simulation flexibility. This heat load model can be used as a stand alone tool to calculate the steady-state thermal load of the passenger compartment under users' pre-defined conditions. When interfaced with an A/C refrigerant subsystem model, this integrated CAE tool is capable of evaluating the impacts on A/C system performance when body structures and/or operating conditions are changed.
Technical Paper

General Motors Hydra-Matic & Ford New FWD Six-Speed Automatic Transmission Family

2007-04-16
2007-01-1095
The Hydra-Matic 6T70 is General Motors first model of a new, two-variant front wheel drive (FWD) six speed automatic transmission family. The second variant is a higher capacity model, the 6T75. The transmission was co-developed with Ford Motor Company. The 6F50 is the Ford variant that aligns with the GM 6T70 transmission. Approximately eighty five percent of the hardware is shared or common between the GM and Ford transmission variants. Ford will also have a higher capacity variant the 6F55 to align with the GM 6T75. The first GM application is the Saturn Aura for the 2007 Model Year. The Ford Edge and Lincoln MKX in MY 2007 will be the first applications for the 6F50. While the Hydra-Matic and Ford FWD six-speed family was designed with two variants in mind, the designed in modularity requires only changes to the second and third axis and case housings depending on specific torque requirements. This modular design enables a tremendous amount of part sharing.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of EGR Treatment on the Emission and Operating Characteristics of Modern Diesel Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-1083
Tests are conducted to improve the use of exhaust gas recirculation on a single cylinder diesel engine with EGR stream treatment techniques that include intake heating, combustible substance oxidation, catalytic fuel reforming, and partial bypass-flow control. In parallel with the empirical work, theoretical modeling analyses are performed to investigate the effectiveness of the reforming process and the combined effects on the overall system efficiency. The research is aimed at stabilizing and expanding the limits of heavy EGR during steady and transient operations so that the individual limiting conditions of EGR can be better identified. Additionally, the heavy EGR is applied to enable in-cylinder low temperature combustion. The effectiveness of EGR treatment on engine emission and operating characteristics are therefore reported.
Technical Paper

Rapid Fuel Injector Re-Pressurization

2007-04-16
2007-01-1075
A fuel system design objective is to have the fuel injection pressure at target pressure by the time of the first injection. In most cases, a vapor and air space forms in the highest and hottest part of the fuel injector supply as the fuel system cools following engine-off. Upon key-on, the fuel pump needs to collapse the fuel vapor and compress any air before fuel pressure can build thus delaying fuel injector re-pressurization. An inventive solution to speed re-pressurization is described. It effectively eliminates the need to collapse the fuel vapor and compress any air in the first few tenths of seconds of fuel injection re-pressurization. The factors that affect fuel injection re-pressurization time are discussed.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Platinum and Rhodium on the Functional Properties of a Lean NOx Trap

2007-04-16
2007-01-1055
A laboratory study was performed to assess the contributions of platinum and rhodium to the emissions performance of a lean NOx trap. Samples of a barium-only formulation were obtained with either 0.84 g/L of platinum, 0.51 g/L of rhodium, or 1.0 g/L of platinum and rhodium in ratios of 1/0/1 or 5/0/1. 60 s lean/5 s rich tests were performed on fresh samples and samples that were aged on high temperature durability cycles. The results indicate that platinum is necessary for the NOx storage performance of the trap at low temperatures (e.g., 250°C), whereas rhodium is needed for the NOx reduction capability and consequently the purgability of the trap at low temperatures. As a result, the bimetallic Pt/Rh samples provided the best overall NOx conversion at low temperatures fresh and after aging.
Technical Paper

Simple, Closed-Form Expressions Relating Long-Term (Z score) and Short-Term (Defects per Opportunity) Variability

2007-04-16
2007-01-0993
A simple and accurate analytical expression relating the expected process (long term) and sampling (short-term) product variability is developed using a variational mathematical principle. Of the several complex functional forms discovered, simplicity and ease of use are used to select an expression providing the most reliable estimation for and convenient expression of Z score (σ level) as a function of defects per opportunity (DPO) or per million opportunities (DPMO). In the absence of scientific calculators or computers, this expression allows engineers to accurately estimate long term process variability to within 0.01 of its true value without resulting to (laborious) tables or a computer. Also, a high precision approximation is provided for cases when DPO is less than 1% which estimates Z-score to within 0.003 of the actual value (at 6σ).
Technical Paper

Failure Loads of Spot Friction Welds in Aluminum 6111-T4 Sheets under Quasi-Static and Dynamic Loading Conditions

2007-04-16
2007-01-0983
In this investigation, spot friction welds in aluminum 6111-T4 lap-shear specimens were tested under both quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. Micrographs of the spot friction welds after testing were examined to understand the failure modes of spot friction welds in lap-shear specimens under different loading conditions. The micrographs indicate that the spot friction welds produced by this particular set of welding parameters failed in interfacial failure mode under both quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. The load and displacement histories for lap-shear specimens were obtained under quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions at three different impact velocities. The failure loads of spot friction welds in lap-shear specimens under dynamic loading conditions are about 7% larger than those under quasi-static loading conditions.
Technical Paper

A CAE Methodology to Simulate Testing a Rearward Facing Infant Seat during FMVSS 208 Low Risk Deployment

2007-04-16
2007-01-1770
The Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard or FMVSS 208 requires passenger cars, multi-purpose vehicles, trucks with less than unloaded vehicle weight of 2,495 kg either to have an automatic suppression feature or to pass the injury criteria specified under low risk deployment test requirement for a 1 year old dummy in rearward and forward facing restraints as well as a forward facing 3 and 6 year old dummy. A convertible child seat was installed in a sub-system test buck representing a passenger car environment with a one-year- old dummy in it at the passenger side seat and a passenger side airbag was deployed toward the convertible child seat. A MADYMO model was built to represent the test scenario and the model was correlated and validated to the results from the experiment.
Technical Paper

Development of a Multi-Dimensional Parallel Solver for Full-Scale DPF Modeling in OpenFOAM®

2009-06-15
2009-01-1965
A new fast and efficient parallel numerical solver for reacting and compressible flows through porous media has been developed in the OpenFOAM® (Open Field Operation and Manipulation) CFD Toolbox. With respect to the macroscopic model for porous media originally available in OpenFOAM®, a different mathematical approach has been followed: the new implemented solver makes use of the physical normal components resulting from the velocity expansion in the unit orthogonal vector basis to compute the Darcy pressure drop across the porous medium. Also, an additional sink term to account for the increased flow friction over the porous wall has been included into the momentum equation. In the new solver, the pressure correction equation is still able to achieve a faster convergency at very low permeability of the medium, also when it is associated with grid non-orthogonality.
Technical Paper

A/C Moan - its Diagnostics and Control

2009-05-19
2009-01-2054
Air-conditioning (A/C) induced moan is a very commonly observed phenomenon in automotive refrigerant systems. Since most of the automotive A/C systems cycle ON/OFF four to six times every minute, the A/C induced moan is quite readily audible under engine idle and even while driving, especially under lower engine/vehicle speeds. It is not unusual for an A/C compressor to moan or not, on some vehicle/s under certain operating conditions. Most of the OEMs resolve or suppress the A/C moan potential to barely audible levels. However, under some unique and extreme operating conditions, A/C moan is quite readily induced and often results in customer complaints. This paper discusses A/C moan related root-causes, sources and paths of propagation. A systematic diagnostic test-procedure is also described to diagnose and develop the needed most cost-effective design-fixes. Finally, based on this case-study - some objective targets are recommended to suppress the A/C moan to acceptable levels.
Technical Paper

Optimizing R&H and NVH Performances Early in the Design Process via Multi Body Simulation

2009-05-19
2009-01-2087
This paper presents a CAE based approach to accurately simulate and optimize Ride and Handling metrics. Because of the wide range of vehicle phenomena involved, across the variety of frequency ranges, it is essential that the vehicle model includes proper representation of the dynamic properties of the various subsystems (e.g. tires, steering, PT, etc.) Precise correlation between test and simulation for standalone vehicle components and systems is achieved by replicating in the MBS (Multi-body Simulation) the same tests and boundary conditions. This allows the analyst to correctly define those crucial elements and parameters which have the greatest effect on the R&H attribute to be investigated. Setting up the simulation to correctly represent only one single maneuver simulation at a time would not allow the analyst to consider how the dynamic properties of the chassis design variables should be tuned to achieve to best balance and trade-offs.
X