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Journal Article

Chevrolet Volt Electric Utilization

2015-04-14
2015-01-1164
Evaluation of one year of in-use operating data from first generation Chevrolet Volt Extended-Range Electric Vehicle (E-REV) retail customers determined trip initial Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) starts were reduced by 70% relative to conventional vehicles under the same driving conditions. These Volt drivers were able to travel 74% of their total miles in EV without requiring the ICE's support. Using this first generation Volt data, performance of the second generation Volt is projected. The Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG) Regional Travel Survey (RTS) data set was also processed to make comparisons between realistic PHEV constraints and E-REV configurations. A Volt characteristic E-REV was found to provide up to 40 times more all-electric trips than a PHEV over the same data set.
Journal Article

Development of Hybrid-Electric Propulsion System for 2016 Chevrolet Malibu

2016-04-05
2016-01-1169
GM has developed an all-new gasoline-electric hybrid powertrain for the model year 2016 Chevrolet Malibu Hybrid vehicle, which was designed to achieve excellent fuel economy, performance, and drive quality. The powertrain shares the transmission architecture with the 2016 Chevrolet Volt extended range electric vehicle, but includes changes to optimize the system for engine driven charge sustaining operation in the range of conditions represented by the US EPA 5 cycle fuel economy tests. In this paper, we describe the Malibu Hybrid propulsion system features and components, including the battery pack, transaxle, electric motors and power electronics, engine, and thermal system. The modifications between the Volt and Malibu Hybrid propulsion systems are discussed and explained as resulting from the differences between the primarily electric and gasoline powered applications.
Journal Article

Design of the Chevrolet Bolt EV Propulsion System

2016-04-05
2016-01-1153
Building on the experience of the Chevrolet Spark EV battery electric vehicle, General Motors (GM) has developed a propulsion system with increased capability for its next generation Chevrolet Bolt EV. It propels a new larger electric vehicle with significantly greater electric driving range. Through extensive analysis the primary propulsion system components, which include the drive unit, traction electric motor, power electronics, energy storage, and on-board charging module, were optimized individually and as an integrated system to deliver improvements in propulsion system energy, power, torque and efficiency. The results deliver outstanding EV range and fun-to-drive acceleration performance.
Journal Article

Electric Motor Design of General Motors’ Chevrolet Bolt Electric Vehicle

2016-04-05
2016-01-1228
A permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) motor is used to design the propulsion system of GM’s Chevrolet Bolt battery electric vehicle (BEV). Magnets are buried inside the rotor in two layer ‘V’ arrangement. The Chevrolet Bolt BEV electric machine rotor design optimizes the magnet placement between the adjacent poles asymmetrically to lower torque ripple and radial force. Similar to Chevrolet Spark BEV electric motor, a pair of small slots are stamped in each rotor pole near the rotor outer surface to lower torque ripple and radial force. Rotor design optimizes the placement of these slots at different locations in adjacent poles providing further reduction in torque ripple and radial force. As a result of all these design features, the Chevrolet Bolt BEV electric motor is able to meet the GM stringent noise and vibration requirements without implementing rotor skew, which (rotor skew) lowers motor performance and adds complexity to the rotor manufacturing and hence is undesirable.
Technical Paper

A Review of the State of the Art of Electric Traction Motors Cooling Techniques

2018-04-03
2018-01-0057
This paper provides a review on state-of-art modern cooling systems employed for thermal cooling of electric motors for vehicle applications. In recent years, the pursue of a more sustainable and ecofriendly mobility has pushed the research towards the development of electric vehicle powertrain systems. Besides the evident advantages of the adoption of electric traction systems in terms of pollution and efficiency, the need of an effective cooling system for the electric machine components gained more and more importance in order to maintain high efficiency and ensure high durability. In fact, it is known that high temperatures can be harmful for the electric motor: besides the evident damages for mechanical parts, the influence on the permanent magnet properties is not negligible [1] [2]. In this fast-evolving environment, different solutions for the thermal problem have been researched and adopted, each one with its own pros and cons.
Technical Paper

Energy Efficiency Impact of Localized Cooling/Heating for Electric Vehicle

2015-04-14
2015-01-0352
The present paper reports on a study of the HVAC energy usage for an EREV (extended range electric vehicle) implementation of a localized cooling/heating system. Components in the localized system use thermoelectric (TE) devices to target the occupant's chest, face, lap and foot areas. A novel contact TE seat was integrated into the system. Human subject comfort rides and a thermal manikin in the tunnel were used to establish equivalent comfort for the baseline and localized system. The tunnel test results indicate that, with the localized system, HVAC energy savings of 37% are achieved for cooling conditions (ambient conditions greater than 10 °C) and 38% for heating conditions (ambient conditions less than 10 °C), respectively based on an annualized ambient and vehicle occupancy weighted method. The driving range extension for an electric vehicle was also estimated based on the HVAC energy saving.
Technical Paper

Next Generation “Voltec” Charging System

2016-04-05
2016-01-1229
The electric vehicle on-board charger (OBC) is responsible for converting AC grid energy to DC energy to charge the battery pack. This paper describes the development of GM’s second generation OBC used in the 2016 Chevrolet Volt. The second generation OBC provides significant improvements in efficiency, size, and mass compared to the first generation. Reduced component count supports goals of improved reliability and lower cost. Complexity reduction of the hardware and diagnostic software was undertaken to eliminate potential failures.
Journal Article

Comparison of Torque Vectoring Control Strategies for a IWM Vehicle

2014-04-01
2014-01-0860
In recent years, concerns for environmental pollution and oil price stimulated the demand for vehicles based on technologies alternative to traditional IC engines. Nowadays several carmakers include hybrid vehicles among their offer and first full electric vehicles appear on the market. Among the different layout of the electric power-train, four in-wheel motors appear to be one of the most attractive. Besides increasing the inner room, this architecture offers the interesting opportunity of easily and efficiently distribute the driving/braking torque on the four wheels. This characteristic can be exploited to generate a yaw moment (torque vectoring) able to increase lateral stability and to improve the handling of a vehicle. The present paper presents and compares two different torque vectoring control strategies for an electric vehicle with four in-wheel motors. Performances of the control strategies are evaluated by means of numerical simulations of open and closed loop maneuvers.
Journal Article

Design Optimization, Development and Manufacturing of General Motors New Battery Electric Vehicle Drive Unit (1ET35)

2014-04-01
2014-01-1806
The General Motors (GM) 1ET35 drive unit is designed for an optimum combination of efficiency, performance, reliability, and cost as part of the propulsion system for the 2014 Chevrolet Spark Electric Vehicle (EV) [1]. The 1ET35 drive unit is a coaxial transaxle arrangement which includes a permanent-magnet (PM) electric motor and a low loss single-planetary transmission and is the sole source of propulsion for the battery-only electric vehicle (BEV) Spark. The 1ET35 is designed with experience gained from the first modern production BEV, the 1996 GM EV1. This paper describes the design optimization and development of the 1ET35 and its electric motor that will be made in the United States by GM. The high torque density electric motor design is based on high-energy permanent magnets that were originally developed by GM in connection with the EV1 and GM bar-wound stator technology introduced in the 2Mode Hybrid electric transmission, used in the Chevrolet Volt and in GM eAssist systems.
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