Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Technical Paper

Development and Application of 3D Generic Cells to the Acoustic Modelling of Exhaust Systems

2011-05-17
2011-01-1526
The acoustic simulation of internal combustion engine exhaust systems is an important aspect to meet customer expectations and legislation targets. One dimensional gas dynamic simulation tools are used for the calculation of the exhaust orifice noise in the early stages of the engine development process. This includes the prediction of the acoustic performance of individual components in the exhaust line. One common element used in exhaust systems to increase the acoustic damping is the plug flow muffler. This study looks at the prediction of acoustic performance of various plug mufflers at different flow velocities. These include a single plug muffler, a double plug muffler and an eccentric plug muffler with different porosities for the perforated sections. To this purpose a generic 3D cell approach was developed and applied.
Journal Article

A Method for Vibration and Harshness Analysis Based on Indoor Testing of Automotive Suspension Systems

2010-04-12
2010-01-0639
The paper presents a method for the indoor testing of road vehicle suspension systems. A suspension is positioned on a rotating drum which is located in the Laboratory for the Safety of Transport at Politecnico di Milano. Special six-axis load cells have been designed and used for measuring the forces/moments acting at each suspension-chassis joints. The forces/moments, wheel accelerations, displacements are measured up to 100 Hz. Two different types of test can be performed. The tire/wheel unbalance effect on the suspension system behavior (Vibration and Harshness, VH) has been analyzed by testing the suspension system from zero to the vehicle maximum speed on a flat surface and by monitoring the forces transmitted to the chassis. In the second kind of test, the suspension system has been excited as the wheel passes over different cleats fixed on the drum.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Estimation of Wheel Imbalances for Chassis Prognosis

2010-04-12
2010-01-0245
“Wheel balancing” is one of the common automotive repairs that the owners of an automobile usually experience. An unbalanced set of a tire and a rim or wheel on which the tire is mounted could cause vibration while driving. Such vibrations may be sensed by the driver at the steering wheel (known as smooth road shake). If left untreated for a long period of time, the vibration, induced by the imbalance, may propagate to chassis components such as bearing and bushing. This in turn causes excessive wear that eventually leads to a premature failure. Therefore, an early detection of wheel imbalances can not only significantly reduce the cost and time for diagnosis and repair of the wheel, but also prevent further damage to chassis components. This paper studies the feasibility of real-time detection of wheel imbalances in real world driving conditions, using recursive least square estimation method. The simulation study shows promising results for implementation in a real vehicle.
Technical Paper

Prediction of the Attenuation Characteristics of I.C. Engine Silencers by 1-D and Multi-D Simulation Models

2006-04-03
2006-01-1541
This paper describes the development, application and comparison of two different non-linear numerical codes, respectively based on a 1D and 3D schematization of the geometrical domain, for the prediction of the acoustic behavior of common silencing devices for i.c. engine pulse noise abatement. A white noise approach has been adopted and applied to predict the attenuation curves of silencers in the frequency domain, while a non-reflecting boundary condition was used to represent an anechoic termination. Expansion chambers, Helmholtz and column resonators, Herschel-Quincke tubes have been simulated by both the 1D and the 3D codes and the results compared to the available linear acoustic analytical solutions. Finally, a hybrid approach, in which the CFD code has been integrated with the 1D model, is described and applied to the simulation of a single cylinder engine. The computed results are compared to the measured pressure waves and emitted sound pressure level spectra.
Technical Paper

HIL Driveline Dyno

2014-04-01
2014-01-1738
Today's sophisticated state-of-the-art powertrains with various intelligent control units (xCU) need to be calibrated and tested stand-alone as well as in interaction. Today the majority of this work is still carried out with prototype vehicles on test tracks. Moving prototype vehicle tests from the road into the lab is key in achieving shorter development times and saving development cost. This kind of frontloading requires a modular and powerful simulation of all vehicle components, test track, and driver in steady state and dynamic operation. The described HIL (Hardware In the Loop) high performance driveline dyno test bed uses driveline components and models from the engine all the way to the wheel ends. The test cell was built to do real time vehicle maneuvers and NVH testing. This test setup can emulate any road surface and grade and vehicle inertia including wheels and engine as close to reality as possible.
Technical Paper

Performance Equivalent Thickness of a Sound Insulation System

2013-05-13
2013-01-1981
Vehicle sound insulation systems, such as front of dash mats or carpet assemblies, etc. play a key role in controlling vehicle interior noise. However, dash and carpet insulators are often designed to have varied thickness in compliance with packaging constraints or to fulfill manufacturing clearance requirements. While it is obvious to NVH engineers that thinned-down areas would significantly affect the insulation performance, design engineers would benefit from a quick tool to flag any design details that may negatively impact the performance. This paper therefore proposes a concept called the performance equivalent thickness for the sound insulation system. The aim is to link acoustic performance of an insulator layer to a geometric measure so that the component performance can be easily monitored and preserved at the design stage.
Journal Article

Theoretical/Experimental Study on the Vibrations of a Car Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-1211
The influence of the inertia properties (mass, centre of gravity location, and inertia tensor) on the dynamic behaviour of the engine-gearbox system of a car is studied in this paper, devoting particular attention to drivability and comfort. The vibration amplitudes and the natural frequencies of the engine-gearbox system have been considered. Additionally, the loads transmitted to the car body have been taken into account. Both the experimental and the theoretical simulations confirmed that the engine-gearbox vibrations in the range 10 - 15 Hz are particularly sensitive to slight variation of the inertia properties. The effects on engine-gearbox vibrations due to half-axles, exhaust system, pipes and inner engine-gearbox fluids have been highlighted.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Substructuring for Sources Contributions Analysis in Internal Combustion Engines

2016-06-15
2016-01-1761
For vibration and acoustics vehicle development, one of the main challenges is the identification and the analysis of the noise sources, which is required in order to increase the driving comfort and to meet the stringent legislative requirements for the vehicle noise emission. Transfer Path Analysis (TPA) is a fairly well established technique for estimating and ranking individual low-frequency noise or vibration contributions via the different transmission paths. This technique is commonly applied on test measurements, based on prototypes, at the end of the design process. In order to apply such methodology already within the design process, a contribution analysis method based on dynamic substructuring of a multibody system is proposed with the aim of improving the quality of the design process for vehicle NVH assessment and to shorten development time and cost.
Journal Article

Transmission Dynamic Modeling and Parametric NVH Analysis

2015-04-14
2015-01-1147
A new approach for modeling and analysis of a transmission and driveline system is proposed. By considering the stiffness, damping and inertias, model equations based on lumped parameters can be created through standard Lagrangian Mechanics techniques. A sensitivity analysis method has then been proposed on the eigenspace of the system characteristic equation to reveal the dynamic nature of a transmission and driveline system. The relative sensitivity calculated can clearly show the vibration modes of the system and the key contributing components. The usefulness of the method is demonstrated through the GM 6-speed RWD transmission by analyzing the dynamic nature of the driveline system. The results can provide a fundamental explanation of the vibration issue experienced and the solution adopted for the transmission.
Journal Article

CFD Investigation of the Effect of Fluid-Structure Interaction on the Transmission Loss of ICE Silencers

2016-06-15
2016-01-1815
In the last decades numerical simulations have become reliable tools for the design and the optimization of silencers for internal combustion engines. Different approaches, ranging from simple 1D models to detailed 3D models, are nowadays commonly applied in the engine development process, with the aim to predict the acoustic behavior of intake and exhaust systems. However, the acoustic analysis is usually performed under the hypothesis of infinite stiffness of the silencer walls. This assumption, which can be regarded as reasonable for most of the applications, can lose validity if low wall thickness are considered. This consideration is even more significant if the recent trends in the automotive industry are taken into account: in fact, the increasing attention to the weight of the vehicle has lead to a general reduction of the thickness of the metal sheets, due also to the adoption of high-strength steels, making the vibration of the components a non negligible issue.
Technical Paper

Integrated CAE Methods for Perceived Quality Assurance of Vehicle Outer Panels

2014-04-01
2014-01-0366
Oil canning and initial stiffness of the automotive roofs and panels are considered to be sensitive customer ‘perceived quality’ issues. In an effort to develop more accurate objective requirements, respective simulation methods are continuously being developed throughout automotive industries. This paper discusses a latest development on oil canning predictions using LS-DYNA® Implicit, including BNDOUT request, MORTAR contact option and with the stamping process involved, which resulted in excellent correlations especially when it comes to measurements at immediate locations to the feature lines of the vehicle outer panels. Furthermore, in pursuit of light-weighting vehicles with thinner roofs, a new CAE method was recently developed to simulate severe noise conditions exhibited on some of developmental properties while going through a car wash.
Technical Paper

A New Electric Powertrain for Light Trucks: Indoor Testing and Advanced Simulation

2014-04-01
2014-01-1977
A new electric powertrain and axle for light/medium trucks is presented. The indoor testing and the simulation of the dynamic behavior are performed. The powertrain and axle has been produced by Streparava and tested at the Laboratory for the Safety of Transport of the Politecnico di Milano. The tests were aimed at defining the multi-physics perfomance of the powertrain and axle (efficiency, acceleration and braking, temperature and NVH). The whole system for indoor tests was composed by the powertrain and axle (electric motor, driveline, suspensions, wheels) and by the test rig (drums, driveline and electric motor). The (driving) axle was positioned on a couple of drums, and the drums provided the proper torques to the wheels to reproduce acceleration and braking. Additionally a cleat fixed on one drum excited the vibration of the suspensions and allowed assessing NVH performance. The simulations were based on a special co-simulation between 1D-AMESIM and VIRTUAL.LAB.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Acoustic Performance using Key Design Parameters of Headliners

2015-06-15
2015-01-2339
Sound absorption materials can be key elements for mass-efficient vehicle noise control. They are utilized at multiple locations in the interior and one of the most important areas is the roof. At this location, the acoustic treatment typically comprises a headliner and an air gap up to the body sheet metal. The acoustic performance requirement for such a vehicle subsystem is normally a sound absorption curve. Based on headliner geometry and construction, the sound absorption curve shape can be adjusted to increase absorption in certain frequency ranges. In this paper an overall acoustic metric is developed to relate design parameters to an absorption curve shape which results in improved in-vehicle performance. This metric is based on sound absorption coefficient and articulation index. Johnson-Champoux-Allard equivalent fluid model and diffuse field equations are used. The results are validated using impedance tube measurements.
Technical Paper

Headliner Absorption Parameter Prediction and Modeling

2015-06-15
2015-01-2303
The headliner system in a vehicle is an important element in vehicle noise control. In order to predict the performance of the headliner, it is necessary to develop an understanding of the substrate performance, the effect of air gaps, and the contribution from any acoustic pads in the system. Current Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) models for predicting absorption performance of acoustic absorbers are based on material Biot properties. However, the resources for material Biot property testing are limited and cost is high. In this paper, modeling parameters for the headliner substrate are identified from a set of standard absorption measurements on substrates, using curve fitting and optimization techniques. The parameters are then used together with thickness/design information in a SEA model to predict the vehicle headliner system absorption performance.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Performance Evaluation of Hood Liner Constructions

2015-06-15
2015-01-2206
In automotive noise control, the hood liner is an important acoustic part for mitigating engine noise. The random incidence absorption coefficient is used to quantify the component level acoustic performance. Generally, air gaps, type of substrate materials, density of the substrate materials and Air Flow Resistivity (AFR) of the cover scrim are the dominant control factors in the sound absorption performance. This paper describes a systematic experimental investigation of how these control factors affect flat sample performance. The first stage of this study is full factorial measurement based on current available solutions from sound absorber suppliers. The acoustic absorption of different hood liner constructions, with variations in materials, density, air gaps, and scrims was measured.
Technical Paper

Development of an End-of-Line Driveline System Balance Tester

2015-06-15
2015-01-2187
This paper describes the development of a semi-automated end-of-line driveline system balance tester for an automotive assembly plant. The overall objective was to provide final quality assurance for acceptable driveline noise and vibration refinement in a rear wheel drive vehicle. The problem to be solved was how to measure the driveline system unbalance within assembly plant constraints including cycle time, operator capability, and integration with a pre-existing vehicle roll test machine. Several challenging aspects of the tester design and development are presented and solutions to these challenges are addressed. Major design aspects addressed included non-contacting vibration sensing, data acquisition/processing system and vehicle position feedback. Development challenges addressed included interaction of engine and driveline vibration orders, flexible driveline coupling effects, tachometer positional reference error, and vehicle-to-vehicle variation of influence coefficients.
Technical Paper

Electric Traction Motors for Cadillac CT6 Plugin Hybrid-Electric Vehicle

2016-04-05
2016-01-1220
The Cadillac CT6 plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) power-split transmission architecture utilizes two motors. One is an induction motor type while the other is a permanent magnet AC (PMAC) motor type referred to as motor A and motor B respectively. Bar-wound stator construction is utilized for both motors. Induction motor-A winding is connected in delta and PMAC motor-B winding is connected in wye. Overall, the choice of induction for motor A and permanent magnet for motor B is well supported by the choice of hybrid system architecture and the relative usage profiles of the machines. This selection criteria along with the design optimization of electric motors, their electrical and thermal performances, as well as the noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) performance are discussed in detail. It is absolutely crucial that high performance electric machines are coupled with high performance control algorithms to enable maximum system efficiency and performance.
Journal Article

Advancement in Vehicle Development Using the Auto Transfer Path Analysis

2014-04-01
2014-01-0379
This paper presents the most recent advancement in the vehicle development process using the one-step or auto Transfer Path Analysis (TPA) in conjunction with the superelement, component mode synthesis, and automated multi-level substructuring techniques. The goal is to identify the possible ways of energy transfer from the various sources of excitation through numerous interfaces to given target locations. The full vehicle model, consists of superelements, has been validated with the detailed system model for all loadcases. The forces/loads can be from rotating components, powertrain, transfer case, chain drives, pumps, prop-shaft, differential, tire-wheel unbalance, road input, etc., and the receiver can be at driver/passenger ears, steering column/wheel, seats, etc. The traditional TPA involves two solver runs, and can be fairly complex to setup in order to ensure that the results from the two runs are consistent with subcases properly labeled as input to the TPA utility.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Mid-Frequency Response Using the Superelement Component Dynamic Synthesis Technique

2015-04-14
2015-01-1320
This paper presents the Component Dynamic Synthesis (CDS) superelement creation, which contains the loading frequency information and is much faster than the Component Mode Synthesis (CMS) method in the residual run. The Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) are computed using the direct frequency response method and the inversion of dynamic stiffness matrix is done using the singular value decomposition (SVD) method for every discrete frequency in the frequency range of interest. The CDS will be very efficient and economical for design of experiments and robust optimization, where hundreds of runs are required. The CDS super element can be used when there is a large number of residual runs on a very large vehicle model at higher end of the frequency range of study. For the residual analysis to run as fast as possible, all components, except very small ones, need to be converted into CDS superelements.
Journal Article

A Coupled 1D-multiD Nonlinear Simulation of I.C. Engine Silencers with Perforates and Sound-Absorbing Material

2009-04-20
2009-01-0305
Nowadays a great attention is paid to the level and quality of noise radiated from the tailpipe end of intake and exhaust systems, to control the gas dynamic noise emitted by the engine as well as the characteristics of the cabin interior sound. The muffler geometry can be optimized consequently, to attenuate or remark certain spectral components of the engine noise, according to the result expected. Evidently the design of complex silencing systems is a time-consuming operation, which must be carried out by means of concurrent experimental measurements and numerical simulations. In particular, 1D and multiD linear/non-linear simulation codes can be applied to predict the silencer behavior in the time and frequency domain. This paper describes the development of a 1D-multiD integrated approach for the simulation of complex muffler configurations such as reverse chambers with inlet and outlet pipe extensions and perforated silencers with the addition of sound absorbing material.
X