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Monitoring NO2 Production of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst

2012-01-24
A combination of laboratory reactor measurements and vehicle FTP testing has been combined to demonstrate a method for diagnosing the formation of NO2 from a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). Using small cores from a production DOC and simulated diesel exhaust, the laboratory reactor experiments are used to support a model for DOC chemical reaction kinetics. The model we propose shows that the ability to produce NO2 is chemically linked to the ability of the catalyst to oxidize hydrocarbon (HC). For thermally damaged DOCs, loss of the HC oxidation function is simultaneous with loss of the NO2 production function. Since HC oxidation is the source of heat generated in the DOC under regeneration conditions, we conclude that a diagnostic of the DOC exotherm is able to detect the failure of the DOC to produce NO2. Vehicle emissions data from a 6.6 L Duramax HD pick-up with DOC of various levels of thermal degradation is provided to support the diagnostic concept.
Journal Article

Response Surface Generation for Kinematics and Injury Prediction in Pedestrian Impact Simulations

2013-04-08
2013-01-0216
This study concerns the generation of response surfaces for kinematics and injury prediction in pedestrian impact simulations using human body model. A 1000-case DOE (Design of Experiments) study with a Latin Hypercube sampling scheme is conducted using a finite element pedestrian human body model and a simplified parametric vehicle front-end model. The Kriging method is taken as the approach to construct global approximations to system behavior based on results calculated at various points in the design space. Using the response surface models, human lower limb kinematics and injuries, including impact posture, lateral bending angle, ligament elongation and bone fractures, can be quickly assessed when either the structural dimensions or the structural behavior of the vehicle front-end design change. This will aid in vehicle front-end design to enhance protection of pedestrian lower limbs.
Journal Article

Effects of Gasoline and Ethanol Fuel Corrosion Inhibitors on Powertrain Intake Valve Deposits

2013-04-08
2013-01-0893
Corrosion inhibitors (CIs) have been used for years to protect the supply and distribution hardware used for transportation of fuel from refineries and to buffer the potential organic acids present in an ethanol blended fuel to enhance storage stability. The impact of these inhibitors on spark-ignition engine fuel systems, specifically intake valve deposits, is known and presented in open literature. However, the relationship of the corrosion inhibitors to the powertrain intake valve deposit performance is not understood. This paper has two purposes: to present and discuss a second market place survey of corrosion inhibitors and how they vary in concentration in the final blended fuel, specifically E85 (Ethanol Fuel Blends); and, to show how the variation in the concentrations of the components of the CIs impacts the operation and performance of vehicles, specifically, the effects on intake valve deposit formation.
Journal Article

The Front Center Airbag

2013-04-08
2013-01-1156
General Motors and the Takata Corporation have worked together to bring to production a new, industry first technology called the Front Center Airbag which is being implemented on General Motors' 2013 Midsize Crossover Vehicles. This paper reviews field data, describes the hardware, and presents occupant test data to demonstrate in-position performance in far side impacts. The Front Center Airbag is an airbag that mounts to the inboard side of the driver front seat. It has a tubular cushion structure, and it deploys between the front seating positions in far side impacts, near side impacts and rollovers, with the cushion positioning itself adjacent the driver occupant's head and torso. This paper includes pictures of the technology along with a basic description of the design. In-position occupant performance is also described and illustrated with several examples. Single occupant and two front occupant far side impact test data are included, both with and without the airbag present.
Technical Paper

Knock Detection and Estimation Based on Heat Release Strategies

2011-04-12
2011-01-1409
Engine knock has been studied extensively over the years. Its undesired effects on drivability, its potential to damage an engine, and its impact on limiting the compression ratio are the main reasons why it remains a current topic of research. This paper focuses on exploiting the connection between auto-ignition and knock. A new method based on the frequency analysis of the heat release traces is proposed to detect and estimate auto-ignition/knock robustly. Filtering the heat release signal with the appropriate bandwidth is crucial to avoid misdetection. The filter settings used in this paper are found using spectral analysis of the heat release signal. By using the proposed method, it is possible to detect auto-ignition/knock even under the presence of undesired sensor resonance effects and noise from mechanical and electrical sources.
Technical Paper

Thermal Behavior Study on HEV Air-Cooled Battery Pack

2011-04-12
2011-01-1368
Recently, an increased emphasis has been seen for improving the cooling uniformity and efficiency of HEV battery pack in an effort to increase the battery performance and life. This study examined the effects of geometry changes in cooling systems of battery packs on thermal behavior of battery cells and pressure drop across the battery pack. Initially, a multi-physics battery thermal model was correlated to physical test data. An analytical design of experiments (DOE) approach using Latin-hypercube technique was then developed by integrating the correlated battery thermal model with a commercial optimization code, iSIGHT, and a morphing code, DEP Morpher. The design concepts of battery pack cooling systems were finally identified by performing analytical DOE/optimization studies to estimate the effects of cooling flow and geometries of cooling ducts on the battery temperature variation and pressure drop across the battery pack.
Technical Paper

Approach to Validation Plan Development for Advanced Battery Systems in Vehicle Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-1366
As advanced battery systems become a standard choice for mainstream production vehicle portfolios, comprehensive battery system validation plans are essential to ensure that the battery performance, reliability, and durability targets are met prior to vehicle integration. (Note: Safety and Abuse testing are outside of the scope of this paper.) The validation plan for the Chevrolet Volt Rechargeable_Energy Storage System (RESS), the first lithium-ion battery pack designed and manufactured by General Motors (GM), was developed using a functional silo approach based on the battery design requirements documentation. While the Chevrolet Volt was the lead program at General Motors to use this validation plan development approach, other GM programs with different battery system mounting locations and cooling techniques are now using this method.
Technical Paper

Transmission Algorithm Development using System Simulation (Virtual Vehicle)

2011-04-12
2011-01-1233
Due to the multitude of external design constraints, such as increasing fuel economy standards, and the increasing number of global vehicle programs, developers of automotive transmission controls have had to cope with increasing levels of system complexity while at the same time being forced by the marketplace to improve system quality, reduce development costs, and improve time to market. General Motors Powertrain (GMPT) chose to meet these challenges through General Motors Company's Road-to-Lab-to-Math (RLM) strategy, particularly the Math-based method of a virtual vehicle simulation environment called System Simulation. The use of System Simulation to develop transmission control algorithms has enabled GMPT to improve product quality and reduce development times and costs associated with the dependence on physical prototypes. Additionally, System Simulation has facilitated the reuse of GMPT controls development assets, improving overall controls development efficiency.
Technical Paper

Lubricant Flow and Temperature Prediction in a Planetary Gearset

2011-04-12
2011-01-1235
This study introduces a method to examine the flow path of the lubricant inside a planetary gearset of an automatic transmission. A typical planetary gearbox has several load bearing elements which are in relative sliding motion to each other which causes heat to be released. The major sources of friction as well as heat are the meshing teeth between gears (sun/planet, planet/ring), thrust washers, thrust bearings and needle bearings. The lubricant performs the vital function of both lubricating these sliding interfaces and cooling these sources of heat, thereby preventing failure of the gearbox. The exact flow path that the lubricant takes inside a planetary gearset is unknown. Since the gearset is primarily splash lubricated, it is also not known how much lubricant reaches critical areas. A method is developed using computational fluid dynamic techniques to enable comprehensive flow and thermal analysis and visualization of an automatic transmission assembly.
Journal Article

Structural Optimization for Vehicle Dynamics Loadcases

2011-04-12
2011-01-0058
As mass reduction becomes an increasingly important enabler for fuel economy improvement, having a robust structural development process that can comprehend Vehicle Dynamics-specific requirements is correspondingly important. There is a correlation between the stiffness of the body structure and the performance of the vehicle when evaluated for ride and handling. However, an unconstrained approach to body stiffening will result in an overly-massive body structure. In this paper, the authors employ loads generated from simulation of quasi-static and dynamic vehicle events in ADAMS, and exercise structural finite element models to recover displacements and deflected shapes. In doing so, a quantitative basis for considering structural vehicle dynamics requirements can be established early in the design/development process.
Journal Article

Design Optimization of Front Bumper System for Low Speed Impact Insurance Industry Impact Test using DFSS and CAE Analysis

2011-04-12
2011-01-0070
In 2006, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) released a new Low Speed Bumper Test Protocol for passenger cars1. The new test protocol included the development of a deformable barrier that the vehicle would impact at low speeds. IIHS positioned the new barrier to improve correlation to low speed collisions in the field, and also to assess the ability of the bumper system to protect the vehicle from damage. The bumper system must stay engaged to the barrier to protect other vehicle components from damage. The challenge is to identify the bumper system design features that minimize additional cost and mass to keep engagement to the barrier. The results of the Design for Six Sigma analysis identified the design features that increase the stiffness of the bumper system enable it to stay engaged to the barrier and reduce the deflection.
Technical Paper

Development of Sensor Attachment Criteria (Immunity) - Side Impact Sensor Mounted on Door Impact Beam

2011-04-12
2011-01-1445
The sensor mounted on the door impact beam plays a major role in side impact events. The accelerations of side impact sensors are processed by sensing algorithms to make a decision on the air bag deployment. The sensing signal criterion for the deployable condition is a well understood process. However, the non-deployment sensing signal for the immunity to abuse conditions is a function of sensor attachment stiffness to the base structure. The base structure can be a door inner panel or door impact beam. In one of the production program, the acceleration based sensor attached to the impact beam showed immunity issues in the abusive door slams/opening to objects. Hence, the computer Aided Engineering (CAE) analysis was used to develop the sensor attachment criterion.
Technical Paper

Trivial Principal Component Analysis (TPCA): An Improved Modeling Approach

2017-03-28
2017-01-0220
Trivial Principal Component method (TPC) was developed recently to model a system based on measured data. It is a statistical method that utilizes Eigen-pairs of covariance matrix obtained from the measured data. It determines linear coefficients of a model by using the trivial eigenvector corresponding to the least eigenvalue. In general, linear modeling accuracy depends on the strength of nonlinearity and interaction terms as well as measurement error. In this paper, the TPC method is extended to analyze residual (error) vector to identify significant higher order and interaction terms that contribute to the modeling error. Subsequently, these additional terms are included for constructing a robust system model. Also, an iterative TPC analysis is proposed for the first time to correct the model gradually till the least eigenvalue becomes minimum.
Technical Paper

A Study of Hybrid III 5th Percentile Female ATD Chest Accelerometers to Assess Sternum Compression Rate in Chest on Module Driver Out-of-Position Evaluations

2017-03-28
2017-01-1431
Driver out-of-position (OOP) tests were developed to evaluate the risk of inflation induced injury when the occupant is close to the airbag module during deployment. The Hybrid III 5th percentile female Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) measures both sternum displacement and chest acceleration through a potentiometer and accelerometers, which can be used to calculate sternum compression rate. This paper documents a study evaluating the chest accelerometers to assess punch-out loading of the chest during this test configuration. The study included ATD mechanical loading and instrumentation review. Finite element analysis was conducted using a Hybrid III - 5th percentile female ATD correlated to testing. The correlated restraint model was utilized with a Hybrid III - 50th percentile male ATD. A 50th percentile male Global Human Body Model (HBM) was then applied for enhanced anatomical review.
Technical Paper

Optimization of High-Volume Warm Forming for Lightweight Sheet

2013-04-08
2013-01-1170
Traditional warm forming of aluminum refers to sheet forming in the temperature range of 200°C to 350°C using heated, matched die sets similar to conventional stamping. While the benefits of this process can include design freedom, improved dimensional capability and potentially reduced cycle times, the process is complex and requires expensive, heated dies. The objective of this work was to develop a warm forming process that both retains the benefits of traditional warm forming while allowing for the use of lower-cost tooling. Enhanced formability characteristics of aluminum sheet have been observed when there is a prescribed temperature difference between the die and the sheet; often referred to as a non-isothermal condition. This work, which was supported by the USCAR-AMD initiative, demonstrated the benefits of the non-isothermal warm forming approach on a full-scale door inner panel. Finite element analysis was used to guide the design of the die face and blank shape.
Technical Paper

Driver Visibility: Customer Insights and Metric Development

2013-04-08
2013-01-1029
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in driver visibility. This is, in part, due to increasing emphasis placed on design factors influencing visibility such as: aerodynamics, styling, structural stiffness and vehicle packaging. During the development process of a vehicle, it is important to be able to quantify all of these factors. Visibility, however, owing to its sensory nature, has been harder to quantify. As a result, General Motors (GM) has undertaken a study to gain deeper insight into customer perceptions surrounding visibility. Clinics were conducted to help determine the relative importance of different metrics. The paper also explores several new metrics that can help predict customer satisfaction based on vehicle configuration.
Technical Paper

Cellulosic Ethanol Fuel Quality Evaluation and its Effects on PFI Intake Valve Deposits and GDI Fuel Injector Plugging Performance

2013-04-08
2013-01-0885
The U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard 2 (RFS2) mandates the use of advanced renewable fuels such as cellulosic ethanol to be blended into gasoline in the near future. As such, determining the impact of these new fuel blends on vehicle performance is important. Therefore, General Motors conducted engine dynamometer evaluations on the impact of cellulosic ethanol blends on port fuel injected (PFI) intake valve deposits and gasoline direct injected (GDI) fuel injector plugging. Chemical analysis of the test fuels was also conducted and presented to support the interpretation of the engine results. The chemical analyses included an evaluation of the specified fuel parameters listed in ASTM International's D4806 denatured fuel ethanol specification as well as GC/MS hydrocarbon speciations to help identify any trace level contaminant species from the new ethanol production processes.
Journal Article

Numerical Investigation of Buoyancy-Driven Flow in a Simplified Underhood with Open Enclosure

2013-04-08
2013-01-0842
Numerical results are presented for simulating buoyancy driven flow in a simplified full-scale underhood with open enclosure in automobile. The flow condition is set up in such a way that it mimics the underhood soak condition, when the vehicle is parked in a windbreak with power shut-down after enduring high thermal loads due to performing a sequence of operating conditions, such as highway driving and trailer-grade loads in a hot ambient environment. The experimental underhood geometry, although simplified, consists of the essential components in a typical automobile underhood undergoing the buoyancy-driven flow condition. It includes an open enclosure which has openings to the surrounding environment from the ground and through the top hood gap, an engine block and two exhaust cylinders mounted along the sides of the engine block. The calculated temperature and velocity were compared with the measured data at different locations near and away from the hot exhaust plumes.
Journal Article

Optimal Torque Control for an Electric-Drive Vehicle with In-Wheel Motors: Implementation and Experiments

2013-04-08
2013-01-0674
This paper presents the implementation of an off-line optimized torque vectoring controller on an electric-drive vehicle with four in-wheel motors for driver assistance and handling performance enhancement. The controller takes vehicle longitudinal, lateral, and yaw acceleration signals as feedback using the concept of state-derivative feedback control. The objective of the controller is to optimally control the vehicle motion according to the driver commands. Reference signals are first calculated using a driver command interpreter to accurately interpret what the driver intends for the vehicle motion. The controller then adjusts the braking/throttle outputs based on discrepancy between the vehicle response and the interpreter command.
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