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Video

Monitoring NO2 Production of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst

2012-01-24
A combination of laboratory reactor measurements and vehicle FTP testing has been combined to demonstrate a method for diagnosing the formation of NO2 from a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). Using small cores from a production DOC and simulated diesel exhaust, the laboratory reactor experiments are used to support a model for DOC chemical reaction kinetics. The model we propose shows that the ability to produce NO2 is chemically linked to the ability of the catalyst to oxidize hydrocarbon (HC). For thermally damaged DOCs, loss of the HC oxidation function is simultaneous with loss of the NO2 production function. Since HC oxidation is the source of heat generated in the DOC under regeneration conditions, we conclude that a diagnostic of the DOC exotherm is able to detect the failure of the DOC to produce NO2. Vehicle emissions data from a 6.6 L Duramax HD pick-up with DOC of various levels of thermal degradation is provided to support the diagnostic concept.
Video

OBD Challenges for Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2012-01-30
Plug-In Hybrid and Extended Range Electric Vehicle's have quickly become the focus of many OEM's and suppliers. Existing regulations and test procedures did not anticipate this rapid adoption of this new technology, resulting in many product development challenges. The lack of clear requirements is further complicated by CARBs consideration of CO2 inclusion in their next light duty OBD regulation. This presentation provides an overview of the regulatory requirements for OBD systems on hybrid vehicles that intend to certify in California. Near term challenges for EREV?s and PHEV?s are discussed, including concerns with the existing denominator and warm-up cycle calculations. Some proposals are made to address these concerns. Presenter Andrew Zettel, General Motors Company
Technical Paper

Measurement of Occupant Pocketing Kinematics During Whiplash Assessments

2011-04-12
2011-01-0270
This study documents a method developed for dynamically measuring occupant pocketing during various low-speed rear impact, or “whiplash” sled tests. This dynamic pocketing measurement can then be related to the various test parameters used to establish the performance rating or compliance results. Consumer metric and regulatory tests discussed within this paper as potential applications of this technique include, but are not limited to, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) Low Speed Rear Impact (LSRI) rating, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 202a, and European New Car Assessment Program (EURO-NCAP) whiplash rating. Example metrics are also described which may be used to assist in establishing the design position of the head restraint and optimize the balance between low-speed rear impact performance and customer comfort.
Technical Paper

Factors Moderating the Effectiveness of Rear Vision Systems: What Performance-Shaping Factors Contribute to Drivers' Detection and Response to Unexpected In-Path Obstacles When Backing?

2011-04-12
2011-01-0549
General Motors (GM) and the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI) have partnered to conduct a series of studies characterizing the use and effectiveness of technologies designed to assist drivers while backing. A major emphasis of this research has been on Rear Vision Camera (RVC) systems that provide drivers with an enhanced view of the area behind the vehicle. RVC systems are intended to aid in positioning the vehicle when executing low-speed parking and backing-related tasks and are not necessarily well suited for detecting unexpected in-path obstacles (particularly if the RVC image is not coupled with object detection alerts issued to the driver).
Technical Paper

Understanding Work Task Assessment Sensitivity to the Prediction of Standing Location

2011-04-12
2011-01-0527
Digital human models (DHM) are now widely used to assess worker tasks as part of manufacturing simulation. With current DHM software, the simulation engineer or ergonomist usually makes a manual estimate of the likely worker standing location with respect to the work task. In a small number of cases, the worker standing location is determined through physical testing with one or a few workers. Motion capture technology is sometimes used to aid in quantitative analysis of the resulting posture. Previous research has demonstrated the sensitivity of work task assessment using DHM to the accuracy of the posture prediction. This paper expands on that work by demonstrating the need for a method and model to accurately predict worker standing location. The effect of standing location on work task posture and the resulting assessment is documented through three case studies using the Siemens Jack DHM software.
Technical Paper

A Study of Crash Rates for Vehicles with Advanced Crash Avoidance Features

2011-04-12
2011-01-0587
This paper describes how information available through the OnStar system represents a unique and powerful mechanism to assess field crash rates. Included within is a description of how vehicle and OnStar information may be gathered, organized and analyzed. The resulting data provides the capability to conducts various studies of field activity and/or events. In this case, a study was conducted to try to determine if certain vehicle equipment might have an impact on field crash rates. The process is exemplified via a description of a study conducted by GM OnStar in 2009. Two analyses were conducted comparing crash rates of selected vehicle models, with and without certain advanced safety sensing and warning features. Specifically, beginning in the 2008 Model Year, General Motors introduced Lane Departure Warning and Side Blind Zone Alert into US/Canada production. Utilizing data on crashes, drawn from OnStar Automatic Crash Response events, analyses of crash rates were conducted.
Technical Paper

Modeling Dynamic Stiffness of Rubber Isolators

2011-04-12
2011-01-0492
Rubber isolators and bushings are very important components for vehicle performance. However, one often finds it is difficult to get the dynamic properties to be readily used in CAE analysis, either from suppliers or from OEM's own test labs. In this paper, the author provides an analytical method to obtain the dynamic stiffness of an exhaust isolator, using ABAQUS and iSight, with tested or targeted isolator static stiffness information. The analysis contains two steps. The first step is to select the (rubber/EPDM) material properties for the FE isolator model by matching the static stiffness with either the targeted spring rate (linear or nonlinear) or the (tested) load / deflection curve. The second step is to perform dynamic analysis on the statically “validated” FE isolator model to obtain its dynamic properties.
Technical Paper

Effects of Thickness on Headliner Material Properties

2011-04-12
2011-01-0463
Headliner material plays an important role in occupant protection in situations involving head impact into the interior vehicle roof area. Accurate characterization of its mechanical properties is therefore extremely important for prediction of its behavior during interior impact assessment of a vehicle. Headliner material typically consists of two main layers: the substrate layer which provides structural integrity and impact protection, and the fabric-foam layer which provides proper interior fit and appearance. Both layers vary significantly in thickness and composition between different manufacturers. This paper investigates effects of the layer thickness on compressive strength and deformation of several different headliner materials.
Technical Paper

High Voltage Hybrid Battery Tray Design Optimization

2011-04-12
2011-01-0671
Hybrid high voltage battery pack is not only heavy mass but also large in dimension. It interacts with the vehicle through the battery tray. Thus the battery tray is a critical element of the battery pack that interfaces between the battery and the vehicle, including the performances of safety/crash, NVH (modal), and durability. The tray is the largest and strongest structure in the battery pack holding the battery sections and other components including the battery disconnect unit (BDU) and other units that are not negligible in mass. This paper describes the mass optimization work done on one of the hybrid batteries using CAE simulation. This was a multidisciplinary optimization project, in which modal performance and fatigue damage were accessed through CAE analysis at both the battery pack level, and at the vehicle level.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Battery Pack Thermal System for a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2011-04-12
2011-01-0666
Fuel economy and stringent emissions requirements have steered the automotive industry to invest in advanced propulsion hybrids, including Plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV) and Fuel cell vehicles. The choice of battery technology, its power and thermal management and the overall vehicle energy optimization during different conditions are crucial design considerations for PHEVs and battery electric vehicles (BEV). Current industry focus is on Li-Ion batteries due to their high energy density. However, extreme operating temperatures may impact battery life and performance. Different cooling strategies have been proposed for efficient thermal management of battery systems. This paper discusses the modeling and analysis strategy for a thermally managed Lithium Ion (Li-Ion) battery pack, with coolant as the conditioning medium.
Technical Paper

Random Frequency Response Analysis of Battery Systems Using ‘Virtual Shaker Table’

2011-04-12
2011-01-0665
This paper presents ‘Virtual Shaker Table’: a CAE method that enables random frequency structural response and random vibration fatigue analyses of a battery system. The Virtual Shaker Table method is a practical and systematic procedure that effectively assesses battery system vibration performance prior to final design, build and testing. A random structural frequency response analysis identifies the critical frequencies and modes at which the battery system is excited by random inputs. Fatigue life may be predicted after PSD stresses have been ascertained. This method enables frequency response analysis techniques to be applied quickly and accurately, thereby allowing assessment of multiple design alternatives. Virtual Shaker Table facilitates an elegant solution to some of the significant challenges inherent to complex battery system design and integration.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Pt-Pd Ratio on Oxidation Catalysts Under Simulated Diesel Exhaust

2011-04-12
2011-01-1134
With a tighter regulatory environment, reduction of hydrocarbon emissions has emerged as a major concern for advanced low-temperature combustion engines. Currently precious metal-based diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) containing platinum (Pt) and palladium (Pd) are most commonly used for diesel exhaust hydrocarbon oxidation. The efficiency of hydrocarbon oxidation is greatly enhanced by employing both Pt and Pd together compared to the case with Pt or Pd alone. However, there have been few systematic studies to investigate the effects of the ratio of platinum to palladium on catalytic oxidation over the DOC. The present study illustrates the relationship between the Pt-Pd ratio and catalyst activity and stability by evaluating a series of catalysts with various Pt to Pd ratios (1:0, 7:1, 2:1, 1:2, 1:5, 0:1). These catalysts were tested for their CO and hydrocarbon light-off temperatures under simulated conditions where both unburned and partially burned hydrocarbons were present.
Technical Paper

Safety Belt and Occupant Factors Influencing Thoracic & Upper Abdominal Injuries in Frontal Crashes

2011-04-12
2011-01-1129
This paper reports on a study that examines the effect of shoulder belt load limiters and pretensioners as well as crash and occupant factors that influence upper torso harm in real-world frontal crashes. Cases from the University of Michigan International Center for Automotive Medicine (ICAM) database were analyzed. Additional information was used from other databases including the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) New Car Assessment Program (NCAP), the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS), the National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS), and patient data available from the University of Michigan Trauma Center. The ICAM database is comprised of information from real-world crashes in which occupants were seriously injured and required treatment at a Level 1 Trauma Center.
Technical Paper

Estimating Variation in Roof Strength Test

2011-04-12
2011-01-1120
As part of the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, requirements for roof strength need to be met for all vehicles. On the other hand, automobile manufactures need to minimize vehicle mass for fuel economy and other objectives. It is important, therefore, for manufacturers to have a good understanding of the sources of variation in measured roof strength. An accurate estimation of such variation is important to achieving these objectives. This paper presents a method of using CAE simulation and vehicle tests to effectively estimate the range of variability in the roof crush tests. A number of vehicle and test variables which could potentially affect the measured roof strength were chosen, and their sensitivity was evaluated through CAE simulation. This knowledge of the sensitivity was then used to design a small number of vehicle tests, producing an estimation of the variation range in roof strength.
Technical Paper

Voltec Battery Design and Manufacturing

2011-04-12
2011-01-1360
In July 2007, GM announced that it would produce the Chevy Volt, the first high-production volume electric vehicle with extended range capability, by 2010. In January 2009, General Motors announced that the Chevrolet Volt's lithium ion Battery Pack, capable of propelling the Chevy Volt on battery-supplied electric power for up to 40 miles, would be designed and assembled in-house. The T-shaped battery, a subset of the Voltec propulsion system, comprises 288 cells, weighs 190 kg, and is capable of supplying over 16 kWh of energy. Many technical challenges presented themselves to the team, including the liquid thermal management of the battery, the fast battery pack development timeline, and validation of an unproven high-speed assembly process. This paper will first present a general overview of the approach General Motors utilized to bring the various engineering organizations together to design, develop, and manufacture the Volt battery.
Technical Paper

Approach to Validation Plan Development for Advanced Battery Systems in Vehicle Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-1366
As advanced battery systems become a standard choice for mainstream production vehicle portfolios, comprehensive battery system validation plans are essential to ensure that the battery performance, reliability, and durability targets are met prior to vehicle integration. (Note: Safety and Abuse testing are outside of the scope of this paper.) The validation plan for the Chevrolet Volt Rechargeable_Energy Storage System (RESS), the first lithium-ion battery pack designed and manufactured by General Motors (GM), was developed using a functional silo approach based on the battery design requirements documentation. While the Chevrolet Volt was the lead program at General Motors to use this validation plan development approach, other GM programs with different battery system mounting locations and cooling techniques are now using this method.
Technical Paper

Thermal Behavior Study on HEV Air-Cooled Battery Pack

2011-04-12
2011-01-1368
Recently, an increased emphasis has been seen for improving the cooling uniformity and efficiency of HEV battery pack in an effort to increase the battery performance and life. This study examined the effects of geometry changes in cooling systems of battery packs on thermal behavior of battery cells and pressure drop across the battery pack. Initially, a multi-physics battery thermal model was correlated to physical test data. An analytical design of experiments (DOE) approach using Latin-hypercube technique was then developed by integrating the correlated battery thermal model with a commercial optimization code, iSIGHT, and a morphing code, DEP Morpher. The design concepts of battery pack cooling systems were finally identified by performing analytical DOE/optimization studies to estimate the effects of cooling flow and geometries of cooling ducts on the battery temperature variation and pressure drop across the battery pack.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Battery Sizing and Vehicle Lightweighting for an Extended Range Electric Vehicle

2011-04-12
2011-01-1078
In designing vehicles with significant electric driving range, optimizing vehicle energy efficiency is a key requirement to maximize the limited energy capacity of the onboard electrochemical energy storage system. A critical factor in vehicle energy efficiency is the vehicle mass. Optimizing mass allows for the possibility of either increasing electric driving range with a constant level of electrochemical energy storage or holding the range constant while reducing the level of energy storage, thus reducing storage cost. In this paper, a methodology is outlined to study the tradeoff between the battery cost savings achieved by vehicle mass reduction for a constant electric driving range and the cost associated with lightweighting a vehicle. This methodology enables informed business decisions about the available engineering options for lightweighting early in the vehicle development process. The methodology was applied to a compact extended-range electric vehicle (EREV) concept.
Technical Paper

Modeling Human-Machine Interactions Using Statecharts: One Hot and Cool Example

2011-04-12
2011-01-1020
In this paper we discuss the use of a formal approach to the problem of describing, evaluating, and specifying human-machine interaction. The statecharts language, originally conceived by David Harel [1], is used to describe the behavior of the machine (i.e., its states and transitions), interface indications (e.g., light indicators on switches), and user interaction (selecting applications, switching modes, entering parameters, etc.). We illustrate how the statecharts language can be used to describe driver interaction with a climate control system, and show how it is possible to systematically evaluate user interaction. The paper concludes with several observations about the utility of formal language for generating sound design specification of human-machine systems.
Technical Paper

FlexRay Active Star Network Integration Strategies and Host Interface Implementation

2011-04-12
2011-01-1027
The FlexRay serial data protocol is being considered in automotive vehicle architectures as an enabler for active safety, time critical systems due to the advantages it provides for time-determinism, increased data bandwidth, and multiple data channels to support fault tolerance strategies. To improve the robustness/availability of the electrical/physical layer when used for these critical applications, a FlexRay Active Star device is available. The Active Star is part of the physical layer and facilitates the creation of robust, fault tolerant network systems by partitioning the network into individual branches connected to one or more ECUs. This partitioning allows fault confinements and isolation activities to be performed at individual branches with minimal disruption to network communication. This paper describes the investigation of Active Star capabilities and some complexities related to their network integration.
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