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Monitoring NO2 Production of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst

2012-01-24
A combination of laboratory reactor measurements and vehicle FTP testing has been combined to demonstrate a method for diagnosing the formation of NO2 from a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). Using small cores from a production DOC and simulated diesel exhaust, the laboratory reactor experiments are used to support a model for DOC chemical reaction kinetics. The model we propose shows that the ability to produce NO2 is chemically linked to the ability of the catalyst to oxidize hydrocarbon (HC). For thermally damaged DOCs, loss of the HC oxidation function is simultaneous with loss of the NO2 production function. Since HC oxidation is the source of heat generated in the DOC under regeneration conditions, we conclude that a diagnostic of the DOC exotherm is able to detect the failure of the DOC to produce NO2. Vehicle emissions data from a 6.6 L Duramax HD pick-up with DOC of various levels of thermal degradation is provided to support the diagnostic concept.
Journal Article

Effects of Gasoline and Ethanol Fuel Corrosion Inhibitors on Powertrain Intake Valve Deposits

2013-04-08
2013-01-0893
Corrosion inhibitors (CIs) have been used for years to protect the supply and distribution hardware used for transportation of fuel from refineries and to buffer the potential organic acids present in an ethanol blended fuel to enhance storage stability. The impact of these inhibitors on spark-ignition engine fuel systems, specifically intake valve deposits, is known and presented in open literature. However, the relationship of the corrosion inhibitors to the powertrain intake valve deposit performance is not understood. This paper has two purposes: to present and discuss a second market place survey of corrosion inhibitors and how they vary in concentration in the final blended fuel, specifically E85 (Ethanol Fuel Blends); and, to show how the variation in the concentrations of the components of the CIs impacts the operation and performance of vehicles, specifically, the effects on intake valve deposit formation.
Technical Paper

Cellulosic Ethanol Fuel Quality Evaluation and its Effects on PFI Intake Valve Deposits and GDI Fuel Injector Plugging Performance

2013-04-08
2013-01-0885
The U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard 2 (RFS2) mandates the use of advanced renewable fuels such as cellulosic ethanol to be blended into gasoline in the near future. As such, determining the impact of these new fuel blends on vehicle performance is important. Therefore, General Motors conducted engine dynamometer evaluations on the impact of cellulosic ethanol blends on port fuel injected (PFI) intake valve deposits and gasoline direct injected (GDI) fuel injector plugging. Chemical analysis of the test fuels was also conducted and presented to support the interpretation of the engine results. The chemical analyses included an evaluation of the specified fuel parameters listed in ASTM International's D4806 denatured fuel ethanol specification as well as GC/MS hydrocarbon speciations to help identify any trace level contaminant species from the new ethanol production processes.
Technical Paper

The Development of Advanced 2-Way SCR/DPF Systems to Meet Future Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1140
Diesel engines have the potential to significantly increase vehicle fuel economy and decrease CO₂ emissions; however, efficient removal of NOx and particulate matter from the engine exhaust is required to meet stringent emission standards. A conventional diesel aftertreatment system consists of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), a urea-based Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) catalyst and a diesel particulate filter (DPF), and is widely used to meet the most recent NOx (nitrogen oxides comprising NO and NO₂) and particulate matter (PM) emission standards for medium- and heavy-duty sport utility and truck vehicles. The increasingly stringent emission targets have recently pushed this system layout towards an increase in size of the components and consequently higher system cost. An emerging technology developed recently involves placing the SCR catalyst onto the conventional wall-flow filter.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Pt-Pd Ratio on Oxidation Catalysts Under Simulated Diesel Exhaust

2011-04-12
2011-01-1134
With a tighter regulatory environment, reduction of hydrocarbon emissions has emerged as a major concern for advanced low-temperature combustion engines. Currently precious metal-based diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) containing platinum (Pt) and palladium (Pd) are most commonly used for diesel exhaust hydrocarbon oxidation. The efficiency of hydrocarbon oxidation is greatly enhanced by employing both Pt and Pd together compared to the case with Pt or Pd alone. However, there have been few systematic studies to investigate the effects of the ratio of platinum to palladium on catalytic oxidation over the DOC. The present study illustrates the relationship between the Pt-Pd ratio and catalyst activity and stability by evaluating a series of catalysts with various Pt to Pd ratios (1:0, 7:1, 2:1, 1:2, 1:5, 0:1). These catalysts were tested for their CO and hydrocarbon light-off temperatures under simulated conditions where both unburned and partially burned hydrocarbons were present.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Ethanol Quality on Vehicle System Components

2011-04-12
2011-01-1200
Corn ethanol has been used for fuel blending as both an oxygenate and octane booster and in most U.S. states conform to the ASTM D5798 fuel ethanol quality standard. Today the fuel ethanol market is expanding the types of feedstocks used to make ethanol and changing the processing techniques. These non-corn alternative feedstocks used to produce fuel ethanol bring new chemical components into the product that are not monitored under the D5798 standard, and it is unclear if they will result in material compatibility challenges for vehicle fuel systems that could affect performance and emissions. The vehicle contains a variety of plastic, metallic, and polymeric materials in the fuel tank, fuel pump, engine, and exhaust system that are sensitive to water, ions, acids, and high molecular weight compounds.
Technical Paper

Effectiveness of Cold Soak Filtration Test to Predict Precipitate Formation in Biodiesel

2011-04-12
2011-01-1201
Biodiesel use is increasing around the world. Vehicle failures due to filter clogging issues have been reported in the field with use of biodiesel blended fuels in winter months. In certain instances, filter clogging was caused by precipitate formation above the cloud point of the fuel. Minor contaminants in biodiesel such as sterol glucosides and saturated monoglycerides are suspected to cause precipitation above the cloud point. ASTM has added a requirement to test biodiesel fuel for cold soak filtration test to prevent occurrences of this phenomenon of precipitation above the cloud point. This study focuses on understanding the correlation between cold soak filtration test results and presence of contaminants such as sterol glucosides and saturated monoglycerides in biodiesel fuels. Test samples were also subjected to thermal cycling at temperatures below the cloud point of fuel to co-correlate the cold soak filtration test results to visual observation of precipitate formation.
Journal Article

A Comparison of Spray-Guided Stratified-Charge Combustion Performance with Outwardly-Opening Piezo and Multi-Hole Solenoid Injectors

2011-04-12
2011-01-1217
This investigation was aimed at measuring the relative performance of two spray-guided, single-cylinder, spark-ignited direct-injected (SIDI) engine combustion system designs. The first utilizes an outwardly-opening poppet, piezo-actuated injector, and the second a conventional, solenoid operated, inwardly-opening multi-hole injector. The single-cylinder engine tests were limited to steady state, warmed-up conditions. The comparison showed that these two spray-guided combustion systems with two very different sprays had surprisingly close results and only differed in some details. Combustion stability and smoke emissions of the systems are comparable to each other over most of the load range. Over a simulated Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle, the multi-hole system had 15% lower hydrocarbon and 18% lower carbon monoxide emissions.
Journal Article

Fatigue Behavior and Life Prediction for Aluminum Castings in the Absence of Casting Flaws

2011-04-12
2011-01-0193
Cast aluminum alloys are increasingly used in cyclically loaded automotive structural applications for light weight and fuel economy. The fatigue resistance of aluminum castings strongly depends upon the presence of casting flaws and characteristics of microstructural constituents. The existence of casting flaws significantly reduces fatigue crack initiation life. In the absence of casting flaws, however, crack initiation occurs at the fatigue-sensitive microstructural constituents. Cracking and debonding of large silicon (Si) and Fe-rich intermetallic particles and crystallographic shearing from persistent slip bands in the aluminum matrix play an important role in crack initiation. This paper presents fatigue life models for aluminum castings free of casting flaws, which complement the fatigue life models for aluminum castings containing casting flaws published in [1].
Technical Paper

Evaluation and Design of Injector Hole Patterns Using CFD with a Fuel Tracer Diagnostic for Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0840
A CFD code is enhanced with a fuel tracer diagnostic to track the liquid and vapor fuel mass separately from individual spray plumes of a multi-hole injector and the wall film. The approach works by solving a set of additional scalar transport equations for fuel vapor generated from individual nozzle hole and the wall film. The diagnostic tool is first validated against experiments from a 4-valve, wall-guided spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine. A CFD analysis is carried out to understand the experimentally observed trade-offs in combustion stability and smoke emissions between a 70degree hollow-cone swirl injector and a 40 degree, 5-hole, circular-type multi-hole injector at a lean, stratified idle operating condition. Engine tests show that the multi-hole injector results in lower COV of IMEP than the hollow-cone swirl injector at the expense of significantly higher smoke emissions.
Technical Paper

Balance of Electrical Power Requirements through Smart Electric Power Management

2011-04-12
2011-01-0042
This paper examines Smart Electric Power Management as it pertains to when the vehicle charging system is active. Over the past decade there have been several factors at play which have stressed the demands placed upon the vehicle electrical power system. Many of these factors present challenges to electrical power that are at cross-purposes with one another. For example, demands of new and existing electrical loads, customer expectations about load performance and battery life, and the push by governments' world-wide for increased fuel economy (FE) and reduced CO2 emissions all have direct impact and can be directly impacted by decisions made in electric power design. As the electrification of the vehicle has progressed we now have much more specific vehicle state data available and the means to share this information among on-board computers through serial data link connectivity.
Technical Paper

The Influence of DISI Engine Operating Parameters on Particle Number Emissions

2011-04-12
2011-01-0143
The future EURO 6 emission standard will limit the particle number and mass for gasoline engines. The proposed limit for particle mass is 4.5 mg/km. For particle number there is not yet a limit defined but a wide range of proposals are under discussion (6E11 - 8E12 Particles/km) The particle emissions on a homogeneous SIDI engine are mainly caused by insufficient mixture preparation. A combustion improvement could be achieved by a careful recalibration as well as a hardware optimization that mainly avoids wall impingement and substoichiometric zones in the combustion chamber. The analyses of current SIDI vehicles show significant PN emission peaks during cold start and transient operation on a NEDC cycle. To give a better understanding of cause and effect of the particle formation at steady state results so as transient load steps were performed at an engine dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Corrosion Inhibitors on Powertrain Intake Valve Deposits

2011-04-12
2011-01-0908
Corrosion inhibitors (CIs) have been used for years to protect the supply and distribution hardware used for transportation of fuel from refineries. The impact of these inhibitors on spark ignited fuel systems, specifically intake valve deposits, is known and presented in open literature. However, the relationship of the additive concentrations to the powertrain intake valve deposit performance is not understood. This paper has two purposes: to present and discuss a market place survey of corrosion inhibitors and how they vary in concentration in the final blended fuel; and, to show how the variation in the concentrations of the CIs impact the operation and performance of vehicles, specifically, the effects on intake valve deposit formation. Commercially available corrosion inhibitor packages for both gasoline and ethanol blended fuels, specifically E85 fuels, were studied for their chemical compositions, and their impact on valves for a port fuel injection (PFI) engine.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of NOx Reduction by Passive Ammonia-SCR for Stoichiometric SIDI Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0307
As vehicle fuel economy requirements continue to increase it is becoming more challenging and expensive to simultaneously improve fuel consumption and meet emissions regulations. The Passive Ammonia SCR System (PASS) is a novel aftertreatment concept which has the potential to address NOx emissions with application to both lean SI and stoichiometric SI engines. PASS relies on an underfloor (U/F) SCR for storage of ammonia which is generated by the close-coupled (CC) TWCs. For lean SI engines, it is required to operate with occasional rich pulses in order to generate the ammonia, while for stoichiometric application ammonia is passively generated through the toggling of air/fuel ratio. PASS serves as an efficient and cost-effective enhancement to standard aftertreatment systems. For this study, the PASS concept was demonstrated first using lab reactor results which highlight the oxygen tolerance and temperature requirements of the SCR.
Technical Paper

Particle Number, Size and Mass Emissions of Different Biodiesel Blends Versus ULSD from a Small Displacement Automotive Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0633
Experimental work was carried out on a small displacement Euro 5 automotive diesel engine alternatively fuelled with ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) and with two blends (30% vol.) of ULSD and of two different fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) obtained from both rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and jatropha methyl ester (JME) in order to evaluate the effects of different fuel compositions on particle number (PN) emissions. Particulate matter (PM) emissions for each fuel were characterized in terms of number and mass size distributions by means of two stage dilutions system coupled with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Measurements were performed at three different sampling points along the exhaust system: at engine-out, downstream of the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and downstream of the diesel particulate filter (DPF). Thus, it was possible to evaluate both the effects of combustion and after-treatment efficiencies on each of the tested fuels.
Technical Paper

Particle Size and Number Emissions from Modern Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0632
This paper focuses on measuring particle emissions of a representative light-duty diesel vehicle equipped with different engine exhaust aftertreatment in close-coupled position, including one designed to meet the upcoming Euro 6 emission standards. The latter combines a lean NOx trap (LNT) and a diesel particulate filter (DPF) in series to simultaneously reduce NOx and PM. Particle Matter (PM) and particle number emissions are measured throughout testing procedure and instrumentation which are compliant with the UN-ECE Regulation 83 proposals. Specifically measuring devices for particle number emissions, provided by two different suppliers, are alternatively used. No significant differences are observed due to the different system employed. On the other hand particle size distributions are measured by means of a specific experimental set-up including a two stage dilution system and an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI).
Technical Paper

Comparisons of Current Concepts for Press Hardened Steel Tailor Welded Blanks and Tailor Rolled Blanks on Center Pillar Reinforcements

2011-04-12
2011-01-1059
Press hardened steels (PHS) are commonly used in automotive structural applications because of their combination of extremely high strength, load carrying capacity and the ability to form complex shapes in the press hardening process. Recent adoption of increased roof crush standards, side impact requirements and the increased focus on CO2 emissions and mass reduction have led autmotive manufacturers to significantly increase the amount of PHS being designed into future vehicle designs. As a way to further optimize the use of these steels, multi-gauge welded blanks of PHS and multi-material blanks of PHS to microalloyed steels of various thickness have been developed to help achieve these requirements. More recently, tailor rolled PHS, whereby the steel is rolled such that the thickness changes across the width of the sheet, have been developed.
Technical Paper

Effect of DPF Design Parameters on Fuel Economy and Thermal Durability

2012-04-16
2012-01-0847
Diesel particle filters (DPF) have become the standard and essential aftertreatment components for all on-road diesel engines used in the US and Europe. The OBD requirements for DPF are becoming rigorously strict starting from 2015 model year. The pressure sensor or other strategies currently used for DPF diagnostics will most likely become insufficient to meet the new OBD requirements and a post DPF soot sensor might be necessary. This means that it will be even more imperative to develop a DPF design that would not have any soot leaks in its emission lifetime, otherwise the DPF will become a high warranty item.
Technical Paper

Impact of Biodiesel on Particle Emissions and DPF Regeneration Management in a Euro5 Automotive Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0839
Biofuel usage is increasingly expanding thanks to its significant contribution to a well-to-wheel (WTW) reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In addition, stringent emission standards make mandatory the use of Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) for the particulate emissions control. The different physical properties and chemical composition of biofuels impact the overall engine behaviour. In particular, the PM emissions and the related DPF regeneration strategy are clearly affected by biofuel usage due mainly to its higher oxygen content and lower low heating value (LHV). More specifically, the PM emissions and the related DPF regeneration strategy are clearly affected by biofuel usage due mainly to its higher oxygen content and lower low heating value, respectively. The particle emissions, in fact, are lower mainly because of the higher oxygen content. Subsequently less frequent regenerations are required.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects on Combustion and Emissions of a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine Operating at Moderate to High Engine Speed and Load

2012-04-16
2012-01-0863
It is advantageous to increase the specific power output of diesel engines and to operate them at higher load for a greater portion of a driving cycle to achieve better thermal efficiency and thus reduce vehicle fuel consumption. Such operation is limited by excessive smoke formation at retarded injection timing and high rates of cylinder pressure rise at more advanced timing. Given this window of operation, it is desired to understand the influence of fuel properties such that optimum combustion performance and emissions can be retained over the range of fuels commonly available in the marketplace. Data are examined from a direct-injection single-cylinder research engine for eight common diesel fuels including soy-based biodiesel blends at two high load operating points with no exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and at a moderate load with four levels of EGR.
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