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Technical Paper

Determining Physical Properties for Rotating Components Using a Free-Free Torsional FRF Technique

This paper presents a test methodology to determine the physical properties of stiffness and damping for powertrain rotating components using a free-free torsional frequency response measurement. The test methodology utilizes free-free boundary conditions and traditional modal test techniques applied to symmetric rotating components with substantially large bounding masses of known inertia. A modal test on the rotating component is executed by mounting accelerometers on opposing tangential bosses in the same direction on each of the inertial masses and impacting one of the bosses with a modal hammer to acquire frequency response functions (FRF's). Physical properties are then extracted from the FRF's using fundamental vibration relationships for an assumed two degree of freedom system. Stiffness and damping values for a variety of hollow tube carbon fiber drive shafts and a comparable steel-aluminum shaft are reported using the methodology presented.
Journal Article

Dynamic Torque Characteristics of the Hydrodynamic Torque Converter

The objective of this investigation is to characterize the torsional characteristics of the hydrodynamic torque converter. Analytical and experimental techniques are used to quantify the relationship between torsional oscillations imposed on the pump to those at the turbine as a function of frequency, operating point and design. A detailed model of the hydrodynamic torque converter based upon one-dimensional flow theory is used to establish fundamental torsional behavior independent of the downstream mechanical system. A simplified linear spring-mass-damper representation of the hydrodynamic torque converter is derived whose coefficients are proportional to pump speed for a particular design. A transmission dynamometer test cell with the capability to produce torsional oscillations was used to develop frequency response functions for various torque converters in a transmission, operating at steady state conditions.
Journal Article

Torque Converter Clutch Optimization: Improving Fuel Economy and Reducing Noise and Vibration

The torque converter and torque converter clutch are critical devices governing overall power transfer efficiency in automatic transmission powertrains. With calibrations becoming more aggressive to meet increasing fuel economy standards, the torque converter clutch is being applied over a wider range of driving conditions. At low engine speed and high engine torque, noise and vibration concerns originating from the driveline, powertrain or vehicle structure can supersede aggressive torque converter clutch scheduling. Understanding the torsional characteristics of the torque converter clutch and its interaction with the drivetrain can lead to a more robust design, operation in regions otherwise restricted by noise and vibration, and potential fuel economy improvement.
Journal Article

The Voltec 4ET50 Electric Drive System

General Motors' Chevrolet Volt is an Extended Range Electric Vehicle (EREV). This car has aggressive targets for all electric range with engine off and fuel economy with the engine on. The Voltec 4ET50 transaxle has gears, clutches, and shafts and controls that execute two kinematic modes for engine off operation or Electric Vehicle (EV) operation, and two additional kinematic modes for extended range (ER) operation. The Voltec electric transaxle also has two electric motors, two inverters, and specialized motor controls to motivate to execute each of those four driving modes. Collectively these are known as the Voltec Electric drive. This paper will present the design and performance details of the Chevrolet Voltec electric drive. Both the machines of the Voltec electric drive system are permanent magnet AC synchronous machines with the magnets buried inside the rotor. The motor has distributed windings.