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Technical Paper

Optimizing Battery Sizing and Vehicle Lightweighting for an Extended Range Electric Vehicle

In designing vehicles with significant electric driving range, optimizing vehicle energy efficiency is a key requirement to maximize the limited energy capacity of the onboard electrochemical energy storage system. A critical factor in vehicle energy efficiency is the vehicle mass. Optimizing mass allows for the possibility of either increasing electric driving range with a constant level of electrochemical energy storage or holding the range constant while reducing the level of energy storage, thus reducing storage cost. In this paper, a methodology is outlined to study the tradeoff between the battery cost savings achieved by vehicle mass reduction for a constant electric driving range and the cost associated with lightweighting a vehicle. This methodology enables informed business decisions about the available engineering options for lightweighting early in the vehicle development process. The methodology was applied to a compact extended-range electric vehicle (EREV) concept.
Technical Paper

A Dual Clutch Torque Converter for Dual Input Shaft Transmissions

This paper presents an alternative launch device for layshaft dual clutch transmissions (DCT's). The launch device incorporates a hydrodynamic torque converter, a lockup clutch with controlled slip capability and two wet multi-plate clutches to engage the input shafts of the transmission. The device is intended to overcome the deficiencies associated with using conventional dry or wet launch clutches in DCT's, such as limited torque capacity at vehicle launch, clutch thermal capacity and cooling, launch shudder, lubricant quality and requirement for interval oil changes. The alternative device enhances drive quality and performance at vehicle launch and adds the capability of controlled capacity slip to attenuate gear rattle without early downshifting. Parasitic torque loss will increase but is shown not to drastically influence fuel consumption compared to a dry clutch system, however synchronizer engagement can become a concern at cold operating temperatures.
Technical Paper

Relative Torque Estimation on Transmission Output Shaft with Speed Sensors

Automobile drivers/passengers perceive automatic transmission (AT) shift quality through the torque transferred by transmission output shaft, so that torque regulation is critical in transmission shift control and etc. However, since a physical torque sensor is expensive, current shift control in AT is usually achieved by tracking a turbine speed profile due to the lack of the transmission output torque information. A direct torque feedback has long been desired for transmission shift control enhancement. This paper addresses a “virtual” torque sensor (VTS) algorithm that can provide an accurate estimate on the torque variation in the vehicle transmission output shaft using (existing) speed sensors. We have developed the algorithm using both the transmission output speed sensor and anti-lock braking system speed sensors. Practical solutions are provided to enhance the accuracy of the algorithm. The algorithm has been successfully implemented on both FWD and RWD vehicles.
Technical Paper

Annular Nozzle in Fixed Displacement Transmission Pump

General Motor's new front wheel drive six speed 6T40 automatic transmission benefits from patented technology to control high speed pump cavitation that is innovative yet cost effective. An annular nozzle is created with careful pump inlet design by integrating a conical section in the filter neck to create a jet pump to prevent high speed cavitation for almost no additional cost. Excess oil from a fixed displacement pump is used to achieve an effective increase in pressure at the inlet of the rotating group during high speed operation. Control of high speed cavitation reduces pump noise and improves line pressure control stability.
Technical Paper

Controls Development for Clutch-Assisted Engine Starts in a Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

In a parallel hybrid electric vehicle, higher fuel economy gains are typically achieved if significant electric drive (or engine-off) operation is possible, shifting the engine operating schedule so that it only runs at medium to high load for best efficiency. To enable efficient engine-off driving, a typical configuration will have a disconnect clutch between the engine and the rest of the driveline. In some configurations, when engine-on operation is requested the disconnect clutch is applied in conjunction with the traction motor/generator to crank the engine (i.e., a flying engine start). In this paper we describe the development of a control system for a flying engine start using an engine disconnect clutch. The clutch is located between the engine and electric motor, which is connected to the input of a multispeed transmission. We first describe an initial control algorithm evaluation using a driveline model.
Technical Paper

Development of a Standard Spin Loss Test Procedure for 4WD Transfer Cases

As vehicle fuel economy continues to grow in importance, the ability to accurately measure the level of parasitic losses on all driveline components is required. A standardized comparison procedure enables manufacturers and suppliers to measure component losses consistently, in addition to offering a reliable process to assess enablers for efficiency improvements. This paper reviews the development of a comprehensive test procedure to measure transfer case speed-dependent parasitic losses at key speed, load, and environmental conditions. This procedure was validated for repeatability considering variations in soak time, temperature measurement positions on the transfer case, and test operating conditions. Additional assessments of spin loss at low ambient temperatures, and the effect of component break-in on spin loss were also conducted.
Technical Paper

Torsional Vibration Analysis of Six Speed MT Transmission and Driveline from Road to Lab

When a manual transmission (MT) powertrain is subjected to high speeds and high torques, the vehicle driveshaft, and other components experience an increase in stored potential energy. When the engine and driveshaft are decoupled during an up or down shift, the potential energy is released causing clunk during the shift event. The customer desires a smooth shift thus reduction of clunk will improve experience and satisfaction. In this study, a six-speed MT, rear-wheel-drive (RWD) passenger vehicle was used to experimentally capture acoustic and vibration data during the clunk event. To replicate the in-situ results, additional data was collected and analyzed for powertrain component roll and pitch. A lumped parameter model of key powertrain components was created to replicate the clunk event and correlate with test data. The lumped parameter model was used to modify clutch tip-out parameters, which resulted in reduced prop shaft oscillations.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Powertrain Inertia Properties via an In-situ Method

An experimental method has been developed which allows the rigid body inertia properties of an automotive type powertrain to be estimated in-situ without removing the powertrain from the vehicle. The method requires that the complex stiffness properties of the powertrain mounts be estimated therefore allowing through the measurement of the relative displacements across the mounts for the estimation of the forces generated at the powertrain mount locations. Rigid body motion measurements are made through the use of accelerometers simultaneous to exciting the powertrain with multiple shakers. Results of the method are compared to those acquired through an inertia pendulum and the FRF based method implemented in LMS Cada-X software. Effects on the results due to shaker location, response location, mount variation, and removal of powertrain peripherals are also investigated.

Reinventing the Automobile

This path breaking book provides a long overdue vision for a new automobile era. The cars we drive today follow the same underlying design principles as the Model Ts of a hundred years ago and the tail-finned sedans of fifty years ago. In the twenty-first century, cars are still made for twentieth-century purposes. They're well suited for conveying multiple passengers over long distances at high speeds, but inefficient for providing personal mobility within cities-where most of the world's people now live. William Mitchell and two industry experts re-imagine the automobile, describing vehicles of the near future that are green, smart, connected, and fun to drive. They roll out four big ideas that will make this both feasible and timely. First, we must transform the DNA of the automobile, basing it on electric-drive and wireless communication rather than on petroleum, the internal combustion engine, and stand-alone operation.
Journal Article

Performance Characterization of a Triple Input Clutch, Layshaft Automatic Transmission Using Energy Analysis

This paper details the design and operating attributes of a triple input clutch, layshaft automatic transmission (TCT) with a torque converter in a rear wheel drive passenger vehicle. The objectives of the TCT design are to reduce fuel consumption while increasing acceleration performance through the design of the gearing arrangement, shift actuation system and selection of gear ratios and progression. A systematic comparison of an 8-speed TCT design is made against a hypothetical 8-speed planetary automatic transmission (AT) with torque converter using an energy analysis model based upon empirical data and first principles of vehicle-powertrain systems. It was found that the 8-speed TCT design has the potential to provide an approximate 3% reduction in fuel consumption, a 3% decrease in 0-100 kph time and 30% reduction in energy loss relative to a comparable 8-speed planetary AT with an idealized logarithmic ratio progression.
Journal Article

The GM “Voltec” 4ET50 Multi-Mode Electric Transaxle

The Chevrolet Volt is an electric vehicle (EV) that operates exclusively on battery power as long as useful energy is available in the battery pack under normal conditions. After the battery is depleted of available energy, extended-range (ER) driving uses fuel energy in an internal combustion engine (ICE), an on-board generator, and a large electric driving motor. This extended-range electric vehicle (EREV) utilizes electric energy in an automobile more effectively than a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), which characteristically blends electric and engine power together during driving. A specialized EREV powertrain, called the "Voltec," drives the Volt through its entire range of speed and acceleration with battery power alone, within the limit of battery energy, thereby displacing more fuel with electricity, emitting less CO₂, and producing less cold-start emissions than a PHEV operating in real-world conditions.
Journal Article

Development of Two-Mode Hybrid Powertrain with Enhanced EV Capability

The two-mode hybrid system has several advantages over a one-mode EVT system: greater ability to transmit power mechanically and minimize electrical recirculation power, maximize fuel economy improvement and best meet demanding vehicle requirements. Extending the two-mode hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) to two-mode plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is significant not only to make the internal combustion engine (ICE)-based vehicle cleaner and more efficient in the near term, but also to provide a potential path to battery electric vehicles in the future. For PHEV, the enhanced electric drive capability is of vital importance to achieve best efficiency and best electric only performance. This paper describes the development of a prototype two-mode hybrid powertrain with enhanced EV capability (2MH4EV). The prototype drive unit includes an additional input brake to the existing General Motors FWD 2-mode HEV system.
Journal Article

Development of a Standard Spin Loss Test Procedure for FWD-Based Power Transfer Units

As vehicle fuel economy continues to grow in importance, the ability to accurately measure the level of efficiency on all driveline components is required. A standardized test procedure enables manufacturers and suppliers to measure component losses consistently and provides data to make comparisons. In addition, the procedure offers a reliable process to assess enablers for efficiency improvements. Previous published studies have outlined the development of a comprehensive test procedure to measure transfer case speed-dependent parasitic losses at key speed, load, and environmental conditions. This paper will take the same basic approach for the Power Transfer Units (PTUs) used on Front Wheel Drive (FWD) based All Wheel Drive (AWD) vehicles. Factors included in the assessment include single and multi-stage PTUs, fluid levels, break-in process, and temperature effects.
Journal Article

The Voltec 4ET50 Electric Drive System

General Motors' Chevrolet Volt is an Extended Range Electric Vehicle (EREV). This car has aggressive targets for all electric range with engine off and fuel economy with the engine on. The Voltec 4ET50 transaxle has gears, clutches, and shafts and controls that execute two kinematic modes for engine off operation or Electric Vehicle (EV) operation, and two additional kinematic modes for extended range (ER) operation. The Voltec electric transaxle also has two electric motors, two inverters, and specialized motor controls to motivate to execute each of those four driving modes. Collectively these are known as the Voltec Electric drive. This paper will present the design and performance details of the Chevrolet Voltec electric drive. Both the machines of the Voltec electric drive system are permanent magnet AC synchronous machines with the magnets buried inside the rotor. The motor has distributed windings.
Technical Paper

Control Strategy and Energy Recovery Potential for P2 Parallel Hybrid Step Gear Automatic Transmissions

The purpose of this investigation is to present a control strategy and energy recovery potential for P2 parallel hybrid step gear automatic transmissions. The automatic transmission types considered for the investigation are rear wheel drive 8 speed dual clutch transmission and 8 speed planetary automatic equipped each equipped with an electric motor between the engine and transmission. The governing equations of clutch-to-clutch upshift controls are presented and are identical for each transmission type. Various strategies are explored for executing the upshift under a range of input torques, shift times and engine torque management approaches. The differences in energy recovery potential based upon control strategy is explored piecewise as well as through a DFSS study. On a comprehensive drive cycle consisting of FTP 75, US06 and HWFET test cycles, it is shown that upshift regen torque management can be equivalent to approximately 0.8% of the total fuel energy used.