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Technical Paper

External Corrosion Resistance of CuproBraze® Radiators

2001-05-14
2001-01-1718
New technology for the manufacturing of copper/brass heat exchangers has been developed and the first automotive radiators are already in operation in vehicles. This new technology is called CuproBraze®. One of the essential questions raised is the external corrosion resistance with reference to the present soldered copper/brass radiators and to the brazed aluminium radiators. Based on the results from electrochemical measurements and from four different types of accelerated corrosion tests, the external corrosion resistance of the CuproBraze® radiators is clearly better than that of the soldered copper/brass radiators and competitive with the brazed aluminum radiators, especially as regards marine atmosphere. Due to the relatively high strength of the CuproBraze® heat exchangers, down gauging of fins and tubes in some applications is attractive. High performance coatings can ensure long lifetime from corrosion point of view, even for thin gauge heat exchangers.
Technical Paper

A 2-D Computational Model Describing the Heat Transfer, Reaction Kinetics and Regeneration Characteristics of a Ceramic Diesel Particulate Trap

1998-02-23
980546
A 2-D CFD model was developed to describe the heat transfer, and reaction kinetics in a honeycomb structured ceramic diesel particulate trap. This model describes the steady state as well as the transient behavior of the flow and heat transfer during the trap regeneration processes. The trap temperature profile was determined by numerically solving the 2-D unsteady energy equation including the convective, heat conduction and viscous dissipation terms. The convective terms were based on a 2-D analytical flow field solution derived from the conservation of mass and momentum equations (Opris, 1997). The reaction kinetics were described using a discretized first order Arrhenius function. The 2-D term describing the reaction kinetics and particulate matter conservation of mass was added to the energy equation as a source term in order to represent the particulate matter oxidation. The filtration model describes the particulate matter accumulation in the trap.
Technical Paper

The Theoretical Development of Vehicle Engine Cooling Airflow Models Using Incompressible Flow Methods

1991-02-01
910644
A one-dimensional incompressible flow model covering the mechanisms involved in the airflow through an automotive radiator-shroud-fan system with no heat transfer was developed. An analytical expression to approximate the experimentally determined fan performance characteristics was used in conjunction with an analytical approach for this simplified cooling airflow model, and the solution is discussed with illustrations. A major result of this model is a closed form equation relating the transient velocity of the air to the vehicle speed, pressure rise characteristics and speed of the fan, as well as the dimensions and resistance of the radiator. This provides a basis for calculating cooling airflow rate under various conditions. The results of the incompressible flow analysis were further compared with the computational results obtained with a previously developed one-dimensional, transient, compressible flow model.
Technical Paper

The Dimensionless Correlation of Airflow for Vehicle Engine Cooling Systems

1991-02-01
910643
An analysis of vehicle engine cooling airflow by means of a one-dimensional, transient, compressible flow model was carried out and revealed that similarity theory could be applied to investigate the variation of the airflow with ambient and operating conditions. It was recognized that for a given vehicle engine cooling system, the cooling airflow behavior could be explained using several dimensionless parameters that involve the vehicle speed, fan speed, heat transfer rate through the radiator, ambient temperature and pressure, and the system characteristic dimension. Using the flow resistance and fan characteristics measured from a prototype cooling system and the computer simulation for the one-dimensional compressible flow model, a quantitative correlation of non-dimensional mass flow rate to three dimensionless parameters for a prototype heavy-duty truck was established. The results are presented in charts, tables, and formulas.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Fuel Film Characteristics of Ethanol Impinging Spray at Ultra-Low Temperature

2017-03-28
2017-01-0851
Increasing the injection pressure in DISI engine is an efficient way to obtain finer droplets but it will also potentially cause spray impingement on the cylinder wall and piston. Consequently, the fuel film sticking on the wall can dramatically increase the soot emission of the engine especially in a cold start condition. On the other hand, ethanol is widely used as an alternative fuel in DI engine due to its sustainable nature and high octane number. In this study, the fuel film characteristics of single-plume ethanol impinging spray was investigated. The experiments were performed under ultra-low fuel/plate temperature to simulate the cold start condition in cold areas. A low temperature thermostatic bath combined with specially designed heat exchangers were used to achieve ultra-low temperature for both the impinging plate and the fuel. Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique was employed to measure the thickness of fuel film deposited on the impinging plate.
Technical Paper

Voltec Battery Design and Manufacturing

2011-04-12
2011-01-1360
In July 2007, GM announced that it would produce the Chevy Volt, the first high-production volume electric vehicle with extended range capability, by 2010. In January 2009, General Motors announced that the Chevrolet Volt's lithium ion Battery Pack, capable of propelling the Chevy Volt on battery-supplied electric power for up to 40 miles, would be designed and assembled in-house. The T-shaped battery, a subset of the Voltec propulsion system, comprises 288 cells, weighs 190 kg, and is capable of supplying over 16 kWh of energy. Many technical challenges presented themselves to the team, including the liquid thermal management of the battery, the fast battery pack development timeline, and validation of an unproven high-speed assembly process. This paper will first present a general overview of the approach General Motors utilized to bring the various engineering organizations together to design, develop, and manufacture the Volt battery.
Technical Paper

Road Map and Technology Trends for Vehicle Engine Cooling Fan Speed Control

2011-04-12
2011-01-1334
This paper describes the rationale for the technology selection and speed control methods for electric cooling fans used for typical automotive applications, including most passenger cars and even some light duty truck s. Previous selection criteria were based primarily around cost, simplicity of implementation and reliability. However, the more recent focus toward fuel economy and optimization of energy consumption at a vehicle level has given a greater priority to the minimization of electrical power draw. Specifically, that need is addressed through both efficiency of the electric motor at any operating condition as well as providing a control method that delivers only the minimum electrical power to meet engine cooling and air conditioning requirements. This paper will explore the various control methods available, their relative merits and shortcomings and how they influence both FTP and real world fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Lubricant Flow and Temperature Prediction in a Planetary Gearset

2011-04-12
2011-01-1235
This study introduces a method to examine the flow path of the lubricant inside a planetary gearset of an automatic transmission. A typical planetary gearbox has several load bearing elements which are in relative sliding motion to each other which causes heat to be released. The major sources of friction as well as heat are the meshing teeth between gears (sun/planet, planet/ring), thrust washers, thrust bearings and needle bearings. The lubricant performs the vital function of both lubricating these sliding interfaces and cooling these sources of heat, thereby preventing failure of the gearbox. The exact flow path that the lubricant takes inside a planetary gearset is unknown. Since the gearset is primarily splash lubricated, it is also not known how much lubricant reaches critical areas. A method is developed using computational fluid dynamic techniques to enable comprehensive flow and thermal analysis and visualization of an automatic transmission assembly.
Technical Paper

Determination of Heat Transfer Augmentation Due to Fuel Spray Impingement in a High-Speed Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0843
As the incentive to produce cleaner and more efficient engines increases, diesel engines will become a primary, worldwide solution. Producing diesel engines with higher efficiency and lower emissions requires a fundamental understanding of the interaction of the injected fuel with air as well as with the surfaces inside the combustion chamber. One aspect of this interaction is spray impingement on the piston surface. Impingement on the piston can lead to decreased combustion efficiency, higher emissions, and piston damage due to thermal loading. Modern high-speed diesel engines utilize high pressure common-rail direct-injection systems to primarily improve efficiency and reduce emissions. However, the high injection pressures of these systems increase the likelihood that the injected fuel will impinge on the surface of the piston.
Technical Paper

Conjugate Heat Transfer in CI Engine CFD Simulations

2008-04-14
2008-01-0973
The development of new high power diesel engines is continually going for increased mean effective pressures and consequently increased thermal loads on combustion chamber walls close to the limits of endurance. Therefore accurate CFD simulation of conjugate heat transfer on the walls becomes a very important part of the development. In this study the heat transfer and temperature on piston surface was studied using conjugate heat transfer model along with a variety of near wall treatments for turbulence. New wall functions that account for variable density were implemented and tested against standard wall functions and against the hybrid near wall treatment readily available in a CFD software Star-CD.
Technical Paper

A Statistical Approach for Correlation/Validation of Hot-Soak Terminal Temperature of a Vehicle Cabin CFD Model

2013-04-08
2013-01-0854
A Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) statistical approach is presented in this report to correlate a CFD cabin model with test results. The target is the volume-averaged hot-soak terminal temperature. The objective is to develop an effective correlation process for a simplified CFD cabin model so it can be used in practical design process. It is, however, not the objective in this report to develop the most accurate CFD cabin model that would be too expensive computationally at present to be used in routine design analysis. A 3-D CFD model of a vehicle cabin is the central part of the computer modeling in the development of automotive HVAC systems. Hot-soak terminal temperature is a thermal phenomenon in the cabin of a parked vehicle under the Sun when the overall heat transfer reaches equilibrium. It is often part of the simulation of HVAC system operation.
Technical Paper

Visualization and Analysis of Condensation in Exhaust Gas Recirculation Coolers

2013-04-08
2013-01-0540
Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is widely used in diesel engines to control engine-out NOx (oxides of nitrogen) emissions. A portion of the exhaust gases is re-circulated into the intake manifold of the engine after cooling it through a heat exchanger. EGR cooler heat exchangers, however, tend to lose efficiency and have increased pressure drop as deposit forms on the heat exchanger surface due to transport of soot particles and condensing species to the cooler walls. In this study, condensation of water vapor and hydrocarbons at the exit of the EGR cooler was visualized using a fiberscope coupled to a camera equipped with a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) color sensor. A multi-cylinder diesel engine was used to produce a range of engine-out hydrocarbon concentrations. Both surface and bulk gas condensation were observed with the visualization setup over a range of EGR cooler coolant temperatures.
Technical Paper

Multi-Disciplinary Analyses for Brake Fluid Temperature Evaluation

2013-04-08
2013-01-0635
During braking events, a brake corner sustains high brake torque, generating a large amount of heat in the process. This is most significant during mountain descent events and vehicle race track events. The brake thermal events not only reduce brake friction coefficient and lining life, but also produce elevated brake fluid temperature. Traditionally, brake hardware testing is warranted to evaluate brake fluid temperature for high speed flat track and mountain descent. These tests are costly and time-consuming. A CAE process to predict brake fluid temperature early in the vehicle development process before hardware exists, and to reduce and to replace testing will greatly benefit the vehicle development process. To this end, multiple analyses can be run. The heat transfer coefficients and cooling coefficients were evaluated from relevant CFD analyses.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Scratch Resistance for Molded in Color Interior Thermoplastic Olefin Injection Molded Plastics

2011-04-12
2011-01-0464
As customer dissatisfaction with interior trim components is tracked by the JDPowers question on “surface durability”, there is a need to increase the durability of the parts that are molded in color. In particular, door trim panel lowers are susceptible to surface damage which results in an unfavorable appearance. To address this issue, an assessment of the various factors that can affect surface durability was conducted using talc filled TPO materials in order to determine the optimum set of physical properties. The team used Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) methodology. A Taguchi orthogonal experiment was used and included control system factors of material, grain, gloss, and color. Noise factors included molding process parameters, aging, and piece to piece variation. The output was a measure of the scratch resistance of the molded plaque which was defined by a Delta L calculation.
Technical Paper

Structural-Acoustic Analysis of Vehicle Body Panel Participation to Interior Acoustic Boom Noise

2011-04-12
2011-01-0496
A structural-acoustic finite element model of an automotive vehicle is developed and applied to evaluate the effect of structural and acoustic modifications to reduce low-frequency ‘boom’ noise in the passenger compartment. The structural-acoustic model is developed from a trimmed body structural model that is coupled with an acoustic model of the passenger compartment and trunk cavities. The interior noise response is computed for shaker excitation loads at the powertrain mount attachment locations on the body. The body panel and modal participation diagrams at the peak response frequencies are evaluated. A polar diagram identifies the dominant body panel contributions to the ‘boom’ noise. A modal participation diagram determines the body modes that contribute to the ‘boom’ noise. Finally, structural and acoustic modifications are evaluated to determine their effect on reducing the ‘boom’ noise and on the overall lower-frequency sound pressure level response.
Technical Paper

Method and System for Determining the Location of a Lost Vehicle Key Fob

2011-04-12
2011-01-0044
Key fobs, also known as remote keys or remote transmitters, have become a common piece of equipment in today's vehicle, being ubiquitous in every market segment. Once limited to remote locking and unlocking operations, today's key fobs can be used to control many comfort and security features beyond locking and unlocking, such as alarm system operation, vehicle locate, approach lighting, memory seat recall, and remote starting systems. Key fobs are designed to be easy to use as well as easy to carry and transport in personal containers, such as purses, pockets, wallets, and the like. Accordingly, as with other personal effects, key fobs and other portable remote devices can be lost or misplaced or can be otherwise difficult to find. Even with careful tracking of a remote device, children and pets, among other factors, can make location difficult. Moreover, multiple remote devices are often distributed with each vehicle.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Battery Pack Thermal System for a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2011-04-12
2011-01-0666
Fuel economy and stringent emissions requirements have steered the automotive industry to invest in advanced propulsion hybrids, including Plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV) and Fuel cell vehicles. The choice of battery technology, its power and thermal management and the overall vehicle energy optimization during different conditions are crucial design considerations for PHEVs and battery electric vehicles (BEV). Current industry focus is on Li-Ion batteries due to their high energy density. However, extreme operating temperatures may impact battery life and performance. Different cooling strategies have been proposed for efficient thermal management of battery systems. This paper discusses the modeling and analysis strategy for a thermally managed Lithium Ion (Li-Ion) battery pack, with coolant as the conditioning medium.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Crash and Steering Column Frequency Simulation of an Aluminum Instrument Panel Structure

2011-04-12
2011-01-0765
Recent changes to the U.S. CAFÉ (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) requirements have caused increased focus on alternative vehicle component designs that offer mass savings while maintaining overall vehicle design and performance targets. The instrument panel components comprise approximately 6% of the total vehicle interior mass and are thus a key component of interest in mass optimization efforts. Typically, instrument panel structures are constructed of low carbon tubular steel cross car members with welded stamped steel component brackets. In some cases, instrument panel structures have incorporated high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels to reduce mass by reducing gage. In this study, aluminum low mass instrument panel structure concept designs are developed. This paper illustrates the differences between a HSLA steel solution and four different aluminum instrument panel structure designs.
Technical Paper

Interpretation of SAE J1100 Cargo Volume Indices

2011-04-12
2011-01-0779
SAE J1100 - Motor Vehicle Dimensions was first published in September 1973. One of the many significant aspects of this recommended practice is that it provides procedures for estimating cargo/luggage volume in various types of vehicles. Passenger vehicles typically carry cargo in one of two areas: those that are separate from the passenger compartment and those that are open to the passenger compartment. A closed compartment is: An area intended to carry or stow luggage or cargo for personal or commercial purposes that is distinct or enclosed from the area used to transport people. The volume of this area is quantified by a physical stack of simulated luggage pieces, and include the following body types: coupes, sedans, and convertibles. An open compartment is: An area intended to carry or transport luggage or cargo for personal or commercial purposes that is open to the passenger compartment. These areas have the potential to carry people or cargo.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Occupant Pocketing Kinematics During Whiplash Assessments

2011-04-12
2011-01-0270
This study documents a method developed for dynamically measuring occupant pocketing during various low-speed rear impact, or “whiplash” sled tests. This dynamic pocketing measurement can then be related to the various test parameters used to establish the performance rating or compliance results. Consumer metric and regulatory tests discussed within this paper as potential applications of this technique include, but are not limited to, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) Low Speed Rear Impact (LSRI) rating, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 202a, and European New Car Assessment Program (EURO-NCAP) whiplash rating. Example metrics are also described which may be used to assist in establishing the design position of the head restraint and optimize the balance between low-speed rear impact performance and customer comfort.
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