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Technical Paper

Drawbeads in Sheet Metal Stamping - A Review

1997-02-24
970986
The paper reviews the role of drawbeads in sheet metal stamping. The design of drawbeads is discussed in depth, with treatment of different bead cross sections, bead end shapes, and bead materials. International standards and practices are included. This is followed by the historical development of the modeling of the drawbead restraining force, starting with basic equilibrium approaches, and leading to the use of the finite element method which permits the study of drawbead effects on sheet metal flow in three dimensions. Finally, the potential of active drawbeads is described based upon ongoing research which is directed toward closed-loop computer control of the stamping process through adjustment of the drawbead penetration.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of a Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicle with Electrochemical Battery Model

2017-03-28
2017-01-1252
This paper studies the nonlinear model predictive control for a power-split Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) power management system to improve the fuel economy. In this paper, a physics-based battery model is built and integrated with a base HEV model from Autonomie®, a powertrain and vehicle model architecture and development software from Argonne National Laboratory. The original equivalent circuit battery model from the software has been replaced by a single particle electrochemical lithium ion battery model. A predictive model that predicts the driver’s power request, the battery state of charge (SOC) and the engine fuel consumption is studied and used for the nonlinear model predictive controller (NMPC). A dedicated NMPC algorithm and its solver are developed and validated with the integrated HEV model. The performance of the NMPC algorithm is compared with that of a rule-based controller.
Technical Paper

Real Time Application of Battery State of Charge and State of Health Estimation

2017-03-28
2017-01-1199
A high voltage battery is an essential part of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). It is imperative to precisely estimate the state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH) of battery in real time to maintain reliable vehicle operating conditions. This paper presents a method of estimating SOC and SOH through the incorporation of current integration, voltage translation, and Ah-throughput. SOC estimation utilizing current integration is inadequate due to the accumulation of errors over the period of usage. Thus voltage translation of SOC is applied to rectify current integration method which improves the accuracy of estimation. Voltage translation data is obtained by subjecting the battery to hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC) test. The Battery State of Health was determined by semi-empirical model combined with accumulated Ah-throughput method. Battery state of charge was employed as an input to estimate damages accumulated to battery aging through a real-time model.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Analysis of V2G Impact on Battery Degradation

2017-03-28
2017-01-1699
Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) service has a potential to improve the reliability and stability of the electrical grid due to the ability of providing bi-directional power flow from/to the grid. However, frequent charging/discharging may impact the battery lifetime. This paper presents the analysis of battery degradation in three scenarios. In the first scenario, different battery capacities are considered. In the second scenario, the battery degradation with various depth of discharge (DOD) are studied. In the third scenario, the capacity loss due to different charging regime are compared. The charging/discharging of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are simulated in a single-phase microgrid system integrated with a photovoltaics (PV) farm, an energy storage system (ESS), and ten electric vehicle service equipment (EVSE). The battery degradation model is an energy throughput model, which is developed based on the Arrhenius equation and a power law relationship between time and capacity fading.
Technical Paper

Effect of State of Charge Constraints on Fuel Economy and Battery Aging when Using the Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy

2018-04-03
2018-01-1002
Battery State of Charge (SOC) constraints are used to prevent the battery in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) from over-charging or over-discharging. These constraints strongly influence the power-split of the HEV. This paper presents results on how Battery State of Charge (SOC) constraints effects Lithium ion battery aging and fuel economy when using the Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS). The vehicle studied is the Honda Civic Hybrid. The battery used is A123 Systems’ ANR26650 battery cell. Vehicle simulation uses multiple combinations of highway and city drive cycles. For each combination of drive cycles, nine SOC constraints ranges are used. Battery aging is evaluated using a semi-empirical model combined with the accumulated Ah-throughput method which uses, as an input, the battery SOC trajectory from the vehicle simulations. The simulation results provide insight into how SOC constraints effect fuel economy as well as battery aging.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fretting Corrosion on Lift Glass

2011-04-12
2011-01-1434
The electrical architecture design of a rear back glass defrost grid system encompasses many critical criteria that must be integrated into the design. For example, the defrost clip location and interface to the glass must meet all vehicle performance requirements. If the defrost clip to the glass interface is not resistant to vibration and relative movement, detachment and loss of function can occur. This paper describes a back glass defrost clip with a solder joint that is robust to manufacturing variations and customer usage conditions. A designed experiment using Design for Six Sigma methodologies was performed to understand the effects of the attachment interface to the electrical wiring pigtail, and parameters that affect performance. The working constraints, testing set up, validation, and root cause investigation of the clip detachment phenomenon is covered in this paper.
Technical Paper

Approach to Validation Plan Development for Advanced Battery Systems in Vehicle Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-1366
As advanced battery systems become a standard choice for mainstream production vehicle portfolios, comprehensive battery system validation plans are essential to ensure that the battery performance, reliability, and durability targets are met prior to vehicle integration. (Note: Safety and Abuse testing are outside of the scope of this paper.) The validation plan for the Chevrolet Volt Rechargeable_Energy Storage System (RESS), the first lithium-ion battery pack designed and manufactured by General Motors (GM), was developed using a functional silo approach based on the battery design requirements documentation. While the Chevrolet Volt was the lead program at General Motors to use this validation plan development approach, other GM programs with different battery system mounting locations and cooling techniques are now using this method.
Technical Paper

Thermal Behavior Study on HEV Air-Cooled Battery Pack

2011-04-12
2011-01-1368
Recently, an increased emphasis has been seen for improving the cooling uniformity and efficiency of HEV battery pack in an effort to increase the battery performance and life. This study examined the effects of geometry changes in cooling systems of battery packs on thermal behavior of battery cells and pressure drop across the battery pack. Initially, a multi-physics battery thermal model was correlated to physical test data. An analytical design of experiments (DOE) approach using Latin-hypercube technique was then developed by integrating the correlated battery thermal model with a commercial optimization code, iSIGHT, and a morphing code, DEP Morpher. The design concepts of battery pack cooling systems were finally identified by performing analytical DOE/optimization studies to estimate the effects of cooling flow and geometries of cooling ducts on the battery temperature variation and pressure drop across the battery pack.
Technical Paper

Voltec Battery Design and Manufacturing

2011-04-12
2011-01-1360
In July 2007, GM announced that it would produce the Chevy Volt, the first high-production volume electric vehicle with extended range capability, by 2010. In January 2009, General Motors announced that the Chevrolet Volt's lithium ion Battery Pack, capable of propelling the Chevy Volt on battery-supplied electric power for up to 40 miles, would be designed and assembled in-house. The T-shaped battery, a subset of the Voltec propulsion system, comprises 288 cells, weighs 190 kg, and is capable of supplying over 16 kWh of energy. Many technical challenges presented themselves to the team, including the liquid thermal management of the battery, the fast battery pack development timeline, and validation of an unproven high-speed assembly process. This paper will first present a general overview of the approach General Motors utilized to bring the various engineering organizations together to design, develop, and manufacture the Volt battery.
Technical Paper

Modeling Human-Machine Interactions Using Statecharts: One Hot and Cool Example

2011-04-12
2011-01-1020
In this paper we discuss the use of a formal approach to the problem of describing, evaluating, and specifying human-machine interaction. The statecharts language, originally conceived by David Harel [1], is used to describe the behavior of the machine (i.e., its states and transitions), interface indications (e.g., light indicators on switches), and user interaction (selecting applications, switching modes, entering parameters, etc.). We illustrate how the statecharts language can be used to describe driver interaction with a climate control system, and show how it is possible to systematically evaluate user interaction. The paper concludes with several observations about the utility of formal language for generating sound design specification of human-machine systems.
Technical Paper

High Voltage Power Allocation Management of Hybrid/Electric Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-1022
As the automotive industry moves toward producing more advanced hybrid/electric vehicles, high voltage Rechargeable Energy Storage Systems (RESS) are now being implemented as the main power source of the vehicle, replacing the need for the traditional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) altogether or just during certain parts of a drive cycle. With this type of architecture, it is becoming a necessity to equip these vehicles with devices that can draw their power from the high voltage (HV) RESS. These HV devices are not only used to support the propulsion of the vehicle but to perform other necessary vehicle functions as well. With demands of high voltage power from multiple systems ranging from RESS thermal conditioning, cabin thermal conditioning, RESS charging, and vehicle propulsion, power demands can exceed the available power of the vehicle. This creates a perplexing problem of how to manage the high voltage power consumption between the different vehicle systems.
Technical Paper

Comprehensive Overview of Human Interface for an Extended Range Electric Vehicle

2011-04-12
2011-01-1023
An Extended Range Electric vehicle brings a wealth of new features since it is capable of driving on battery alone, has a range extending engine, and has a high voltage battery pack that can be recharged by plugging into wall power. The customer is able to interact with the vehicle's plug-in charging system through mobile applications. Along with all these new features is the challenge of designing a driver interface to provide important information to the customer. This paper will describe the unique customer interface features added to the vehicle, and will include some additional specifics related to the hardware used to provide the information.
Technical Paper

Impact of Motor Capacitance on Vehicle Electrical System Transients

2011-04-12
2011-01-1009
The electrical architecture of today's automobiles employs a significant number of fractional horsepower motors to control wipers, windows, seats, etc. The typical motors are permanent magnet DC brush-commutated motors, often referred to as BM motors. These BM motors, while simple in design, have the inherent issue of creating short-duration, high-frequency electrical noise (caused by the constant interruption, or commutation, of the motor current). This electrical noise can readily lead to radio reception interference. In order to protect against this risk, a typical solution is to install a radio frequency (RF) filter internal to the motor. This filter generally includes a high-frequency ceramic or metal film capacitor across the motor terminals that connect to the vehicle electrical system.
Technical Paper

Plug-In Charging Feature

2011-04-12
2011-01-1013
As the auto industry becomes more dependent upon Electric Vehicles (Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles, Battery Electric Vehicles, and Extended Range Electric Vehicles), the Plug-In Charging Feature will become an integral part of the driver's daily routine. The Plug-In Charging feature enables off-board electrical power grid (grid based) power to be used immediately or at a later time by on-vehicle functions. The primary use of this grid power is to charge the vehicle's High Voltage (HV) battery, but other uses also do exist. These functions will mainly be active when the vehicle is off.
Technical Paper

On the Fault Detection Capabilities of AUTOSAR's End-to-End Communication Protection CRC's

2011-04-12
2011-01-0999
Among the several enhancements in AUTOSAR Release 4.0 is the addition of an End-to-End (E2E) Communication Protection Library. This library defines several E2E profiles, each of which implements a combination of End-to-End protection mechanisms such as sequence counters, data IDs and CRCs. Two of these profiles, Profiles 1 and 2, are intended to protect inter-ECU communication via databus systems like FlexRay or CAN, and are designed to address various communication faults. Although the AUTOSAR specification includes detailed descriptions of the profiles, it provides only limited insight about the fault coverage that can be obtained when using these profiles to detect communication faults. This paper focuses on the fault detection capabilities that profiles 1 and 2 offer with respect to message corruptions.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Battery Sizing and Vehicle Lightweighting for an Extended Range Electric Vehicle

2011-04-12
2011-01-1078
In designing vehicles with significant electric driving range, optimizing vehicle energy efficiency is a key requirement to maximize the limited energy capacity of the onboard electrochemical energy storage system. A critical factor in vehicle energy efficiency is the vehicle mass. Optimizing mass allows for the possibility of either increasing electric driving range with a constant level of electrochemical energy storage or holding the range constant while reducing the level of energy storage, thus reducing storage cost. In this paper, a methodology is outlined to study the tradeoff between the battery cost savings achieved by vehicle mass reduction for a constant electric driving range and the cost associated with lightweighting a vehicle. This methodology enables informed business decisions about the available engineering options for lightweighting early in the vehicle development process. The methodology was applied to a compact extended-range electric vehicle (EREV) concept.
Technical Paper

High Voltage Connect Feature

2011-04-12
2011-01-1266
Extended Range Electric Vehicles (EREVs), which are Off board charging capable Electric Vehicles (EV) with an on board charging generator, rely on very complex Rechargeable Energy Storage Systems (RESS) and High Voltage (HV) distribution systems to enable operation as both an EV and an EREV. The connect feature manages the connection and disconnection of a High Voltage (HV) Rechargeable Energy Storage System (RESS) to and from the high voltage components in the vehicle. The RESS is connected to the vehicle's high voltage system to enable vehicle operation. The HV connect feature is a part of occupant, service personnel and first responder safety for all General Motors vehicles that contain high voltage systems. Implementation of the connect feature is the method deployed in GM vehicles to meet high voltage FMVSS requirements.
Technical Paper

Robust Engineering with Symptomatic Responses

2011-04-12
2011-01-1272
Great work has been done already in developing robust engineering techniques to improve ideal functions for systems and sub systems. Characterizing an ideal function as a dynamic response type is most preferred way to build quality into a product over a range of input signal values. However, when it is difficult to measure ideal functions, symptomatic outputs such as oil leaks, vibrations, and squeaks, are selected and treated as “Smaller-the-Better” response in non-dynamic response manner. A better approach is to reduce the symptomatic responses over the entire usage range. In order to accomplish this goal, engineers often switch output response and signal axes and apply dynamic response formulation for making the design robust. In this paper, a new and better formulation is proposed and compared with the other formulation. These two formulations were applied on a real automotive case study of decklid bobble and inaccuracies associated with the other formulation were discussed.
Technical Paper

Transient Fuel X-Tau Parameter Estimation Using Short Time Fourier Transform

2008-04-14
2008-01-1305
This paper presents a Short Time Fourier Transform based algorithm to identify unknown parameters in fuel dynamics system during engine cold start and warm-up. A first order system is used to model the fuel dynamics in a port fuel injection engine. The feed forward transient fuel compensation controller is designed based on the identified model. Experiments are designed and implemented to verify the proposed algorithm. Different experiment settings are compared.
Technical Paper

A Statistical Approach for Correlation/Validation of Hot-Soak Terminal Temperature of a Vehicle Cabin CFD Model

2013-04-08
2013-01-0854
A Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) statistical approach is presented in this report to correlate a CFD cabin model with test results. The target is the volume-averaged hot-soak terminal temperature. The objective is to develop an effective correlation process for a simplified CFD cabin model so it can be used in practical design process. It is, however, not the objective in this report to develop the most accurate CFD cabin model that would be too expensive computationally at present to be used in routine design analysis. A 3-D CFD model of a vehicle cabin is the central part of the computer modeling in the development of automotive HVAC systems. Hot-soak terminal temperature is a thermal phenomenon in the cabin of a parked vehicle under the Sun when the overall heat transfer reaches equilibrium. It is often part of the simulation of HVAC system operation.
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