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Video

Monitoring NO2 Production of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst

2012-01-24
A combination of laboratory reactor measurements and vehicle FTP testing has been combined to demonstrate a method for diagnosing the formation of NO2 from a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). Using small cores from a production DOC and simulated diesel exhaust, the laboratory reactor experiments are used to support a model for DOC chemical reaction kinetics. The model we propose shows that the ability to produce NO2 is chemically linked to the ability of the catalyst to oxidize hydrocarbon (HC). For thermally damaged DOCs, loss of the HC oxidation function is simultaneous with loss of the NO2 production function. Since HC oxidation is the source of heat generated in the DOC under regeneration conditions, we conclude that a diagnostic of the DOC exotherm is able to detect the failure of the DOC to produce NO2. Vehicle emissions data from a 6.6 L Duramax HD pick-up with DOC of various levels of thermal degradation is provided to support the diagnostic concept.
Video

Technical Keynote: Leading in Crazy Times

2012-02-09
Leading during normal times is plenty challenging. Leading in crazy times requires extra understanding and skill. This presentation explores how you and your team can be your best, regardless of what craziness may be going on around your organization, your team members, and you. Presenter Theresa Rich, General Motors Company
Video

OBD Challenges for Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2012-01-30
Plug-In Hybrid and Extended Range Electric Vehicle's have quickly become the focus of many OEM's and suppliers. Existing regulations and test procedures did not anticipate this rapid adoption of this new technology, resulting in many product development challenges. The lack of clear requirements is further complicated by CARBs consideration of CO2 inclusion in their next light duty OBD regulation. This presentation provides an overview of the regulatory requirements for OBD systems on hybrid vehicles that intend to certify in California. Near term challenges for EREV?s and PHEV?s are discussed, including concerns with the existing denominator and warm-up cycle calculations. Some proposals are made to address these concerns. Presenter Andrew Zettel, General Motors Company
Video

Worldwide OBD

2012-01-30
OBD system requirements were first developed by the California Air Resources Board, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the European Commission. New OBD requirements should be as consistent as possible with existing requirements to maximize reliability and to minimize system complexity, proliferation of configurations, and consumer cost. New OBD requirements from around the world are briefly reviewed and most are consistent with the original U.S. and European requirements. Worldwide OBD requirements are being further harmonized under the United Nations, Economic Commission for Europe, World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP29). Presenter David H. Ferris, General Motors Company
Technical Paper

Drawbeads in Sheet Metal Stamping - A Review

1997-02-24
970986
The paper reviews the role of drawbeads in sheet metal stamping. The design of drawbeads is discussed in depth, with treatment of different bead cross sections, bead end shapes, and bead materials. International standards and practices are included. This is followed by the historical development of the modeling of the drawbead restraining force, starting with basic equilibrium approaches, and leading to the use of the finite element method which permits the study of drawbead effects on sheet metal flow in three dimensions. Finally, the potential of active drawbeads is described based upon ongoing research which is directed toward closed-loop computer control of the stamping process through adjustment of the drawbead penetration.
Technical Paper

A New Multi-point Active Drawbead Forming Die: Model Development for Process Optimization

1998-02-01
980076
A new press/die system for restraining force control has been developed in order to facilitate an increased level of process control in sheet metal forming. The press features a built-in system for controlling drawbead penetration in real time. The die has local force transducers built into the draw radius of the lower tooling. These sensors are designed to give process information useful for the drawbead control. This paper focuses on developing models of the drawbead actuators and the die shoulder sensors. The actuator model is useful for developing optimal control methods. The sensor characterization is necessary in order to develop a relationship between the raw sensor outputs and a definitive process characteristic such as drawbead restraining force (DBRF). Closed loop control of local specific punch force is demonstrated using the die shoulder sensor and a PID controller developed off-line with the actuator model.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of a Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicle with Electrochemical Battery Model

2017-03-28
2017-01-1252
This paper studies the nonlinear model predictive control for a power-split Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) power management system to improve the fuel economy. In this paper, a physics-based battery model is built and integrated with a base HEV model from Autonomie®, a powertrain and vehicle model architecture and development software from Argonne National Laboratory. The original equivalent circuit battery model from the software has been replaced by a single particle electrochemical lithium ion battery model. A predictive model that predicts the driver’s power request, the battery state of charge (SOC) and the engine fuel consumption is studied and used for the nonlinear model predictive controller (NMPC). A dedicated NMPC algorithm and its solver are developed and validated with the integrated HEV model. The performance of the NMPC algorithm is compared with that of a rule-based controller.
Technical Paper

Real Time Application of Battery State of Charge and State of Health Estimation

2017-03-28
2017-01-1199
A high voltage battery is an essential part of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). It is imperative to precisely estimate the state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH) of battery in real time to maintain reliable vehicle operating conditions. This paper presents a method of estimating SOC and SOH through the incorporation of current integration, voltage translation, and Ah-throughput. SOC estimation utilizing current integration is inadequate due to the accumulation of errors over the period of usage. Thus voltage translation of SOC is applied to rectify current integration method which improves the accuracy of estimation. Voltage translation data is obtained by subjecting the battery to hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC) test. The Battery State of Health was determined by semi-empirical model combined with accumulated Ah-throughput method. Battery state of charge was employed as an input to estimate damages accumulated to battery aging through a real-time model.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Analysis of V2G Impact on Battery Degradation

2017-03-28
2017-01-1699
Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) service has a potential to improve the reliability and stability of the electrical grid due to the ability of providing bi-directional power flow from/to the grid. However, frequent charging/discharging may impact the battery lifetime. This paper presents the analysis of battery degradation in three scenarios. In the first scenario, different battery capacities are considered. In the second scenario, the battery degradation with various depth of discharge (DOD) are studied. In the third scenario, the capacity loss due to different charging regime are compared. The charging/discharging of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are simulated in a single-phase microgrid system integrated with a photovoltaics (PV) farm, an energy storage system (ESS), and ten electric vehicle service equipment (EVSE). The battery degradation model is an energy throughput model, which is developed based on the Arrhenius equation and a power law relationship between time and capacity fading.
Technical Paper

Integration of OpenADR with Node-RED for Demand Response Load Control Using Internet of Things Approach

2017-03-28
2017-01-1702
The increased market share of electric vehicles and renewable energy resources have raised concerns about their impact on the current electrical distribution grid. To achieve sustainable and stable power distribution, a lot of effort has been made to implement smart grids. This paper addresses Demand Response (DR) load control in a smart grid using Internet of Things (IoT) technology. A smart grid is a networked electrical grid which includes a variety of components and sub-systems, including renewable energy resources, controllable loads, smart meters, and automation devices. An IoT approach is a good fit for the control and energy management of smart grids. Although there are various commercial systems available for smart grid control, the systems based on open sources are limited. In this study, we adopt an open source development platform named Node-RED to integrate DR capabilities in a smart grid for DR load control. The DR system employs the OpenADR standard.
Technical Paper

Effect of State of Charge Constraints on Fuel Economy and Battery Aging when Using the Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy

2018-04-03
2018-01-1002
Battery State of Charge (SOC) constraints are used to prevent the battery in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) from over-charging or over-discharging. These constraints strongly influence the power-split of the HEV. This paper presents results on how Battery State of Charge (SOC) constraints effects Lithium ion battery aging and fuel economy when using the Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS). The vehicle studied is the Honda Civic Hybrid. The battery used is A123 Systems’ ANR26650 battery cell. Vehicle simulation uses multiple combinations of highway and city drive cycles. For each combination of drive cycles, nine SOC constraints ranges are used. Battery aging is evaluated using a semi-empirical model combined with the accumulated Ah-throughput method which uses, as an input, the battery SOC trajectory from the vehicle simulations. The simulation results provide insight into how SOC constraints effect fuel economy as well as battery aging.
Technical Paper

The Design and Testing of a Computer-Controlled Cooling System for a Diesel-Powered Truck

1984-11-01
841712
The hardware and software for a prototype computer controlled cooling system for a diesel powered truck has been designed and tested. The basic requirements for this system have been defined and the control functions, previously investigated in a study using the computer simulation model, were incorporated into the software. Engine dynamometer tests on the MACK-676 engine, comparing the conventional cooling system and the computer controlled system, showed the following advantages of the computer controlled system: 1. The temperature level to which the engine warms up to at low ambient temperature, was increased. 2. The faster shutter response reduced the temperature peaks and decreased total fan activity time. 3. The faster fan response reduces fan engagement time which should improve truck fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fretting Corrosion on Lift Glass

2011-04-12
2011-01-1434
The electrical architecture design of a rear back glass defrost grid system encompasses many critical criteria that must be integrated into the design. For example, the defrost clip location and interface to the glass must meet all vehicle performance requirements. If the defrost clip to the glass interface is not resistant to vibration and relative movement, detachment and loss of function can occur. This paper describes a back glass defrost clip with a solder joint that is robust to manufacturing variations and customer usage conditions. A designed experiment using Design for Six Sigma methodologies was performed to understand the effects of the attachment interface to the electrical wiring pigtail, and parameters that affect performance. The working constraints, testing set up, validation, and root cause investigation of the clip detachment phenomenon is covered in this paper.
Technical Paper

Approach to Validation Plan Development for Advanced Battery Systems in Vehicle Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-1366
As advanced battery systems become a standard choice for mainstream production vehicle portfolios, comprehensive battery system validation plans are essential to ensure that the battery performance, reliability, and durability targets are met prior to vehicle integration. (Note: Safety and Abuse testing are outside of the scope of this paper.) The validation plan for the Chevrolet Volt Rechargeable_Energy Storage System (RESS), the first lithium-ion battery pack designed and manufactured by General Motors (GM), was developed using a functional silo approach based on the battery design requirements documentation. While the Chevrolet Volt was the lead program at General Motors to use this validation plan development approach, other GM programs with different battery system mounting locations and cooling techniques are now using this method.
Technical Paper

Thermal Behavior Study on HEV Air-Cooled Battery Pack

2011-04-12
2011-01-1368
Recently, an increased emphasis has been seen for improving the cooling uniformity and efficiency of HEV battery pack in an effort to increase the battery performance and life. This study examined the effects of geometry changes in cooling systems of battery packs on thermal behavior of battery cells and pressure drop across the battery pack. Initially, a multi-physics battery thermal model was correlated to physical test data. An analytical design of experiments (DOE) approach using Latin-hypercube technique was then developed by integrating the correlated battery thermal model with a commercial optimization code, iSIGHT, and a morphing code, DEP Morpher. The design concepts of battery pack cooling systems were finally identified by performing analytical DOE/optimization studies to estimate the effects of cooling flow and geometries of cooling ducts on the battery temperature variation and pressure drop across the battery pack.
Technical Paper

Voltec Battery Design and Manufacturing

2011-04-12
2011-01-1360
In July 2007, GM announced that it would produce the Chevy Volt, the first high-production volume electric vehicle with extended range capability, by 2010. In January 2009, General Motors announced that the Chevrolet Volt's lithium ion Battery Pack, capable of propelling the Chevy Volt on battery-supplied electric power for up to 40 miles, would be designed and assembled in-house. The T-shaped battery, a subset of the Voltec propulsion system, comprises 288 cells, weighs 190 kg, and is capable of supplying over 16 kWh of energy. Many technical challenges presented themselves to the team, including the liquid thermal management of the battery, the fast battery pack development timeline, and validation of an unproven high-speed assembly process. This paper will first present a general overview of the approach General Motors utilized to bring the various engineering organizations together to design, develop, and manufacture the Volt battery.
Technical Paper

Modeling Human-Machine Interactions Using Statecharts: One Hot and Cool Example

2011-04-12
2011-01-1020
In this paper we discuss the use of a formal approach to the problem of describing, evaluating, and specifying human-machine interaction. The statecharts language, originally conceived by David Harel [1], is used to describe the behavior of the machine (i.e., its states and transitions), interface indications (e.g., light indicators on switches), and user interaction (selecting applications, switching modes, entering parameters, etc.). We illustrate how the statecharts language can be used to describe driver interaction with a climate control system, and show how it is possible to systematically evaluate user interaction. The paper concludes with several observations about the utility of formal language for generating sound design specification of human-machine systems.
Technical Paper

Technical Challenges in Future Electrical Architectures

2011-04-12
2011-01-1021
As part of standardizing the global portfolio, General Motors (GM) created an electrical architecture that will support the GM global product feature set. Introduced in 2009, this common electrical architecture is already being applied to multiple platforms in GM's regional engineering centers. The electrical architecture will be updated regularly to address the needs of new features in the automotive market and to take advantage of the latest technology advancements. The functional requirements of these new features result in technology challenges. In addition, many new features may result in challenges to the vehicle electrical architecture or the vehicle development process. The challenges have been evaluated so that needs and initiatives can be better understood.
Technical Paper

High Voltage Power Allocation Management of Hybrid/Electric Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-1022
As the automotive industry moves toward producing more advanced hybrid/electric vehicles, high voltage Rechargeable Energy Storage Systems (RESS) are now being implemented as the main power source of the vehicle, replacing the need for the traditional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) altogether or just during certain parts of a drive cycle. With this type of architecture, it is becoming a necessity to equip these vehicles with devices that can draw their power from the high voltage (HV) RESS. These HV devices are not only used to support the propulsion of the vehicle but to perform other necessary vehicle functions as well. With demands of high voltage power from multiple systems ranging from RESS thermal conditioning, cabin thermal conditioning, RESS charging, and vehicle propulsion, power demands can exceed the available power of the vehicle. This creates a perplexing problem of how to manage the high voltage power consumption between the different vehicle systems.
Technical Paper

Comprehensive Overview of Human Interface for an Extended Range Electric Vehicle

2011-04-12
2011-01-1023
An Extended Range Electric vehicle brings a wealth of new features since it is capable of driving on battery alone, has a range extending engine, and has a high voltage battery pack that can be recharged by plugging into wall power. The customer is able to interact with the vehicle's plug-in charging system through mobile applications. Along with all these new features is the challenge of designing a driver interface to provide important information to the customer. This paper will describe the unique customer interface features added to the vehicle, and will include some additional specifics related to the hardware used to provide the information.
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