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Technical Paper

The Design and Testing of a Computer-Controlled Cooling System for a Diesel-Powered Truck

1984-11-01
841712
The hardware and software for a prototype computer controlled cooling system for a diesel powered truck has been designed and tested. The basic requirements for this system have been defined and the control functions, previously investigated in a study using the computer simulation model, were incorporated into the software. Engine dynamometer tests on the MACK-676 engine, comparing the conventional cooling system and the computer controlled system, showed the following advantages of the computer controlled system: 1. The temperature level to which the engine warms up to at low ambient temperature, was increased. 2. The faster shutter response reduced the temperature peaks and decreased total fan activity time. 3. The faster fan response reduces fan engagement time which should improve truck fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Fault-Tree Generation for Embedded Software Implementing Dual-Path Checking

2011-04-12
2011-01-1004
Given the fast changing market demands, the growing complexity of features, the shorter time to market, and the design/development constraints, the need for efficient and effective verification and validation methods are becoming critical for vehicle manufacturers and suppliers. One such example is fault-tree analysis. While fault-tree analysis is an important hazard analysis/verification activity, the current process of translating design details (e.g., system level and software level) is manual. Current experience indicates that fault tree analysis involves both creative deductive thinking and more mechanical steps, which typically involve instantiating gates and events in fault trees following fixed patterns. Specifically for software fault tree analysis, a number of the development steps typically involve instantiating fixed patterns of gates and events based upon the structure of the code. In this work, we investigate a methodology to translate software programs to fault trees.
Technical Paper

Hood Slam Process Automator

2011-04-12
2011-01-1066
This paper deals with the development of a Hood Slam Process Automator (PA) to automate the pre-processing tasks of the virtual slam assessment with non-linear Nastran Transient Sol. 129 on all types of hoods. The slam analysis generally consumes a lot of analyst's time for building the slam models, typically six hours and is very tedious and has the potential for errors. The Hood Slam PA will automatically create and perform slam analysis pre-processing tasks within HyperMesh software such as creating latch striker interface, creating seals and bumpers with CBUSH1D elements, assigning transient slam speed to the hood and will finally generate the Nastran non-linear transient (Sol.129) hood slam analysis input files. The ready to run analysis input files will be submitted to the Nastran solver and the analysis results will then be post processed using HyperView software.
Technical Paper

Metrics for Quantifying and Evaluating Ability of Electronic Control System Architectures to Accommodate Changes

2011-04-12
2011-01-0447
Recent trends in the automotive industry show growing demands for the introduction of new in-vehicle features (e.g., smart-phone integration, adaptive cruise control, etc.) at increasing rates and with reduced time-to-market. New technological developments (e.g., in-vehicle Ethernet, multi-core technologies, AUTOSAR standardized software architectures, smart video and radar sensors, etc.) provide opportunities as well as challenges to automotive designers for introducing and implementing new features at lower costs, and with increased safety and security. As a result, the design of Electrical/Electronic (E/E) architectures is becoming increasingly challenging as several hardware resources are needed. In our earlier work, we have provided top-level definitions for three relevant metrics that can be used to evaluate E/E architecture alternatives in the early stages of the design process: flexibility, scalability and expandability.
Technical Paper

Understanding Work Task Assessment Sensitivity to the Prediction of Standing Location

2011-04-12
2011-01-0527
Digital human models (DHM) are now widely used to assess worker tasks as part of manufacturing simulation. With current DHM software, the simulation engineer or ergonomist usually makes a manual estimate of the likely worker standing location with respect to the work task. In a small number of cases, the worker standing location is determined through physical testing with one or a few workers. Motion capture technology is sometimes used to aid in quantitative analysis of the resulting posture. Previous research has demonstrated the sensitivity of work task assessment using DHM to the accuracy of the posture prediction. This paper expands on that work by demonstrating the need for a method and model to accurately predict worker standing location. The effect of standing location on work task posture and the resulting assessment is documented through three case studies using the Siemens Jack DHM software.
Technical Paper

Process Automation Wizard for Vehicle Dynamics Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-0740
The imperative to get to the market faster with new and better products, has determined all automotive OEM to rethink their product development cycle, and, as a result, many hardware based processes were replaced and/or augmented with virtual, software based ones. However, the virtualization itself does not guaranties better and faster products. In the area of vehicle dynamics, we concentrate on improving the multi-body model development process, facilitating comprehensive virtual testing, and verifying the robustness of the design. The authors present a highly flexible and efficient environment that encourages, enforces, and facilitates model sharing, reusing of components, and parallelization of vehicle dynamics simulations, developed on top of an existing commercial off-the-shelf engineering software application.
Technical Paper

Usage of Telematics for Battery and Vehicle State Monitoring

2011-04-12
2011-01-0748
This paper presents Telematics Battery Monitoring (TBM). TBM is a multi-faceted approach of collecting and analyzing electric power and vehicle data used to ultimately determine battery state of charge (SOC) and battery state of health (SOH) in both pre- and post-sale environments. Traditional methods of battery SOC analysis include labor intensive processes such as going out to the site of individual vehicle(s), gaining access to the vehicle battery, and then after the vehicle electrical system obtains its quiescent current level, performing a battery voltage check. This time-consuming manual method can practically only cover a small percentage of the vehicle population. In using the vehicle communication capabilities of Telematics, electric power and vehicle data are downloaded, compiled, and post-processed using decision-making software tools.
Technical Paper

Development of 3-D Digital Proving Ground Profiles for Use in Virtual Prediction of Vehicle System/Sub-System Loads

2011-04-12
2011-01-0189
The usage of multi-body dynamics tools for the prediction of vehicle system/sub-system loads, has significantly reduced the need to measure vehicle loads at proving grounds. The success of these tools is limited by the quality of the digital representations being used to simulate the physical test roads. The development of these digital roads is not a trivial task due to the large quantity of data and processing required. In the end, the files must be manageable in size, have a globally common format, and be simulation-friendly. The authors present a methodology for the development of high quality 3-dimensional (3-D) digital proving ground profiles. These profiles will be used in conjunction with a multi-body dynamics software package (ADAMS) and the FTire™ model. The authors present a case study below.
Technical Paper

Feature Based Architecture Design and Functional Partitioning to Subsystems

2012-04-16
2012-01-0011
Vehicle development typically occurs by independently documenting requirements for individual subsystems, then packaging these subsystems into the vehicle and testing the feature operation at a higher level, across multiple subsystems. Many times, this independent development process results in integration problems at the vehicle level, such as incomplete feature execution, unexpected operation and information disconnects. The development team is left to debug and create inefficient patches at the vehicle level due to time constraints and / or planned release dates. Without architecting solutions at the feature level, miscommunication of expected feature operation leads to wasted time, re-work and customer dissatisfaction. While the development of vehicle level technical specifications provide feature expectations at the vehicle level, they do not solve the problem of how this operation is to be applied across multiple systems.
Technical Paper

Methods and Tools for End-to-End Latency Analysis and Optimization of a Dual-Processor Control Module

2012-04-16
2012-01-0029
Automotive HW/SW architectures are becoming increasingly complex to support the deployment of new safety, comfort, and energy-efficiency features. Such architectures include several software tasks (100+), messages (1000+), computational and communication resources (70+ CPUs, 10+ buses), and (smart) sensors and actuators (20+). To cope with the increasing system complexity at lowest development and product costs, highest safety, and fastest time to market, model-based rapid-prototyping development processes are essential. The processes, coupled with optimization steps aimed at reducing the number of software and hardware resources while satisfying the safety requirements, enable reduction of the system complexity and ease downstream testing/validation efforts. This paper describes a novel model-based design exploration and optimization process for the deployment of a set of software tasks on a dual-processor control module implementing a fail-safe strategy.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Mechanical Behavior of Thermoplastics with Local Deformation Measurement

2012-04-16
2012-01-0040
In quasi-static tension and compression tests of thermoplastics, full-field strain distribution on the gage section of the specimen can be captured using the two-dimensional digital image correlation method. By loading the test specimens made of a talc-filled and impact-modified polypropylene up to tensile failure and large compressive strains, this study has revealed that inhomogeneous deformation within the gage section occurs quite early for both test types. This leads to the challenge of characterizing the mechanical properties - some mechanical properties such as stress-strain relationship and fracture strain could depend on the measured section length and location. To study this problem, the true stress versus true strain curves determined locally in different regions within the gage length are compared.
Technical Paper

Summary and Characteristics of Rotating Machinery Digital Signal Processing Methods

1999-09-14
1999-01-2818
Several very different order tracking and analysis techniques for rotating equipment have been developed recently that are available in commercial noise and vibrations software packages. Each of these order tracking methods has distinct trade-offs for many common applications and very specific advantages for special applications in sound quality or noise and vibrations troubleshooting. The Kalman, Vold-Kalman, Computed Order Tracking, and the Time Variant Discrete Fourier Transform as well as common FFT based order analysis methods will all be presented. The strengths and weaknesses of each of the methods will be presented as well as the highlights of their mathematical properties. This paper is intended to be an overview of currently available technology with all methods presented in a common format that allows easy comparison of their properties. Several analytical examples will be presented to thoroughly document each methods' behavior with different types of data.
Technical Paper

Understanding the Kalman/Vold-Kalman Order Tracking Filters' Formulation and Behavior

2007-05-15
2007-01-2221
The Kalman and Vold-Kalman order tracking filters have been implemented in commercial software since the early 90's. There are several mathematical formulations of filters that have been implemented by different software vendors. However, there have not been any papers that have been published which sufficiently explain the math behind these filters and discuss the actual implementations of the filters in software. In addition, upon generating the equations represented by these filters, solving the equations for datasets in excess of several hundred thousand datapoints is not trivial and has not been discussed in the literature. The papers which have attempted to cover these topics are generally vague and overly mathematically eloquent but not easily understandable by a practicing engineer.
Technical Paper

Implementation of the Time Variant Discrete Fourier Transform as a Real-Time Order Tracking Method

2007-05-15
2007-01-2213
The Time Variant Discrete Fourier Transform was implemented as a real-time order tracking method using developed software and commercially available hardware. The time variant discrete Fourier transform (TVDFT) with the application of the orthogonality compensation matrix allows multiple tachometers to be tracked with close and/or crossing orders to be separated in real-time. Signal generators were used to create controlled experimental data sets to simulate tachometers and response channels. Computation timing was evaluated for the data collection procedure and each of the data processing steps to determine how each part of the process affects overall performance. Many difficulties are associated with a real-time data collection and analysis tool and it becomes apparent that an understanding of each component in the system is required to determine where time consuming computation is located.
Journal Article

An Analysis of Floating Piston Pin

2011-04-12
2011-01-1407
Presented in the paper is a comprehensive analysis for floating piston pin. It is more challenging because it is a special type of journal bearing where the rotation of the journal is coupled with the friction between the journal and the bearing. In this analysis, the multi-degree freedom mass-conserving mixed-EHD equations are solved to determine the coupled pin rotation and friction. Other bearing characteristics, such as minimum film thickness, pin secondary motions in both connecting-rod small-end bearing and piston pin-boss bearing, power loss etc are also determined. The mechanism for floating pin to have better scuffing resistance is discovered. The theoretical and numerical model is implemented in the GM internal software FLARE (Friction and Lubrication Analysis for Reciprocating Engines).
Journal Article

Challenges in Real Time Controls Simulation (Hardware-In-the-Loop) in Active Safety for Subsystem Level Software Verification

2011-04-12
2011-01-0450
As the new features for driver assistance and active safety systems are growing rapidly in vehicles, the simulation within a virtual environment has become a necessity. The current active safety system consists of Electronic Control Units (ECUs) which are coupled to camera and radar sensors. Two methods of implementation exists, integrated sensors with control modules or separation of sensors form control modules. The subsystem integration testing poses new challenges for virtual environment for simulation of active safety features. The comprehensive simulation environment for integration testing consists of chassis controls, powertrain, driver assistance, body and displays controllers. Additional complexity in the system is the serial communication strategy. Multiple communication protocols such as GMLAN, LIN, standard CAN, and Flexray could be present within the same vehicle topology.
Journal Article

Vehicle Safety Communications - Applications: Multiple On-Board Equipment Testing

2011-04-12
2011-01-0586
The United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) and the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership-Vehicle Safety Communications 2 (CAMP-VSC2) Consortium (Ford, General Motors, Honda, Mercedes-Benz, and Toyota) initiated, in December 2006, a three-year collaborative effort in the area of wireless-based safety applications under the Vehicle Safety Communications-Applications (VSC-A) Project. The VSC-A Project developed and tested Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communications-based safety systems to determine if Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) at 5.9 GHz, in combination with vehicle positioning, would improve upon autonomous vehicle-based safety systems and/or enable new communications-based safety applications.
Journal Article

Using Model Transformation/Code Generation Technology to Migrate Legacy Software Assets to AUTOSAR

2011-04-12
2011-01-1264
Maximizing reuse of existing software assets is a common goal for companies as they move to new projects and products. Typically, reuse is complicated by changes to the context in which the software executes; the software architecture. As in all development areas, software architects are seeking continuous improvement to their designs either through internal innovation or established external standards. However, changes to the software architecture (e.g. interfaces, services, scheduling etc.) can prove to be a driver of fundamental, large-scale change to software if reuse strategies are not planned into the product line. This paper describes a reuse strategy that maximizes the preservation of existing assets while focusing effort on the development of transformation rules that generate software targeting a new architectural context.
Technical Paper

Power Modules and Inverter Evaluation for GM Electrification Architectures

2012-04-16
2012-01-0340
GM has recently developed two kinds of vehicle electrification architectures. First is VOLTec, a heavy electrification architecture, and second is eAssist, a light electrification architecture. An overview, of IGBT power modules & inverters used in VOLTec and eAssist, is presented. Alternative power modules from few cooperative suppliers are also described in a benchmarking study using key metrics. Inverter test set up, procedure and instrumentation used in GM Power Electronics Development Lab, Milford are described. GM electrification journey depends on Power Electronics lab' passive test benches; double pulse tester, inductive resistive load bench and active emulator test cell without electric machines. Such test benches are preferred before dyne test cells are used for inverter software/hardware integration and motor durability tests cycles. Specific test results are presented.
Technical Paper

Design & Validation of Low-Cost Sound Intensity Probe

2019-06-05
2019-01-1462
Sound intensity measurement techniques, that used a two-microphone setup, were first developed in the late 1970s. Back then, the focus was on improving precision during testing or post-processing because the equipment available was inherently inaccurate. However, with the advent of modern, sophisticated equipment, the focus has shifted to the apparatus. Availability of phase-matched microphones has made post-test correction obsolete as the microphones eliminate a majority of the errors before the data is even collected. This accuracy, however, comes at a price, as phase-matched microphones are highly priced. This paper discusses employing the method of improving post-processing precision, using inexpensive, current equipment. The phase error of the system is corrected using a simple calibration technique and a handheld phase calibrator that is similar to the one used for amplitude calibration of microphones.
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