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High Load HCCI Operation Using Different Valving Strategies in a Naturally-Aspirated Gasoline HCCI Engine

2012-02-16
This session focuses on kinetically controlled combustion. Experimental and simulation studies pertaining to various means of controlling combustion are welcome. Examples are research studies dealing with temperature and composition distribution inside the cylinder and their impact on heat release process. Studies clarifying the role of fuel physical and chemical properties in autoignition are also welcome. Presenter Hanho Yun, General Motors Company
Technical Paper

LES and RNG Turbulence Modeling in DI Diesel Engines

2003-03-03
2003-01-1069
The one-equation subgrid scale model for the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence model has been compared to the popular k-ε RNG turbulence model in very different sized direct injection diesel engines. The cylinder diameters of these engines range between 111 and 200 mm. This has been an initial attempt to study the effect of LES in diesel engines without any modification to the combustion model being used in its Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) form. Despite some deficiencies in the current LES model being used, it already gave much more structured flow field with approximately the same kind of accuracy in the cylinder pressure predictions than the k-ε RNG turbulence model.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Time-Averaged Piston Temperatures and Surface Heat Flux Between a Direct-Fuel Injected and Carbureted Two-Stroke Engine

1998-02-23
980763
Time-averaged temperatures at critical locations on the piston of a direct-fuel injected, two-stroke, 388 cm3, research engine were measured using an infrared telemetry device. The piston temperatures were compared to data [7] of a carbureted version of the two-stroke engine, that was operated at comparable conditions. All temperatures were obtained at wide open throttle, and varying engine speeds (2000-4500 rpm, at 500 rpm intervals). The temperatures were measured in a configuration that allowed for axial heat flux to be determined through the piston. The heat flux was compared to carbureted data [8] obtained using measured piston temperatures as boundary conditions for a computer model, and solving for the heat flux. The direct-fuel-injected piston temperatures and heat fluxes were significantly higher than the carbureted piston. On the exhaust side of the piston, the direct-fuel injected piston temperatures ranged from 33-73 °C higher than the conventional carbureted piston.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Pneumatic Atomization on the Lean Limit and IMEP

1989-02-01
890431
Lean limit characteristics of a pneumatic port fuel injection system is compared to a conventional port fuel injection system. The lean limit was based on the measured peak pressure. Those cycles with peak pressures greater than 105 % of the peak pressure for a nonfiring cycle were counted. Experimental data suggests that there are differences in lean limit characteristics between the two systems studied, indicating that fuel preparation processes in these systems influence the lean limit behaviors. Lean limits are generally richer for pneumatic fuel injection than those for conventional fuel injection. At richer fuel-to-air ratios the pneumatic injector usually resulted in higher torques. A simple model to estimate the evaporation occurring in the inlet manifold provided an explanation for the observed data.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Oil and Coolant Temperatures on Diesel Engine Wear

1977-02-01
770086
A study has been made of piston ring wear and total engine wear using literature data and new experimental results. The main purpose of the study was to establish the effects of oil and coolant temperatures on engine wear. Wear trends that were found in the early 1960's may not be valid any longer because of the development of higher BMEP turbocharged diesel engines, better metallurgical wear surfaces and improved lube oil properties. New data are presented for the purpose of describing present wear trends. A direct-injection, 4-cycle, turbocharged diesel engine was used for the wear tests. The radioactive tracer technique was used to measure the top piston ring chrome face wear. Atomic emission spectroscopy was employed to determine the concentration of wear metals in the oil to determine total engine wear based on iron and lead. The data were analyzed and compared to the results found in the literature from previous investigators.
Technical Paper

Conditional Analysis of Enhanced Combustion Luminosity Imaging in a Spray-Guided Gasoline Engine with High Residual Fraction

2011-04-12
2011-01-1281
High-speed (12 kHz) imaging of combustion luminosity (enhanced by using a sodium fuel additive) has been analyzed and compared to crank angle resolved heat release rates and mass fraction burn profiles in a spray-guided spark-ignited direct-injection (SG-SIDI) optical single-cylinder engine. The addition of a sodium-containing additive to gasoline greatly increases the combustion luminosity, which allows unintensified high-speed (12 kHz) imaging of early partially premixed flame kernel growth and overall flame propagation with excellent signal-to-noise ratio for hundreds of consecutive engine cycles. Ignition and early flame kernel growth are known to be key to understanding and eliminating poor burn cycles in SG-SIDI engines.
Technical Paper

Determination of Heat Transfer Augmentation Due to Fuel Spray Impingement in a High-Speed Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0843
As the incentive to produce cleaner and more efficient engines increases, diesel engines will become a primary, worldwide solution. Producing diesel engines with higher efficiency and lower emissions requires a fundamental understanding of the interaction of the injected fuel with air as well as with the surfaces inside the combustion chamber. One aspect of this interaction is spray impingement on the piston surface. Impingement on the piston can lead to decreased combustion efficiency, higher emissions, and piston damage due to thermal loading. Modern high-speed diesel engines utilize high pressure common-rail direct-injection systems to primarily improve efficiency and reduce emissions. However, the high injection pressures of these systems increase the likelihood that the injected fuel will impinge on the surface of the piston.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Air Fuel Ratio with Ionization Signal Metrics in a Multicylinder Spark Ignited Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0584
Accurate individual cylinder Air Fuel Ratio (AFR) feedback provide opportunities for improved engine performance and reduced emissions in spark ignition engines. One potential measurement for individual cylinder AFR is in-cylinder ionization measured by employing the spark plug as a sensor. A number of previous investigations have studied correlations of the ionization signal with AFR and shown promising results. However the studies have typically been limited to single cylinders under restricted operating conditions. This investigation analyzes and characterizes the ionization signals in correlation to individual AFR values obtained from wide-band electrochemical oxygen sensors located in the exhaust runners of each cylinder. Experimental studies for this research were conducted on a 2.0L inline 4 cylinder spark ignited engine with dual independent variable cam phasing and an intake charge motion control valve.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of Particulate Thermal Oxidation in a Catalyzed Filter During Active Regeneration

2009-04-20
2009-01-1474
Active regeneration experiments were performed on a Cummins 2007 aftertreatment system by hydrocarbon dosing with injection of diesel fuel downstream of the turbocharger. The main objective was to characterize the thermal oxidation rate as a function of temperature and particulate matter (PM) loading of the catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). Partial regeneration tests were carried out to ensure measureable masses are retained in the CPF in order to model the oxidation kinetics. The CPF was subsequently re-loaded to determine the effects of partial regeneration during post-loading. A methodology for gathering particulate data for analysis and determination of thermal oxidation in a CPF system operating in the engine exhaust was developed. Durations of the active regeneration experiments were estimated using previous active regeneration work by Singh et al. 2006 [1] and were adjusted as the experiments progressed using a lumped oxidation model [2, 3].
Technical Paper

Conjugate Heat Transfer in CI Engine CFD Simulations

2008-04-14
2008-01-0973
The development of new high power diesel engines is continually going for increased mean effective pressures and consequently increased thermal loads on combustion chamber walls close to the limits of endurance. Therefore accurate CFD simulation of conjugate heat transfer on the walls becomes a very important part of the development. In this study the heat transfer and temperature on piston surface was studied using conjugate heat transfer model along with a variety of near wall treatments for turbulence. New wall functions that account for variable density were implemented and tested against standard wall functions and against the hybrid near wall treatment readily available in a CFD software Star-CD.
Technical Paper

The Influence of DISI Engine Operating Parameters on Particle Number Emissions

2011-04-12
2011-01-0143
The future EURO 6 emission standard will limit the particle number and mass for gasoline engines. The proposed limit for particle mass is 4.5 mg/km. For particle number there is not yet a limit defined but a wide range of proposals are under discussion (6E11 - 8E12 Particles/km) The particle emissions on a homogeneous SIDI engine are mainly caused by insufficient mixture preparation. A combustion improvement could be achieved by a careful recalibration as well as a hardware optimization that mainly avoids wall impingement and substoichiometric zones in the combustion chamber. The analyses of current SIDI vehicles show significant PN emission peaks during cold start and transient operation on a NEDC cycle. To give a better understanding of cause and effect of the particle formation at steady state results so as transient load steps were performed at an engine dynamometer.
Technical Paper

An Analysis for Floating Bearings in a Turbocharger

2011-04-12
2011-01-0375
A comprehensive analysis has been performed for floating bearings applied in a turbocharger. It is found that Couette power loss for a full-floating bearing (the floating ring rotates) decreases with increasing inner and outer clearances, while its Poiseuille power loss increases with increasing inner and outer film clearances. In comparison with a semi-floating bearing (the floating ring does not rotate), a full-floating bearing can reduce both Couette and Poiseuille power losses. However, floating bearing is found to have a smaller minimum film thickness for a given dynamic loading from rotor-dynamics. The total power loss reduction for typical full-floating bearings ranges from 13% to 27%, which matches well with some published experimental data. In general, the speed ratio increases with increasing outer film clearance, while it decreases with increasing inner film clearance because of shear stresses on the outer and inner film.
Technical Paper

Individual Cylinder Air-Fuel Ratio Control Part I: L3 and V6 Engine Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-0695
A frequency-domain approach to balancing of air-fuel ratio (A/F) in a multi-cylinder engine is described. The technique utilizes information from a single Wide-Range Air-Fuel ratio (WRAF) or a single switching (production) O₂ sensor installed in the exhaust manifold of an internal combustion engine to eliminate the imbalances. At the core of the proposed approach is the development of a simple novel method for the characterization of A/F imbalances among the cylinders. The proposed approach provides a direct objective metric for the characterization of the degree of A/F imbalances for diagnostic purposes as well as a methodology for the control of A/F imbalances among various cylinders. The fundamental computational requirement is based on the calculation of a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) of the A/F signal as measured by a WRAF or a switching O₂ sensor.
Technical Paper

Evaluation and Design of Injector Hole Patterns Using CFD with a Fuel Tracer Diagnostic for Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0840
A CFD code is enhanced with a fuel tracer diagnostic to track the liquid and vapor fuel mass separately from individual spray plumes of a multi-hole injector and the wall film. The approach works by solving a set of additional scalar transport equations for fuel vapor generated from individual nozzle hole and the wall film. The diagnostic tool is first validated against experiments from a 4-valve, wall-guided spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine. A CFD analysis is carried out to understand the experimentally observed trade-offs in combustion stability and smoke emissions between a 70degree hollow-cone swirl injector and a 40 degree, 5-hole, circular-type multi-hole injector at a lean, stratified idle operating condition. Engine tests show that the multi-hole injector results in lower COV of IMEP than the hollow-cone swirl injector at the expense of significantly higher smoke emissions.
Technical Paper

Optical In-Cylinder Measurements of a Large-Bore Medium-Speed Diesel Engine

2008-10-06
2008-01-2477
The objective of this study was to build up an optical access into a large bore medium-speed research engine and carry out the first fuel spray Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements in the running large bore medium-speed engine in high pressure environment. The aim was also to measure spray penetration with same optical access and apparatus. The measurements were performed in a single-cylinder large bore medium-speed research engine, the Extreme Value Engine (EVE) with optical access into the combustion chamber. The authors are not aware of any other studies on optical spray measurements in large bore medium-speed diesel engines. Successful optical measurements of the fuel spray penetration and the velocity fields were carried out. This confirms that the exceptional component design and laser sheet alignment used in this study proved to be valid for optical fuel spray measurements in large-bore medium-speed diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Injector Location and Nozzle Design in a Direct-Injection Hydrogen Research Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1785
The favorable physical properties of hydrogen (H2) make it an excellent alternative fuel for internal combustion (IC) engines and hence it is widely regarded as the energy carrier of the future. Hydrogen direct injection provides multiple degrees of freedom for engine optimization and influencing the in-cylinder combustion processes. This paper compares the results in the mixture formation and combustion behavior of a hydrogen direct-injected single-cylinder research engine using two different injector locations as well as various injector nozzle designs. For this study the research engine was equipped with a specially designed cylinder head that allows accommodating a hydrogen injector in a side location between the intake valves as well as in the center location adjacent to the spark plug.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Biodiesel Fuel Quality on Modern Diesel Vehicle Performance

2012-04-16
2012-01-0858
Vehicle manufacturers have developed new vehicle and diesel engine technologies compatible with B6-B20 biodiesel blends meeting ASTM D7467, “Standard Specification for Diesel Fuel Oil, Biodiesel Blend (B6 to B20).” However, recent U.S. market place fuel surveys have shown that many retail biodiesel samples are out of specification. A vehicle designed to use biodiesel blends is likely to encounter occasional use of poor quality biodiesel fuel; and therefore understanding the effects of bad marketplace biodiesel fuels on engine and fuel system performance is critical to develop durable automotive technologies. The results presented herein are from vehicle evaluation studies with both on-specification and off-specification bio-based fuels. These studies focused on the performance of fuel injection equipment, engine, engine oil, emissions and emissions system durability.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Analysis and Optimization of Turbocharged Diesel Engines with a Variable Geometry Compressor and Turbine System

2012-04-16
2012-01-0716
In the last few years, the application of downsizing and turbocharging to internal combustion engines has considerably increased due to the proven potential of this technology to increase engine efficiency. Variable geometry turbines have been largely adopted to optimize the exhaust energy recovery over a large operating range. Two-stage turbocharger systems have also been studied as a solution to improve engine low-end torque and efficiency, with the first units currently available on the market. However, the compressor technology is today still based on fixed geometry machines, which are sized to efficiently operate at the maximum air flow and therefore lead to poor efficiency values at low air flow conditions. Furthermore, the surge limits prevents the full capabilities of VGT systems to increase the boosting at low engine speed.
Technical Paper

Optimal Use of Boosting Configurations and Valve Strategies for High Load HCCI - A Modeling Study

2012-04-16
2012-01-1101
This study investigates a novel approach towards boosted HCCI operation, which makes use of all engine system components in order to maximize overall efficiency. Four-cylinder boosted HCCI engines have been modeled employing valve strategies and turbomachines that enable high load operation with significant efficiency benefits. A commercially available engine simulation software, coupled to the University of Michigan HCCI combustion and heat transfer correlations, was used to model the HCCI engines with three different boosting configurations: turbocharging, variable geometry turbocharging and combined supercharging with turbocharging. The valve strategy features switching from low-lift Negative Valve Overlap (NVO) to high-lift Positive Valve Overlap (PVO) at medium loads. The new operating approach indicates that heating of the charge from external compression is more efficient than heating by residual gas retention strategies.
Technical Paper

Development of a Micro-Engine Testing System

2012-10-23
2012-32-0105
A test stand was developed to evaluate an 11.5 cc, two-stroke, internal combustion engine in anticipation of future combustion system modifications. Detailed engine testing and analysis often requires complex, specialized, and expensive equipment, which can be problematic for research budgets. This problem is compounded by the fact that testing “micro” engines involves low flow rates, high rotational speeds, and compact dimensions which demand high-accuracy, high-speed, and compact measurement systems. On a limited budget, the task of developing a micro-engine testing system for advanced development appears quite challenging, but with careful component selection it can be accomplished. The anticipated engine investigation includes performance testing, fuel system calibration, and combustion analysis. To complete this testing, a custom test system was developed.
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