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Technical Paper

Material Damping Properties: A Comparison of Laboratory Test Methods and the Relationship to In-Vehicle Performance

2001-04-30
2001-01-1466
This paper presents the damping effectiveness of free-layer damping materials through standard Oberst bar testing, solid plate excitation (RTC3) testing, and prediction through numerical schemes. The main objective is to compare damping results from various industry test methods to performance in an automotive body structure. Existing literature on laboratory and vehicle testing of free-layer viscoelastic damping materials has received significant attention in recent history. This has created considerable confusion regarding the appropriateness of different test methods to measure material properties for damping materials/treatments used in vehicles. The ability to use the material properties calculated in these tests in vehicle CAE models has not been extensively examined. Existing literature regarding theory and testing for different industry standard damping measurement techniques is discussed.
Technical Paper

Drawbeads in Sheet Metal Stamping - A Review

1997-02-24
970986
The paper reviews the role of drawbeads in sheet metal stamping. The design of drawbeads is discussed in depth, with treatment of different bead cross sections, bead end shapes, and bead materials. International standards and practices are included. This is followed by the historical development of the modeling of the drawbead restraining force, starting with basic equilibrium approaches, and leading to the use of the finite element method which permits the study of drawbead effects on sheet metal flow in three dimensions. Finally, the potential of active drawbeads is described based upon ongoing research which is directed toward closed-loop computer control of the stamping process through adjustment of the drawbead penetration.
Technical Paper

Advanced Field Study of Rollover Sensor Equipped Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-1113
General Motors (GM), OnStar and the University of Michigan International Center for Automotive Medicine (ICAM) have formed a partnership to investigate and analyze real world rollover crashes involving GM vehicles equipped with rollover sensing technology and rollover-capable roof rail airbag systems. Candidates for the study are initially identified by OnStar, who receive notification of a rollover crash through the vehicle's Automatic Crash Response system. If the customer agrees to participate in the study, medical, vehicle and crash scene information are quickly gathered. This information is then reviewed by the medical and GM engineering communities to provide field relevant learning on injury mechanisms and vehicle system performance in rollover events. This paper provides a detailed review of the field case studies collected to date.
Technical Paper

Comprehensive Overview of Human Interface for an Extended Range Electric Vehicle

2011-04-12
2011-01-1023
An Extended Range Electric vehicle brings a wealth of new features since it is capable of driving on battery alone, has a range extending engine, and has a high voltage battery pack that can be recharged by plugging into wall power. The customer is able to interact with the vehicle's plug-in charging system through mobile applications. Along with all these new features is the challenge of designing a driver interface to provide important information to the customer. This paper will describe the unique customer interface features added to the vehicle, and will include some additional specifics related to the hardware used to provide the information.
Technical Paper

SAE's Green Technology Systems Group: Focus on Environmental Sustainability for the Automotive Industry

2011-04-12
2011-01-1258
The environmental issues confronting the automotive industry are legion at a time when the industry has not been in the best position to respond. Concerns have been raised that the industry needs to be producing “green mobility products” without definition, specificity, or expression of customer need. Business infrastructure and the regulatory landscapes are uncertain, but likely to be restrictive for the automotive sector, especially with regard to the environment and green issues. Actions the automotive industry could consider include: develop a common dictionary of terms related to “green mobility products”; address the issues affecting the industry before regulations are imposed; make the Mobility Sector part of the solution; focus on being environmentally responsive, cost-saving, and time-sensitive; and assure that the Mobility Sector is recognized as a leader for new, green technology.
Technical Paper

Application of Mizenboushi (GD3) Method of Problem Prevention to Vehicle, Component and Subsystem Validation

2011-04-12
2011-01-1275
The GD₃ or GD Cubed method of problem prevention has been applied to product changes and to test results at the component, subsystem and vehicle level. GD₃ stands for Good Design - Good Discussion - Good Dissection. Good Discussion of changes (Design Review Based on Failure Mode) identifies BUDS of PROBLEMS that may arise from interfaces and areas of change. Good Dissection (Design Review Based on Test Results) is applied to physical test samples during and after tests to identify Buds of Problems that may not be obvious from inspection of the parts or test results. The paper first describes implementation of the GD₃ principles and methods supporting Good Discussion (DRBFM) and Good Dissection, and then discusses how they are applied and embedded in the Vehicle Development Process at General Motors Co.
Technical Paper

Developing the AC17 Efficiency Test for Mobile Air Conditioners

2013-04-08
2013-01-0569
Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) have collaborated over the past two years to develop an efficiency test for mobile air conditioner (MAC) systems. Because the effect of efficiency differences between different MAC systems and different technologies is relatively small compared to overall vehicle fuel consumption, quantifying these differences has been challenging. The objective of this program was to develop a single dynamic test procedure that is capable of discerning small efficiency differences, and is generally representative of mobile air conditioner usage in the United States. The test was designed to be conducted in existing test facilities, using existing equipment, and within a sufficiently short time to fit standard test facility scheduling. Representative ambient climate conditions for the U.S. were chosen, as well as other test parameters, and a solar load was included.
Technical Paper

Determination of Vehicle Frontal Area Using Image Processing

2013-04-08
2013-01-0203
The projected frontal area of a vehicle has a significant impact on aerodynamic drag, and thus is an important parameter, for vehicle development, benchmarking, and modeling. However, determining vehicle frontal area can be tedious, time consuming, expensive, or inaccurate. Existing methods include analysis of engineering drawings, vehicle projections, 3D scanners, planimeter measurements from photographs, and estimations using vehicle dimensions. Currently accepted approximation methods can be somewhat unreliable. This study focuses on introducing a method to find vehicle frontal area using digital images and subtraction functions via MATLABs' Image Processing Toolbox. In addition to an overview of the method, this paper describes several variables that were examined to optimize and improve the process such as camera position, surface glare, and vehicle shadow effects.
Technical Paper

Temperature Effects on the Deformation and Fracture of a Quenched-and-Partitioned Steel

2013-04-08
2013-01-0610
Temperature effects on the deformation and fracture of a commercially produced transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel subject to a two-step quenching and partitioning (Q&P) heat treatment are investigated. Strain field evolution at room temperature is quantified in this 980 MPa grade Q&P steel with a stereo digital image correlation (DIC) technique from quasi-static tensile tests of specimens with 0°, 45°, and 90° orientations. Baseline tensile properties along with the variation of the instantaneous hardening index with strain were computed. Variations of the bake-hardening index were explored under simulated paint bake conditions. Tensile properties were measured at selected temperatures between -100°C and 200°C and the TRIP effect was found to be temperature-dependent due to stress-induced martensitic transformation at lower temperatures versus strain-induced transformation at higher temperatures.
Technical Paper

An Experimental and Numerical Study of the Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of an Extruded Magnesium Alloy at 450 °C and Varied Strain Rates

2013-04-08
2013-01-0976
An extruded Mg-Al-Mn (AM30) magnesium alloy was subjected to uniaxial compression along the extrusion direction (ED) and the extrusion radial direction (RaD) at 450 °C and different strain rates. The microstructure and texture of the AM30 alloy under different deformation conditions were examined. Texture evolution was characterized by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The activity of different deformation modes including twinning were simulated using the visco-plastic self-consistent (VPSC) and the simplistic Sachs polycrystal plasticity models. The results show that the microstructure and the mechanical property of the Mg alloy strongly depend on the strain rate, with twinning activated at strain rates >0.5 s−1. Dynamic recrystallization and twinning interacted with each other and affected the final microstructure and mechanical property of the magnesium alloy.
Technical Paper

Accelerated Life Test Methodology for Li-Ion Batteries in Automotive Applications

2013-04-08
2013-01-1548
Determining Li-ion battery life through life modeling is an excellent tool in determining and estimating end-of-life performance. Achieving End-of-Life (EOL) can be challenging since it is difficult to achieve both cycle and calendar life during the same test without years of testing. The plan to correlate testing with the model included three (3) distinct temperature ranges, beginning with the four-Season temperature profile, an aggressive profile with temperatures in the 50 to 55°C range, and using a mid-temperature range (40-45°C) as a final comparison test. A high duty-cycle drive profile was used to cycle all of the batteries as quickly as possible to reach the one potential definition of EOL; significant increases in resistance or capacity fade.
Technical Paper

Application of Insulation Standards to High Voltage Automotive Applications

2013-04-08
2013-01-1528
Insulation coordination requirements for electrical equipment applications are defined in various standards. The standards are defined for application to stationary mains connected equipment, like IT, power supply or industrial equipment. Protection from an electric shock is considered the primary hazard in these standards. These standards have also been used in the design of various automotive components. IEC 60664-1 is an example of the standard. Automobiles are used across the world, in various environments and in varied usage by the customers. Automobiles need to consider possible additional hazards including electric shock. This paper will provide an overview of how to adapt these standards for automotive application in the design of High Voltage (HV) automotive components, including High Voltage batteries and other HV components connected to the battery. The basic definitions from the standards and the principles are applied for usage in automotive applications.
Technical Paper

Fault Tolerance Characteristics of FlexRay Central Devices

2013-04-08
2013-01-1185
FlexRay is a communication system targeted at, among other things, fault tolerant applications. In contrast to some other communication systems, FlexRay systems often contain a central device such as an active star. Due to their ability to isolate portions of the communication system central devices offer opportunities to mitigate certain faults. This paper presents several alternatives for the central device of a FlexRay system, specifically active stars, FlexRay switches, and Central Bus Guardians. The paper analyzes the fault detection, isolation and mitigation mechanisms of each central device based on available documentation and specifications.
Technical Paper

Metrics for Quantifying and Evaluating Ability of Electronic Control System Architectures to Accommodate Changes

2011-04-12
2011-01-0447
Recent trends in the automotive industry show growing demands for the introduction of new in-vehicle features (e.g., smart-phone integration, adaptive cruise control, etc.) at increasing rates and with reduced time-to-market. New technological developments (e.g., in-vehicle Ethernet, multi-core technologies, AUTOSAR standardized software architectures, smart video and radar sensors, etc.) provide opportunities as well as challenges to automotive designers for introducing and implementing new features at lower costs, and with increased safety and security. As a result, the design of Electrical/Electronic (E/E) architectures is becoming increasingly challenging as several hardware resources are needed. In our earlier work, we have provided top-level definitions for three relevant metrics that can be used to evaluate E/E architecture alternatives in the early stages of the design process: flexibility, scalability and expandability.
Technical Paper

Understanding Work Task Assessment Sensitivity to the Prediction of Standing Location

2011-04-12
2011-01-0527
Digital human models (DHM) are now widely used to assess worker tasks as part of manufacturing simulation. With current DHM software, the simulation engineer or ergonomist usually makes a manual estimate of the likely worker standing location with respect to the work task. In a small number of cases, the worker standing location is determined through physical testing with one or a few workers. Motion capture technology is sometimes used to aid in quantitative analysis of the resulting posture. Previous research has demonstrated the sensitivity of work task assessment using DHM to the accuracy of the posture prediction. This paper expands on that work by demonstrating the need for a method and model to accurately predict worker standing location. The effect of standing location on work task posture and the resulting assessment is documented through three case studies using the Siemens Jack DHM software.
Technical Paper

Virtual Road Load Data Acquisition in Practice at General Motors

2011-04-12
2011-01-0025
Measured vehicle loads have traditionally been used as the basis for development of component, subsystem and vehicle level durability tests. The use of measured loads posed challenges due to the availability of representative hardware, scheduling, and other factors. In addition, stress was placed on existing procedures and methods by aggressive product development timing, variety in tuning and equipment packages, and higher levels of design optimization. To meet these challenges, General Motors developed new processes and technical competencies which enabled the direct substitution of analytically synthesized loads for measured data. This process of Virtual Road Load Data Acquisition (vRLDA) enabled (a) conformance to shortened product development cycles, (b) greater consistency between design targets and validation requirements, and (c) more comprehensive data.
Technical Paper

Balance of Electrical Power Requirements through Smart Electric Power Management

2011-04-12
2011-01-0042
This paper examines Smart Electric Power Management as it pertains to when the vehicle charging system is active. Over the past decade there have been several factors at play which have stressed the demands placed upon the vehicle electrical power system. Many of these factors present challenges to electrical power that are at cross-purposes with one another. For example, demands of new and existing electrical loads, customer expectations about load performance and battery life, and the push by governments' world-wide for increased fuel economy (FE) and reduced CO2 emissions all have direct impact and can be directly impacted by decisions made in electric power design. As the electrification of the vehicle has progressed we now have much more specific vehicle state data available and the means to share this information among on-board computers through serial data link connectivity.
Technical Paper

Interpretation of SAE J1100 Cargo Volume Indices

2011-04-12
2011-01-0779
SAE J1100 - Motor Vehicle Dimensions was first published in September 1973. One of the many significant aspects of this recommended practice is that it provides procedures for estimating cargo/luggage volume in various types of vehicles. Passenger vehicles typically carry cargo in one of two areas: those that are separate from the passenger compartment and those that are open to the passenger compartment. A closed compartment is: An area intended to carry or stow luggage or cargo for personal or commercial purposes that is distinct or enclosed from the area used to transport people. The volume of this area is quantified by a physical stack of simulated luggage pieces, and include the following body types: coupes, sedans, and convertibles. An open compartment is: An area intended to carry or transport luggage or cargo for personal or commercial purposes that is open to the passenger compartment. These areas have the potential to carry people or cargo.
Technical Paper

Analytical Evaluation of Propulsion System Architectures for Future Urban Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0861
Today, nearly half of the world population lives in urban areas. As the world population continues to migrate to urban areas for increased economic opportunities, addressing personal mobility challenges such as air pollution, Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) and traffic congestion in these regions will become even a greater challenge especially in rapidly growing nations. Road transportation is a major source of air pollution in urban areas causing numerous health concerns. Improvements in automobile technology over the past several decades have resulted in reducing conventional vehicle tailpipe emissions to exceptionally low levels. This transformation has been attained mainly through advancements in engine and transmission technologies and through partial electrification of vehicles. However, the technological advancements made so far alone will not be able to mitigate the issues due to increasing GHGs and air pollution in urban areas.
Technical Paper

Communication Requirements for Plug-In Electric Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0866
This paper is the second in the series of documents designed to record the progress of a series of SAE documents - SAE J2836™, J2847, J2931, & J2953 - within the Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Communication Task Force. This follows the initial paper number 2010-01-0837, and continues with the test and modeling of the various PLC types for utility programs described in J2836/1™ & J2847/1. This also extends the communication to an off-board charger, described in J2836/2™ & J2847/2 and includes reverse energy flow described in J2836/3™ and J2847/3. The initial versions of J2836/1™ and J2847/1 were published early 2010. J2847/1 has now been re-opened to include updates from comments from the National Institute of Standards Technology (NIST) Smart Grid Interoperability Panel (SGIP), Smart Grid Architectural Committee (SGAC) and Cyber Security Working Group committee (SCWG).
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