Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Vehicle Acoustic Sensitivity Performance Using Virtual Engineering

2011-04-12
2011-01-1072
In order to assess the possible ways of energy transfer from the various sources of excitation in a vehicle assembly to a given target location, frequency based substructuring technique and transfer path analysis are used. These methods help to locate the most important energy transfer paths for a specific problem, and to evaluate their individual effects on the target, thus providing valuable insight into the mechanisms responsible for the problem. The Source-Path-Receiver concept is used. The sources can be from the road surface, engine, transmission, transfer case, prop-shaft, differential, rotating components, chain drives, pumps, etc., and the receiver can be driver/passenger ears, steering column, seats, etc. This paper is devoted to identify the noise transfer paths and the force transmissibility among the interfaces of different components in the vehicle for the low to mid frequency range.
Technical Paper

Robust Design of a Light Weight Flush Mount Roof Rack

2011-04-12
2011-01-1274
Roof racks are designed for carrying luggage during customers' travels. These rails need to be strong enough to be able to carry the luggage weight as well as be able to withstand aerodynamic loads that are generated when the vehicle is travelling at high speeds on highways. Traditionally, roof rail gage thickness is increased to account for these load cases (since these are manufactured by extrusion), but doing so leads to increased mass which adversely affects fuel efficiency. The current study focuses on providing the guidelines for strategically placing lightening holes and optimizing gage thickness so that the final design is robust to noise parameters and saves the most mass without adversely impacting wind noise performance while minimizing stress. The project applied Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) techniques to optimize roof rail parameters in order to improve the load carrying capacity while minimizing mass.
Technical Paper

Structural-Acoustic Analysis of Vehicle Body Panel Participation to Interior Acoustic Boom Noise

2011-04-12
2011-01-0496
A structural-acoustic finite element model of an automotive vehicle is developed and applied to evaluate the effect of structural and acoustic modifications to reduce low-frequency ‘boom’ noise in the passenger compartment. The structural-acoustic model is developed from a trimmed body structural model that is coupled with an acoustic model of the passenger compartment and trunk cavities. The interior noise response is computed for shaker excitation loads at the powertrain mount attachment locations on the body. The body panel and modal participation diagrams at the peak response frequencies are evaluated. A polar diagram identifies the dominant body panel contributions to the ‘boom’ noise. A modal participation diagram determines the body modes that contribute to the ‘boom’ noise. Finally, structural and acoustic modifications are evaluated to determine their effect on reducing the ‘boom’ noise and on the overall lower-frequency sound pressure level response.
Technical Paper

Radiated Fuel Tank Slosh Noise Simulation

2011-04-12
2011-01-0495
With the introduction of hybrid vehicles and the associated elimination of engine and exhaust masking noises, sounds from other sources is becoming more noticeable. Fuel tank sloshing is one of these sources. Fuel sloshing occurs when a vehicle is accelerated in any direction and can create noise that may be perceived as a quality issue by the customer. To reduce slosh noise, a fuel tank has to be carefully designed. Reduction in slosh noise using test- based methods can be very costly and timely. This paper shows how, using the combination of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic), FE (Finite Element) and Acoustic simulation methods, the radiated fuel tank slosh noise performance can be evaluated using CAE methods. Although the de-coupled fluid /structure interaction (FSI) method was used for the examples in this paper, the acoustic simulation method is not limited to the decoupled FSI method.
Technical Paper

The Simulation of Air Induction Noise Using 1D-3D Coupling

2011-04-12
2011-01-0500
Compartment noise has gained significant importance to meet customer expectation. One of the sources of noise is air intake noise. Intake noise is produced by both opening and closing of the inlet valve. This makes source noise critical to the development of air induction system. The new approach has been thought for noise analysis of Air Induction System (AIS) to identify source noise using 1D-3D coupling. It is very difficult to simulate engine and air induction system in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) due to complexities in geometry. The objective of the present study is to predict the pulsed noise and flow noise using 1D-3D coupling. The engine with 1D code and AIS with 3D CFD code is simulated. Engine pulsation from GT-Power is provided as an input boundary condition to ANSYS Fluent. GT-Power exchanges boundary values to 3D computation domain at each CFD time step through special connections. The CFD code is run with implicit discretisation scheme and SAS turbulence model.
Technical Paper

Drive Point Mobility, Transmissibility and Beyond

2011-04-12
2011-01-0502
Drive Point Mobility is commonly used in lab tests and structural analysis for the purposes of measuring and evaluating the N&V performance of a dynamic system. Unless the drive point itself is also the point of interest (for responses), the author finds that it can only provide very limited information about the whole system's dynamic / vibrational characteristics. Thus one should always try to measure, analyze, and then improve, instead of Drive Point Mobility alone, the non-drive point mobility or the generalized transmissibility as well, for their structural N&V performance. A simplified 3-DOF spring/mass/damper system is first used to illustrate the dynamic characters of the system. For more realistic structures, a FE model of the body/floor and (body side) hanger (for exhaust) is used. Then a more complete system model, consisting of a full exhaust, it's hangers/isolators, and part of the vehicle chassis/body/floor structure, is used in this paper to illustrate the above points.
Technical Paper

Small Amplitude Torsional Steering Column Dynamics on Smooth Roads: In-Vehicle Effects and Internal Sources

2011-04-12
2011-01-0560
Internally excited torsional steering wheel vibrations at frequencies near 8-22 Hz on smooth roads can produce driver disturbances, commonly described as “SHAKE”. These vibrations are primarily excited by the rotating front suspension corners and are periodic in the rotational frequencies of the tire-wheel assemblies. The combination of vehicular dynamic amplification originating in dominant suspension and steering system vibratory modes, and a sufficiently large 1st harmonic non-uniformity excitation of the rotating corner components, can result in periodic vibrations exceeding thresholds of disturbance. Controlling the periodic non-uniformity excitation through individual component requirements (e.g., wheel imbalance, tire force variation, wheel runout, concentric piloting of wheel on hub) is difficult since the desired upper limits of individual component requirements for vibration-free performance are typically beyond industry capability.
Technical Paper

Random Frequency Response Analysis of Battery Systems Using ‘Virtual Shaker Table’

2011-04-12
2011-01-0665
This paper presents ‘Virtual Shaker Table’: a CAE method that enables random frequency structural response and random vibration fatigue analyses of a battery system. The Virtual Shaker Table method is a practical and systematic procedure that effectively assesses battery system vibration performance prior to final design, build and testing. A random structural frequency response analysis identifies the critical frequencies and modes at which the battery system is excited by random inputs. Fatigue life may be predicted after PSD stresses have been ascertained. This method enables frequency response analysis techniques to be applied quickly and accurately, thereby allowing assessment of multiple design alternatives. Virtual Shaker Table facilitates an elegant solution to some of the significant challenges inherent to complex battery system design and integration.
Technical Paper

Optimum Constraint Strategy for Liftgates

2011-04-12
2011-01-0766
The present study defines the functional requirements for a liftgate and the body in order to avoid rattle, squeak, and other objectionable noises. A Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) methodology was used to study the impact of various constraint components such as bumpers, wedges, and isolated strikers on functional requirements. These functional requirements include liftgate frequency, acoustic cavity frequency, and the stiffness of the liftgate body opening. It has been determined that the method of constraining the gate relative to the body opening has a strong correlation to the noise generated. The recommended functional performance targets and constraint component selection have been confirmed by actual testing on a vehicle. Recommendations for future liftgate design will be presented.
Technical Paper

CAE-Based Approach for Oil Pan NVH Optimization of Compact Automotive Diesel Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0934
In the automotive industry, CAE methods are now widely used to predict several functional characteristics and to develop designs that are first-time-capable to meet programs targets. The N&V area is one of the increasing key factors for a product differentiation; costumers expect not only more powerful and more fuel efficient but also less noisy engines. The oil pan is one of the bigger contributors to engine radiated noise and to diesel knocking, so that great attention is paid within GM to optimize oil pans of Diesel engines by following a CAE-based approach to achieve a “first-time-capable” design for this component. This allows focusing the subsequent N&V testing activities to pinpoint modifications mainly on those components with shorter lead time. This paper describes the key-steps that are executed to optimize the oil pan design by using CAE methods with the main intent of reducing its noise radiation.
Technical Paper

Development of Robust CAE Modeling Technique for Decklid Slam Analysis

2011-04-12
2011-01-0242
Engineering has continuously strived to improve the vehicle development process to achieve high quality designs and quick to launch products. The design process has to have the tools and capabilities to help ensure both quick to the market product and a flawless launch. To achieve high fidelity and robust design, mistakes and other quality issues must be addressed early in the engineering process. One way to detect problems early is to use the math based modeling and simulation techniques of the analysis group. The correlation of the actual vehicle performance to the predictive model is crucial to obtain. Without high correlation, the change management process begins to get complicated and costs start to increase exponentially. It is critical to reduce and eliminate the risk in a design up front before tooling begins to kick off. The push to help achieve a high rate of correlation has been initiated by engineering management, seeing this as an asset to the business.
Technical Paper

Calibrating and Protecting Microphones to Allow Acoustic Measurements in Hazardous Environments

2009-05-19
2009-01-2163
Performing acoustic measurements on or near engines, transmissions, as well as in other circumstances where the environment is hazardous and harsh for microphones requires special precautions. Fluids inevitably leak, and the possibility of transducer damage can be very high without proper protection. Properly protecting microphones during testing allows for consistent data quality in these hazardous and difficult environments. While this paper will present the use of a 5 mil Nitrile cover which protects against many fluids within the scope of automotive testing, including water, hydrocarbons, and alcohols, as well as having good heat resistance and high strength, the concepts developed are applicable to other types of microphone protective mechanisms. Acoustic sensitivity was measured and used to calculate the change of the microphone's response after the treatment is applied, as well as after being exposed to various contaminants.
Technical Paper

Sound Quality Jury Analysis versus Sound Pressure Measurement in Snowmobiles

2009-05-19
2009-01-2231
Restrictions on noise and gaseous emissions of snowmobiles have been a topic of much attention for the past decade. Concerns with snowmobiles in our national parks and with private land owners have resulted in new park legislations as well as legal disputes regarding recreational vehicle rights-of-way. The most widely used standard for snowmobile testing is SAE J192 Exterior Sound Level for Snowmobiles, SAE Recommended Practice. This is a wide-open throttle test with sound level meters 50 feet on either side of the snowmobile. The sound pressure cannot exceed a certain level for the snowmobile to pass. Perceived noise also plays an important role in the objections to snowmobiles. This paper considers the role of Sound Quality methods, specifically Jury Analysis, in understanding the difference between objective noise analysis and subjective noise preferences; also considering the underlying snowmobile attributes that control snowmobile noise.
Technical Paper

Determination of Source Contribution in Snowmobile Pass-by Noise Testing

2009-05-19
2009-01-2228
As noise concerns for snowmobiles become of greater interest for governing bodies, standards such as SAE J192 are implemented for regulation. Specific to this pass-by noise standard, and unlike many other pass-by tests, multiple non-standardized test surfaces are allowed to be used. Manufacturers must understand how the machines behave during these tests to know how to best improve the measured noise levels. Data is presented that identifies the contributions of different sources for different snowmobiles on various test surface conditions. Adaptive resampling for Doppler removal, frequency response functions and order tracking methods are implemented in order to best understand what components affect the overall measurement during the pass-by noise test.
Technical Paper

Modeling Interior Noise in Off-Highway Trucks using Statistical Energy Analysis

2009-05-19
2009-01-2239
The objective of this project was to model and study the interior noise in an Off-Highway Truck cab using Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA). The analysis was performed using two different modeling techniques. In the first method, the structural members of the cab were modeled along with the panels and the interior cavity. In the second method, the structural members were not modeled and only the acoustic cavity and panels were modeled. Comparison was done between the model with structural members and without structural members to evaluate the necessity of modeling the structure. Correlation between model prediction of interior sound pressure and test data was performed for eight different load conditions. Power contribution analysis was performed to find dominant paths and 1/3rd octave band frequencies.
Technical Paper

Sound Power Measurement in a Semi-Reverberant, Volume Deficient Chamber

2015-06-15
2015-01-2359
Sound power can be determined using a variety of methods, but precision methods require the volume of the noise source to be less than 1% of the chamber volume leading to relatively large test chambers. Automotive torque converter performance and noise testing is completed in an enclosed metallic test fixture which inhibits the use of precision methods due to volume and space limitations. This paper describes a new method developed to accurately determine sound power of an automotive torque converter in a relatively small enclosure through characterization of the test environment. The test environment was characterized using two reference noise sources designed to represent torque converter noise output and physical geometry. Sound pressure levels of the sources were measured at multiple microphone locations and at three source amplitude levels to characterize the environment.
Technical Paper

Continued Drive Signal Development for the Carbon Nanotube Thermoacoustic Loudspeaker Using Techniques Derived from the Hearing Aid Industry

2017-06-05
2017-01-1895
Compared to moving coil loudspeakers, carbon nanotube (CNT) loudspeakers are extremely lightweight and are capable of creating sound over a broad frequency range (1 Hz to 100 kHz). The thermoacoustic effect that allows for this non-vibrating sound source is naturally inefficient and nonlinear. Signal processing techniques are one option that may help counteract these concerns. Previous studies have evaluated a hybrid efficiency metric, the ratio of the sound pressure level at a single point to the input electrical power. True efficiency is the ratio of output acoustic power to the input electrical power. True efficiency data are presented for two new drive signal processing techniques borrowed from the hearing aid industry. Spectral envelope decimation of an AC signal operates in the frequency domain (FCAC) and dynamic linear frequency compression of an AC signal operates in the time domain (TCAC). Each type of processing affects the true efficiency differently.
Technical Paper

Torsional Vibration Analysis of Six Speed MT Transmission and Driveline from Road to Lab

2017-06-05
2017-01-1845
When a manual transmission (MT) powertrain is subjected to high speeds and high torques, the vehicle driveshaft, and other components experience an increase in stored potential energy. When the engine and driveshaft are decoupled during an up or down shift, the potential energy is released causing clunk during the shift event. The customer desires a smooth shift thus reduction of clunk will improve experience and satisfaction. In this study, a six-speed MT, rear-wheel-drive (RWD) passenger vehicle was used to experimentally capture acoustic and vibration data during the clunk event. To replicate the in-situ results, additional data was collected and analyzed for powertrain component roll and pitch. A lumped parameter model of key powertrain components was created to replicate the clunk event and correlate with test data. The lumped parameter model was used to modify clutch tip-out parameters, which resulted in reduced prop shaft oscillations.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Off-Highway Vehicle Cab Noise and Vibration Using Inverse Matrix Techniques

1999-09-14
1999-01-2815
Noise Path Analysis techniques (NPA) have been developed and refined by the automotive industry for structure-borne noise and vibration evaluation of their products. Off-highway vehicles, particularly those with enclosed cabs, are excellent candidates for the application of these techniques. Like automobiles, many off-highway machines are typically driven by a rotating power source, have a well-defined acoustic receiver space, and use some form of isolation between source and receiver sub-systems. These structural characteristics make NPA a useful tool for identifying dominant sources and energy transfer paths. The objectives of this paper are to revisit the fundamental theory of matrix inversion as it applies to NPA techniques, and to address the common setup and measurement issues encountered when acquiring noise path data on off-highway machines. A general overview of the procedures involved in applying NPA to an off-highway machine will be presented.
Technical Paper

Summary and Characteristics of Rotating Machinery Digital Signal Processing Methods

1999-09-14
1999-01-2818
Several very different order tracking and analysis techniques for rotating equipment have been developed recently that are available in commercial noise and vibrations software packages. Each of these order tracking methods has distinct trade-offs for many common applications and very specific advantages for special applications in sound quality or noise and vibrations troubleshooting. The Kalman, Vold-Kalman, Computed Order Tracking, and the Time Variant Discrete Fourier Transform as well as common FFT based order analysis methods will all be presented. The strengths and weaknesses of each of the methods will be presented as well as the highlights of their mathematical properties. This paper is intended to be an overview of currently available technology with all methods presented in a common format that allows easy comparison of their properties. Several analytical examples will be presented to thoroughly document each methods' behavior with different types of data.
X