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Technical Paper

A 2-D Computational Model Describing the Flow and Filtration Characteristics of a Ceramic Diesel Particulate Trap

1998-02-23
980545
A 2-D computational model was developed to describe the flow and filtration processes, in a honeycomb structured ceramic diesel particulate trap. This model describes the steady state trap loading, as well as the transient behavior of the flow and filtration processes. The theoretical model includes the effect of a copper fuel additive on trap loading and transient operation. The convective terms were based on a 2-D analytical flow field solution derived from the conservation of mass and momentum equations. The filtration theory incorporated in the time dependent numerical code included the diffusion, inertia, and direct interception mechanisms. Based on a measured upstream particle size distribution, using the filtration theory, the downstream particle size distribution was calculated. The theoretical filtration efficiency, based on particle size distribution, agreed very well (within 1%) with experimental data for a number of different cases.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Flame Photographs With High Pressure Injection

1988-02-01
880298
The effect of high pressure injection (using an accumulator type unit injector with peak injection pressure of approximately 20,000 psi, having a decreasing injection rate profile) on combustion was studied. Combustion results were obtained using a DDA Series 3–53 diesel engine with both conventional analysis techniques and high speed photography. Diesel No. 2 fuel and a low viscosity - high volatility fuel, similar to gasoline were used in the study. Results were compared against baseline data obtained with standard injectors. Some of the characteristics of high pressure injection used with Diesel No. 2 fuel include: substantially improved ignition, shorter ignition delay, and higher pressure rise. Under heavy load - high speed conditions, greater smokemeter readings were achieved with the high pressure injection system with Diesel No. 2 fuel. Higher flame speeds and hence, greater resistance to knock were observed with the high volatility low cetane fuel.
Technical Paper

Reducing Disturbances Caused by Reductions in Regenerative Brake Torque

2011-04-12
2011-01-0972
This paper presents a method to reduce the number of occurrences of vehicle deceleration disturbances due to the reduction of regenerative braking in the presence of wheel slip. Usually, regenerative braking is disabled when wheel slip is detected in order to allow the ABS system to efficiently cycle brake pressure. When this happens, the vehicle will momentarily lose deceleration due to the reduction in both regenerative brake torque and friction brake pressure, until friction brake pressure is reapplied. Some ABS activations can be defined as nuisance events, in which full ABS control is not necessary and is exited rapidly; for example, a vehicle driving through a pothole. In these cases it is desirable to continue regenerative braking in order to keep vehicle deceleration as smooth as possible.
Technical Paper

Effects of Base Stocks on Lubricant Aeration

2011-04-12
2011-01-1210
Aeration properties of lubricants is an increasing concern as the design of powertrain components, specifically transmissions, continue to become more compact leading to smaller sumps and higher pressure requirements. Although good design practices are the most important factors in mitigating the aeration level of the fluid, the fluid properties themselves are also a contributing factor. This paper investigates the aeration properties of specific base oils commonly used to formulate modern transmission fluids using the General Motors Company Aeration Bench Test found in GMN10060. The test matrix includes thirteen different fluids representing a cross-section of base oil types, manufacturers, and viscosity grades. Per the procedure found in GMN10060, the bench test measures the aeration time, de-aeration time, and percent maximum aeration of the fluid at three temperatures, 60°C, 90°C, and 120°C. In the end, the results are compared with four commercially available transmission fluids.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study Comparing Particle Size and Mass Concentration Data for a Cracked and Un-Cracked Diesel Particulate Filter

2009-04-20
2009-01-0629
Steady state loading characterization experiments were conducted at three different engine load conditions and rated speed on the cracked catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). The experiments were performed using a 10.8 L 2002 Cummins ISM-330 heavy duty diesel engine. The CPF underwent a ring off failure, commonly seen in particulate filters, due to high radial and axial temperature gradients. The filters were cracked during baking in an oven which was done to regenerate PM collected after every loading characterization experiment. Two different configurations i.e. with and without a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) upstream of the CPF were studied. The data were compared with that on an un-cracked CPF at similar engine conditions and configurations. Pressure drop, transient filtration efficiency by particle size and PM mass and gaseous emissions measurements were made during each experiment.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Light-Medium Load Operating Sensitivity in a Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-0896
The light-medium load operating range (4-7 bar net IMEP) presents many challenges for advanced low temperature combustion strategies utilizing low cetane fuels (specifically, 87-octane gasoline) in light-duty, high-speed engines. The overly lean overall air-fuel ratio (Φ≺0.4) sometimes requires unrealistically high inlet temperatures and/or high inlet boost conditions to initiate autoignition at engine speeds in excess of 1500 RPM. The objective of this work is to identify and quantify the effects of variation in input parameters on overall engine operation. Input parameters including inlet temperature, inlet pressure, injection timing/duration, injection pressure, and engine speed were varied in a ~0.5L single-cylinder engine based on a production General Motors 1.9L 4-cylinder high-speed diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Visualization and Analysis of Condensation in Exhaust Gas Recirculation Coolers

2013-04-08
2013-01-0540
Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is widely used in diesel engines to control engine-out NOx (oxides of nitrogen) emissions. A portion of the exhaust gases is re-circulated into the intake manifold of the engine after cooling it through a heat exchanger. EGR cooler heat exchangers, however, tend to lose efficiency and have increased pressure drop as deposit forms on the heat exchanger surface due to transport of soot particles and condensing species to the cooler walls. In this study, condensation of water vapor and hydrocarbons at the exit of the EGR cooler was visualized using a fiberscope coupled to a camera equipped with a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) color sensor. A multi-cylinder diesel engine was used to produce a range of engine-out hydrocarbon concentrations. Both surface and bulk gas condensation were observed with the visualization setup over a range of EGR cooler coolant temperatures.
Technical Paper

Blend Ratio Optimization of Fuels Containing Gasoline Blendstock, Ethanol, and Higher Alcohols (C3-C6): Part II - Blend Properties and Target Value Sensitivity

2013-04-08
2013-01-1126
Higher carbon number alcohols offer an opportunity to meet the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) and improve the energy content, petroleum displacement, and/or knock resistance of gasoline-alcohol blends from traditional ethanol blends such as E10 while maintaining desired and regulated fuel properties. Part II of this paper builds upon the alcohol selection, fuel implementation scenarios, criteria target values, and property prediction methodologies detailed in Part I. For each scenario, optimization schemes include maximizing energy content, knock resistance, or petroleum displacement. Optimum blend composition is very sensitive to energy content, knock resistance, vapor pressure, and oxygen content criteria target values. Iso-propanol is favored in both scenarios' suitable blends because of its high RON value.
Technical Paper

Blend Ratio Optimization of Fuels Containing Gasoline Blendstock, Ethanol, and Higher Alcohols (C3-C6): Part I - Methodology and Scenario Definition

2013-04-08
2013-01-1144
The U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) requires an increase in the use of advanced biofuels up to 36 billion gallons by 2022. Longer chain alcohols, in addition to cellulosic ethanol and synthetic biofuels, could be used to meet this demand while adhering to the RFS2 corn-based ethanol limitation. Higher carbon number alcohols can be utilized to improve the energy content, knock resistance, and/or petroleum displacement of gasoline-alcohol blends compared to traditional ethanol blends such as E10 while maintaining desired and regulated fuel properties. Part I of this paper focuses on the development of scenarios by which to compare higher alcohol fuel blends to traditional ethanol blends. It also details the implementation of fuel property prediction methods adapted from literature. Possible combinations of eight alcohols mixed with a gasoline blendstock were calculated and the properties of the theoretical fuel blends were predicted.
Technical Paper

Pressure Sensor Simulation Capability for Side Impact Sensing Calibration

2011-04-12
2011-01-0105
There is a growing interest in using pressure sensors to sense side impacts, where the pressure change inside the door cavity is monitored and used to discriminate trigger and non-trigger incidents. In this paper, a pressure sensor simulation capability for side impact sensing calibration is presented. The ability to use simulations for side impact sensing calibration early in the vehicle program development process could reduce vehicle development cost and time. It could also help in evaluating sensor locations by studying the effects of targeted impact points and contents in the door cavity. There are two modeling methods available in LS-DYNA for predicting pressure change inside a cavity, namely airbag method and fluid structure interaction method. A suite of side impact calibration events of a study vehicle were simulated using these two methods. The simulated door cavity pressure time histories were then extracted to calibrate the side sensing system of the study vehicle.
Technical Paper

Dual Rate Jounce Bumper Design

2011-04-12
2011-01-0791
Jounce bumpers are the primary component by which vertical wheel travel is limited in our suspensions. Typically, the jounce bumper is composed of closed or open cell urethane material, which has relatively low stiffness at initial compression with highly progressive stiffness at full compression. Due to this highly progressive stiffness at high load, peak loads are extremely sensitive to changes in input energy (affected by road surface, tire size, tire pressure, etc.) A “Dual Rate Jounce Bumper” concept is described that reduces this sensitivity. Additionally, various mechanizations of the concept are described as well as the specific program benefits, where applicable.
Technical Paper

Effect of Flow Forces on a Flow Control Variable Force Solenoid

2011-04-12
2011-01-0394
A system level analysis was carried out on the effect of flow forces on a flow control variable force solenoid (VFS) used in automatic transmissions. Classic flow force model was reviewed as a function of the pressure difference and the solenoid current. A force balance analysis was conducted on the spool valve in the VFS, in order to study the relationship among the control current, flow forces, spring forces, and flow area. Flow bench testing was used to characterize a specific flow control VFS by both the pressure drop and solenoid current, in forward and reverse flow directions. The behavior of flow control VFS valve is significantly affected by flow forces. A sub-system level model was thus created to predict the steady-state and dynamic behavior of the flow VFS valve, which can be used in a transmission system level analysis. The modeling results were compared against experimental data to show the validity of the methodology.
Technical Paper

The Filtration, Oxidation and Pressure Drop Characteristics of a Catalyzed Particulate Filter during Active Regeneration – A 1D Modeling Study

2009-04-20
2009-01-1274
Active regeneration of a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) is affected by a number of parameters specifically particulate matter loading and inlet temperature. The MTU 1-D 2-Layer CPF model [1] was used to analyze these effects on the pressure drop, oxidation and filtration characteristics of a CPF during active regeneration. In addition, modeling results for post loading experiments were analyzed to understand the difference between loading a clean filter as compared to a partially regenerated filter. Experimental data obtained with a production Cummins regenerative particulate filter for loading, active regenerations and post loading experiments were used to calibrate the MTU 1-D 2-Layer CPF model. The model predicted results are compared with the experimental data and were analyzed to understand the CPF characteristics during active regeneration at 1.1, 2.2 and 4.1 g/L particulate matter (PM) loading and CPF inlet temperatures of 525, 550 and 600°C.
Technical Paper

A Methodology to Estimate the Mass of Particulate Matter Retained in a Catalyzed Particulate Filter as Applied to Active Regeneration and On-Board Diagnostics to Detect Filter Failures

2008-04-14
2008-01-0764
A methodology to estimate the mass of particulate retained in a catalyzed particulate filter as a function of measured total pressure drop, volumetric flow rate, exhaust temperature, exhaust gas viscosity and cake and wall permeability applicable to real-time computation is discussed. This methodology is discussed from the view point of using it to indicate when to initiate active regeneration and as an On-Board Diagnostic tool to detect filter failures. Steady-state loading characterization experiments were conducted on a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CPF) in a Johnson Matthey CCRT® (catalyzed continuously regenerating trap) system. The experiments were performed using a 10.8 L 2002 Cummins ISM heavy-duty diesel engine. Experiments were conducted at 20, 60 and 75% of full engine load (1120 Nm) and rated speed (2100 rpm) to measure the pressure drop, transient filtration efficiency, particulate mass balance, and gaseous emissions.
Technical Paper

Effect of DPF Design Parameters on Fuel Economy and Thermal Durability

2012-04-16
2012-01-0847
Diesel particle filters (DPF) have become the standard and essential aftertreatment components for all on-road diesel engines used in the US and Europe. The OBD requirements for DPF are becoming rigorously strict starting from 2015 model year. The pressure sensor or other strategies currently used for DPF diagnostics will most likely become insufficient to meet the new OBD requirements and a post DPF soot sensor might be necessary. This means that it will be even more imperative to develop a DPF design that would not have any soot leaks in its emission lifetime, otherwise the DPF will become a high warranty item.
Technical Paper

Detection of Urea Injection System Faults for SCR Systems

2012-04-16
2012-01-0431
The urea injection is a key function in Urea-SCR NOx reduction system. As the tailpipe NOx emission standard becomes increasingly stringent, it is critical to diagnose the injection faults in order to guarantee the SCR DeNox functionality and performance. Particularly, a blocked injector may cause under-dosing of urea thus reduced DeNox functionality. Monitoring urea injection rate is one of the efficient methods for injection fault diagnosis. However, direct measurement of the urea mass flow is not feasible due to its high cost. This paper presents methods that are promising for detecting and isolating faults in urea injection by processing certain actuator signal and existing sensory measurements, e.g., the injector Pulse Amplitude Modulated (PAM) command and the pressure of the urea delivery line. No additional dedicated sensor is required. Three methods are discussed to detect urea injection system faults.
Technical Paper

Development of a Micro-Engine Testing System

2012-10-23
2012-32-0105
A test stand was developed to evaluate an 11.5 cc, two-stroke, internal combustion engine in anticipation of future combustion system modifications. Detailed engine testing and analysis often requires complex, specialized, and expensive equipment, which can be problematic for research budgets. This problem is compounded by the fact that testing “micro” engines involves low flow rates, high rotational speeds, and compact dimensions which demand high-accuracy, high-speed, and compact measurement systems. On a limited budget, the task of developing a micro-engine testing system for advanced development appears quite challenging, but with careful component selection it can be accomplished. The anticipated engine investigation includes performance testing, fuel system calibration, and combustion analysis. To complete this testing, a custom test system was developed.
Technical Paper

Schlieren and Mie Scattering Visualization for Single-Hole Diesel Injector under Vaporizing Conditions with Numerical Validation

2014-04-01
2014-01-1406
This paper reports an experimental and numerical investigation on the spatial and temporal liquid- and vapor-phase distributions of diesel fuel spray under engine-like conditions. The high pressure diesel spray was investigated in an optically-accessible constant volume combustion vessel for studying the influence of the k-factor (0 and 1.5) of a single-hole axial-disposed injector (0.100 mm diameter and 10 L/d ratio). Measurements were carried out by a high-speed imaging system capable of acquiring Mie-scattering and schlieren in a nearly simultaneous fashion mode using a high-speed camera and a pulsed-wave LED system. The time resolved pair of schlieren and Mie-scattering images identifies the instantaneous position of both the vapor and liquid phases of the fuel spray, respectively. The studies were performed at three injection pressures (70, 120, and 180 MPa), 23.9 kg/m3 ambient gas density, and 900 K gas temperature in the vessel.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Impact of Impingement Distance on Momentum Flux Rate of Injection Measurements of a Diesel Injector

2015-04-14
2015-01-0933
Diesel combustion and emissions is largely spray and mixing controlled. Spray and combustion models enable characterization over a range of conditions to understand optimum combustion strategies. The validity of models depends on the inputs, including the rate of injection profile of the injector. One method to measure the rate of injection is to measure the momentum, where the injected fuel spray is directed onto a force transducer which provides measurements of momentum flux. From this the mass flow rate is calculated. In this study, the impact of impingement distance, the distance from injector nozzle exit to the anvil connected to the force transducer, is characterized over a range of 2 - 12 mm. This characterization includes the impact of the distance on the momentum flux signal in both magnitude and shape. At longer impingement distances, it is hypothesized that a peak in momentum could occur due to increasing velocity of fuel injected as the pintle fully opens.
Technical Paper

HEUI Injector Modeling and ROI Experiments for High Injection Pressure of Diesel and Dimethyl Ether (DME)

2016-04-05
2016-01-0855
Dimethyl Ether (DME) is considered a clean alternative fuel to diesel due to its soot-free combustion characteristics and its capability to be produced from renewable energy sources rather than fossil fuels such as coal or petroleum. To mitigate the effect of strong wave dynamics on fuel supply lines caused due to the high compressibility of DME and to overcome its low lubricity, a hydraulically actuated electronic unit injector (HEUI) with pressure intensification was used. The study focuses on high pressure operation, up to 2000 bar, significantly higher than pressure ranges reported previously with DME. A one-dimensional HEUI injector model is built in MATLAB/SIMULINK graphical software environment, to predict the rate of injection (ROI) profile critical to spray and combustion characterization.
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