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Journal Article

Signal Processing for Rough Road Detection

Misfire diagnostics are required to detect missed combustion events which may cause an increase in emissions and a reduction in performance and fuel economy. If the misfire detection system is based on crankshaft speed measurement, driveline torque variations due to rough road can hinder the diagnosis of misfire. A common method of rough road detection uses the ABS (Anti-Lock Braking System) module to process wheel speed sensor data. This leads to multiple integration issues including complexities in interacting with multiple suppliers, inapplicability in certain markets and lower reliability of wheel speed sensors. This paper describes novel rough road detection concepts based on signal processing and statistical analysis without using wheel speed sensors. These include engine crankshaft and Transmission Output Speed (TOS) sensing information. Algorithms that combine adaptive signal processing and specific statistical analysis of this information are presented.
Technical Paper

Diagnosis of Off-Brake Performance Issues with Low Range Pressure Distribution Sensors

Brake caliper and corner behavior in the off-brake condition can lead, at times, to brake system performance issues such as residual drag (and related issues such as pulsation, judder, and loss of fuel economy), and caliper pryback during aggressive driving maneuvers. The dynamics in the brake corner can be strikingly complex, with numerous friction interfaces, rubber component and grease dynamics, deflections of multiple components, and significant dependence on usage conditions. Displacements of moving parts are usually small, and the residual forces in the caliper interfaces involved are also small in comparison with other forces acting on the same components, making direct observation very difficult. The present work attempts to illuminate off-brake behavior in two different conditions - residual drag and pryback - through the use of low-range pressure distribution sensors placed in between the caliper (pistons and fingers) and the brake pad pressure plates.
Technical Paper

Plasma Jet Ignition of Lean Mixtures

The development of a plasma jet ignition system is described on a 4-cyl, 140 in3 engine. Performance was evaluated on the basis of combustion flame photographs in a single-cylinder engine at 20/1 A/F dynamometer tests on a modified 4-cyl engine, and cold start emissions, fuel economy, and drivability in a vehicle at 19/1 air fuel ratio. In addition to adjustable engine variables such as air-fuel ratio and spark advance, system electrical and mechanical parameters were varied to improve combustion of lean mixtures. As examples, the air-fuel ratio range was 16-22/1, secondary ignition current was varied from 40 to 6000 mA, and plasma jet cavity and electrode geometry were optimized. It is shown that the plasma jet produces on ignition source which penetrates the mixture ahead of the initial flame front and reduces oxides of nitrogen emission, in comparison to a conventional production combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

General Motors High Performance 4.3L V6 Engine

FIGURE 1 The 200 HP high performance 4.3L Vortec V6 engine has been developed to satisfy the need for a fuel efficient performance powerplant in the General Motors small truck platforms. Marketing requirements included strong low and mid range torque, relatively high specific power, smoothness and noise comparable to the best competitive six cylinder engines, excellent driveability, and a new technology image. Maintaining the 4.3L engine record of high reliability and customer satisfaction was an absolute requirement. Fuel economy and exhaust emission performance had to meet expected customer and legislated requirements in the mid 1990's.
Technical Paper

Selection and Development of a Particulate Trap System for a Light Duty Diesel Engine

In order to meet progressively stringent regulations on particulate emission from diesel engines, GM has developed and tested a variety of trap oxidizer systems over the years. A particulate trap system for a light duty diesel engine has been selected and developed based on this experience, with particular emphasis on production feasibility. The system components have been designed and developed in collaboration with potential suppliers, to the extent possible. The technical performance of this system has been demonstrated by successful system durability testing in the test cell and vehicle experience in computer controlled automatic operation mode. Although the system shows promise, its production readiness will require more development and extensive vehicle validation under all operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Diesel Exhaust Odor Its Evaluation and Relation to Exhaust Gas Composition

TECHNIQUES, based on panel estimates, were developed for evaluating the odor and irritation intensities of undiluted diesel-engine exhaust gases or of various dilutions of these gases in air. Along with the estimates, chemical analyses were made to determine the concentrations of total aldehydes, formaldehyde, and oxides of nitrogen. Statistically significant correlations were found between odor or irritation intensity estimates and the analytical data, but these correlations were too weak to permit accurate prediction of odor or irritation from chemical analyses. Effects of some engine variables on diesel odor were studied. Possible means of reducing diesel odor are discussed.
Technical Paper

A Sampling System for the Measurement of PreCatalyst Emissions from Vehicles Operating Under Transient Conditions

A proportional sampler for vehicle feedgas and tailpipe emissions has been developed that extracts a small, constant fraction of the total exhaust flow during rapid transient changes in engine speed. Heated sampling lines are used to extract samples either before or after the catalytic converter. Instantaneous exhaust mass flow is measured by subtracting the CVS dilution air volume from the total CVS volume. This parameter is used to maintain a constant dilution ratio and proportional sample. The exhaust sample is diluted with high-purity air or nitrogen and is delivered into Tedlar sample bags. These transient test cycle weighted feedgas samples can be collected for subsequent analysis of hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbon species. This “mini-diluter” offers significant advantages over the conventional CVS system. The concentration of the samples are higher than those collected from the current CVS system because the dilution ratio can be optimized depending on the fuel.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Trends and Catalytic Devices

In 1968, a major oil company cancelled its annual automobile economy run after sponsoring it for 18 consecutive years -presumably due to lack of interest from the public and the press. Almost coincident with that cancellation was the beginning of production automobile exhaust emission control on a national basis and a downward inflection in the historic trend of automobile fuel economy. In contrast, the past year has seen a major revival of interest, by both the public and the press, in fuel economy. In the next few weeks, the nation will be introduced to a new direction in automotive exhaust emission control which will profoundly affect the fuel economy trend. Perhaps equally, or even more important, the next few months are expected to see major national decisions on future automobile emission control which will likely have a significant influence on the direction taken by automobile fuel economy a few years hence.
Technical Paper

Emissions of Toxicologically Relevant Compounds Using Dibutyl Maleate and Tripropylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether Diesel Fuel Additives to Lower NOx Emissions

A previous paper reported (SAE Paper 2002-01-2884) that it was possible to decrease mode-weighted NOx emissions compared to the OEM calibration with corresponding increases in particulate matter (PM) emissions. These PM emission increases were partially overcome with the use of oxygenated diesel fuel additives. We wanted to know if compounds of toxicological concern were emitted more or less using oxygenated diesel fuel additives that were used in conjunction with a modified engine operating strategy to lower engine-out NOx emissions. Emissions of toxicologically relevant compounds from fuels containing triproplyene glycol monomethyl ether and dibutyl maleate were the same or lower compared to a low sulfur fuel (15 ppm sulfur) even under engine operating conditions designed to lower engine-out NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Reducing Catalytic Converter Pressure Loss with Enhanced Inlet-Header Diffusion

The function of the inlet header of a catalytic converter is to diffuse the inlet exhaust flow, decreasing its velocity and increasing its static pressure with as little loss in total pressure as possible. In practice, very little diffusion takes place in most catalytic converter inlet headers because the flow separates at the interface of the pipe and the tapered section leading to the substrate. This leads to increased converter pressure loss and flow maldistribution. An improved inlet-header design called the Enhanced Diffusion Header (EDH) was developed which combines a short, shallow-angle diffuser with a more abrupt expansion to the substrate cross section. Tests conducted in room air (cold flow) and engine exhaust showed that improved inlet-jet diffusion leads to substantial reductions in converter restriction. EDH performance was not compromised by the presence of a right-angle bend upstream of the converter.
Technical Paper

General Motors DEXRON®-VI Global Service-Fill Specification

During early 2005 General Motors released a newly developed ATF for the factory fill of all GM Powertrain stepped gear automatic transmissions. The new fluid provided significantly improved performance in terms of friction durability, viscosity stability, aeration and foam control and oxidation resistance. In addition, the fluid has the potential to enable improved fuel economy and extended drain intervals. Since the performance of the new fluid far exceeded that of the DEXRON®-III service fill fluids available at the time it became necessary to upgrade the DEXRON® service fill specification in order to ensure that similar fluids were available in the market for service and repair situations. This latest upgrade to the service fill specification is designated DEXRON®-VI [1].
Technical Paper

The Effect of Exhaust System Geometry on Exhaust Dilution and Odor Intensity

Diesel exhaust gas dilution and odor intensity were measured in the immediate vicinity of a transit bus equipped with a rear-mounted horizontal exhaust pipe, a rear-mounted vertical exhaust pipe, and a roof-top diffusion system. Exhaust dilution ratios were measured indoors during vehicle idle operation, using propane added to the exhaust gas as a tracer. Exhaust odor intensities were measured also indoors during vehicle idle operation by a human panel, using a threshold odor measurement technique. On the average, the dilution of the exhaust gas around the bus with the vertical exhaust pipe was about eight times greater than it was with the horizontal pipe. Odor intensity, as measured by the threshold response distance, was about 35% less with the vertical pipe than with the horizontal pipe. The roof-top diffuser was not as effective as the vertical exhaust pipe in increasing exhaust gas dilution or in reducing exhaust odor intensity.
Technical Paper

Performance of Coatings for Underbody Structural Components

The Auto/Steel Partnership established the Light Truck Frame Project Group in 1996 with two objectives: (a) to develop materials, design and fabrication knowledge that would enable the frames on North American OEM (original equipment manufacturer) light trucks to be reduced in weight, and (b) to improve corrosion resistance of frames on these vehicles, thereby allowing a reduction in the thickness of the components and a reduction in frame weight. To address the issues relating to corrosion, a subgroup of the Light Truck Frame Project Group was formed. The group comprised representatives from the North American automotive companies, test laboratories, frame manufacturers, and steel producers. As part of a comprehensive test program, the Corrosion Subgroup has completed tests on frame coatings. Using coated panels of a low carbon hot rolled and pickled steel sheet and two types of accelerated cyclic corrosion tests, seven frame coatings were tested for corrosion performance.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Tips Design Analysis

The air passages in tailpipe end geometries are investigated with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. The overall objective of the simulations is to select an optimum design which has a mimimum capacity for noise generation. This is accomplished by comparing pressure drops between inlet and outlet and by examining the turbulent kinetic energy levels in the flow domain. Two designs for the tailpipe end geometries were evaluated. It was found that turbulent kinetic energy levels and pressure drops were lowest in a single pipe design which had relatively smooth internal contours. We conclude that the present CFD approach can provide useful design information in a short time frame (a few weeks) for exhaust pipe tip geometries for reduced pressure drop and noise generation.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Cross Wind Air Flow Analysis

CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) has been used to analyze vehicle air flow. In cross wind conditions an asymmetrical flow field around the vehicle is present. Under these circumstances, in addition to the forces present with symmetric air flow (drag and lift forces and pitching moment), side forces and moments (rolling and yawing) occur. Issues related to fuel economy, driveability, sealing effects (caused by suction exerted on the door), structural integrity (sun roof, spoiler), water management (rain deposit), and dirt deposit (shear stress) have been investigated. Due to the software developments and computer hardware improvements, results can be obtained within a reasonable time frame with excellent accuracy (both geometry and analytical solution). The flow velocity, streamlines, pressure field, and component forces can be extracted from the analysis results through visualization to identify potential improvement areas.
Technical Paper

A Five-Speed Starting Clutch Automatic Transmission Vehicle

A wet multi-plate clutch, designated as the “starting clutch”, is used to replace the torque converter in the automatic transmission in order to improve vehicle fuel economy. The transmission ratio spread must be increased to compensate for the torque multiplication of the torque converter and avoid penalizing the 0-60 mph acceleration performance. The main challenge of this concept is the control of the starting clutch to ensure acceptable vehicle drivability. This paper describes the system of a five-speed starting clutch automatic transmission vehicle and shows vehicle test results. Vehicle test data show that (i) the fuel economy benefit of the starting clutch is significant, and (ii) a starting clutch transmission can be designed to equal or better the 0-60 mph acceleration performance of a torque converter transmission by proper selection of the gear ratios.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy and Performance Potential of a Five-Speed 4T60-E Starting Clutch Automatic Transmission Vehicle

A wet multi-plate clutch, designated as the “starting clutch”, and a two-speed simple planetary gearset are used to replace the torque converter in the 4T60-E automatic transmission in order to study the potential improvement of vehicle fuel economy without sacrificing 0 - 60 mph acceleration performance. The starting clutch and the two-speed simple planetary gearset are designed to fit in the torque converter compartment. This paper describes the modified five-speed 4T60-E starting clutch automatic transmission system and provides vehicle test results to demonstrate its fuel economy and 0-60 mph performance potential.
Technical Paper

Counter-Gravity Casting Process for Making Thinwall Steel Exhaust Manifolds

Casting technology developmentshave led to a manufacturing process that allows the casting of thin wall (2-3mm) heat resistant ferritic stainless steel exhaust manifolds which can replace stamped and tubular weldments as well as iron castings where temperature requirements are increased. This casting process combines the thin wall and clean metal benefits of the counter gravity, vacuum-assist casting process using thin, light-weight bonded sand molds supported by vacuum-ridgidized sand. This combination is called the LSVAC (Loose Sand Vacuum Assisted Casting) process, a patented process. This process will significantly contribute to the growth of near-net shape steellstainless steel castings for automotive and allied industries. For exhaust manifolds, a modified grade of ferritic stainless steel with good oxidation resistance to 950°C in high dew point synthetic exhaust gas atmospheres was developed.
Technical Paper

General Motors Small Front Wheel Drive Six speed Automatic Transmission Family

General Motors introduced a family of small front wheel drive six speed automatic transmissions for the 2008 model year. The family currently has two variants: 6T40 and 6T45, which cover a range of vehicles from small & compact cars to small SUVs and handle engines torque capacities up to 240 Nm Gas(280 Nm Diesel) & 315 Nm Gas (380 Nm Diesel) respectively. The 6T40/45 transmissions replace GM traditional four speed automatic wrap around transmissions 4T40/45. The wrap around transmissions have Torque Converter, Pump & Controls on the engine axis and the rest of the transmission content on the output axis. The 6T40/45 have an on-axis architecture with majority of the transmission content on the engine axis and final drive & differential on the output axis. The 4T40/45 have input chain transfer whereas the 6T40/45 have an output chain transfer.
Technical Paper

Electro-Hydraulic Fully Flexible Valve Actuation System for Engine Test Cell

Fully Flexible Valve Actuation (FFVA) systems provide maximum flexibility to adjust lift profiles of engine intake and exhaust valves. A research grade electro-hydraulic servo valve based FFVA system was designed to be used with an engine in a test cell to precisely follow desired lift profiles. Repetitive control was chosen as the control strategy. Crank angle instead of time is used to trigger execution to ensure repeatability. A single control is used for different engine speeds even though the period for one revolution changes with engine speeds. The paper also discusses lift profile extension, instantaneous lift profile switching capability and built-in safety features.