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Technical Paper

The Mvma Investigation Into the Complexities of Heavy Truck Splash and Spray Problem

1985-01-01
856097
Splash and spray conditions created by tractor-trailer combinations operating on the Federal highway system have been studied and tested for many years with mixed results. Past events are reviewed briefly in this paper. In additional testing during 1983, using new state-of- the-art splash/spray suppressant devices, some encouragement was provided that these devices could work. The 1984 Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (MVMA) test program was designed to develop practicable and reliable test procedures to measure effectiveness of splash and spray reduction methods applied to tractor-trailer combination vehicles. Over 40 different combinations of splash/spray suppression devices on five different tractors and three van trailer types were tested. The spray-cloud densities for some 400 test runs were measured by laser transmissometers and also recorded by still photography, motion pictures, and videotape. On-site observers made subjective ratings of spray density.
Technical Paper

Results of the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association Component and Full-Vehicle Side Impact Test Procedure Evaluation Program

1985-01-01
856087
This paper presents an extensive research program undertaken to develop improved side impact test methods. The development of a component side impact test device along with an associated test procedure are reviewed. The results of accident data analysis techniques to define anatomical areas most likely to be injured during side impact and definition of test device response corridors based on human surrogate testing conducted by the Association Peugeot/Renault and the University of Heidelberg are discussed. The relationship of response corridors and accident data analysis in earlier phases of the project resulted in definition and development of a component side impact test device to represent the human thorax. A test program to evaluate and compare component and full-vehicle test results is presented.
Technical Paper

Simulation of the Hybrid III Dummy Response to Impact by Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis

1994-11-01
942227
The Hybrid III dummy is an anthropomorphic (humanlike) test device, generally used in crashworthiness testing to assess the extent of occupant protection provided by the vehicle structure and its restraint systems in the event of vehicle crash. Lumped-parameter analytical models are commonly used to simulate the dummy response. These models, by virtue of their limited number of degrees of freedom, can neither represent accurate three-dimensional dummy geometry nor detailed structural deformations. In an effort to improve the state-of-the-art in analytical dummy simulations, a set of finite element models of the Hybrid III dummy segments - head, neck, thorax, spine, pelvis, knee, upper extremities and lower extremities - were developed. The component models replicated the hardware geometry as closely as possible. Appropriate elastic material models were selected for the dummy “skeleton”, with the exterior “soft tissues” represented by viscoelastic materials.
Technical Paper

Racing Car Restraint System Frontal Crash Performance Testing

1994-12-01
942482
This paper presents the results of a series of over 30 impact sled simulations of racing car frontal crashes conducted as part of the GM Motorsports Safety Technology Research Program. A Hyge™ impact sled fitted with a simulated racing car seat and restraint system was used to simulate realistic crash loading with a mid-size male Hybrid III dummy. The results of tests, in the form of measured loads, displacements, and accelerations, are presented and comparisons made with respect to the levels of these parameters seen in typical passenger car crash testing and to current injury threshold values.
Technical Paper

Anthropometry of Indy Car Drivers

1994-12-01
942547
This study assembled a database of anatomic dimensions of Indy Car drivers and developed procedures that can be used as models for future compilations of anatomic data from specialized populations. The database defines the body configuration for the Indy Car driver population and indicates that the current HYBRID III, midsize male crash dummy will provide a reasonable approximation of that population if used in investigations involving issues of crash protection. This study took advantage of a unique opportunity to assemble an anthropometric database from a specialized population which was compared to an existing database collected from a comparable sub-set of the United States population.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Air Bag Deployment Loads with the Small Female Hybrid III Dummy

1993-11-01
933119
This study is an extension of previous work on driver air bag deployment loads which used the mid-size male Hybrid Ill dummy. Both small female and mid-size male Hybrid Ill dummies were tested with a range of near-positions relative to the air bag module. These alignments ranged from the head centered on the module to the chest centered on the module and with various separations and lateral shifts from the module. For both sized dummies the severity of the loading from the air bag depended on alignment and separation of the dummy with respect to the air bag module. No single alignment provided high responses for all body regions, indicating that one test at a typical alignment cannot simultaneously determine the potential for injury risk for the head, neck, and torso. Based on comparisons with their respective injury assessment reference values, the risk of chest injury appeared similar for both sized dummies.
Technical Paper

A Predictive Design Methodology for Active Top Pads During Airbag Deployment

1999-03-01
1999-01-0688
Using a combination of engineering test experience, explicit finite-element analysis, and advanced materials characterization, a predictive engineering method has been developed that can assist in the development of active top pads. An active top pad is the component of the instrument panel that covers the passenger airbag module and articulates during a crash event, allowing the airbag to deploy. This paper highlights the predictive analysis method, analytical results interpretation, and suggestions for future development.
Technical Paper

Human Volunteer Testing of GM Air Cushions

1972-02-01
720443
From November 1970 through August 1971 an extensive program of static and dynamic air cushion inflation tests utilizing human volunteers was conducted at Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico, sponsored by the Department of Transportation. Forty-one full cushion deployment static firings were made, with air cushion hardware and seating buck environment designed by General Motors. The static series was followed by 35 dynamic sled firings of human volunteers, beginning at 8.6 g (15.1 mph) and culminating at 21.7 g (31.5 mph). A major objective of both the static and dynamic test series was to identify changes in air-cushion design found necessary to improve its protective capability for human beings. Because of the severity of cushion deployment, one modification was made following the initial static tests: The orifice diameter size of the bag inlet was reduced from 1.0 to 0.6 in to diminish the rapidity of bag inflation. This modification proved effective in the dynamic series.
Technical Paper

Applications of Monte Carlo Simulation to Vehicle Maintenance and Component Remanufacturing Decisions

1983-02-01
830550
As component and systems sophistication in both cars and trucks increase, improved diagnostic capabilities are required to assure proper and expedient serviceability. Replacement of electrical modules, starter motors, carburetors, fuel injectors and even whole engines or transmissions is encouraged by high labor costs and continued vehicle mobility mandates. The remanufacturing business has grown and components previously discarded now provide valuable core elements to feed the industry. To achieve efficient utilization of capital, equipment and labor, remanufacturers must estimate when this supply of core elements will be available and plan their production schedules accordingly. In order to properly service private individuals and commercial fleets, minimize vehicle downtime and reduce life cycle costs, adaptation of available analytical tools must be made.
Technical Paper

Describing the Truck Driver Eye and Head Accommodation Tools

1987-08-01
871531
Truck driver eye and head position tools have been developed to describe where certain percentages of truck drivers position there eyes and heads in various workspace arrangements. Separate equations describe the accommodation level for driver populations with male to female ratios of 50/50, 75/25, and a range from 90/10 to 95/5. These equations can be used as a design tool to locate the curves in vehicle space to describe the region behind which the given populations eyes and heads would be located. Equations and curves are provided for both the drivers eye and head in the side view. It has become increasingly apparent that there is a need for improved methods of accommodating truck drivers in heavy truck cab design. Currently, practices used in the automobile industry for passenger car design are utilized for the design of heavy trucks. These practices.
Technical Paper

Describing the Truck Driver Stomach and Shin-Knee Accommodation Tools

1987-08-01
871532
Truck driver shin-knee and stomach postion tools have been developed to describe where certain percentages of truck drivers position there knees and stomachs in various workspace arrangements. Separate equations describe the accommodation level for driver populations with male to female ratios of 50/50, 75/25, and a range from 90/10 to 95/5. These equations can be used as a design tool to locate the curves in vehicle space to describe the region behind which the given populations shin-knees, and stomachs would be located. Equations and curves are provided for both the left leg, which operates the clutch, and the right leg, which operates the accelerator.
Technical Paper

Plasma Jet Ignition of Lean Mixtures

1975-02-01
750349
The development of a plasma jet ignition system is described on a 4-cyl, 140 in3 engine. Performance was evaluated on the basis of combustion flame photographs in a single-cylinder engine at 20/1 A/F dynamometer tests on a modified 4-cyl engine, and cold start emissions, fuel economy, and drivability in a vehicle at 19/1 air fuel ratio. In addition to adjustable engine variables such as air-fuel ratio and spark advance, system electrical and mechanical parameters were varied to improve combustion of lean mixtures. As examples, the air-fuel ratio range was 16-22/1, secondary ignition current was varied from 40 to 6000 mA, and plasma jet cavity and electrode geometry were optimized. It is shown that the plasma jet produces on ignition source which penetrates the mixture ahead of the initial flame front and reduces oxides of nitrogen emission, in comparison to a conventional production combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Sideband and Sound Field Spatial Considerations in the Measurement of Gear Noise

2005-05-16
2005-01-2517
Measurement of gear noise requires accurate measurement of gear mesh harmonic sound levels. The sound signal may include sidebands, such that the frequency bandwidth and computation method of respective “order tracking” analysis will have a profound effect on measured sound levels. A further consideration is the spatial distribution of the sound field inside typical passenger cars and light duty trucks, in which sound levels can change dramatically within small distances. This paper provides a discussion of the data processing and measurement location effects at hand. It explains their influence and provides guidelines for their selection.
Technical Paper

Multiple Solutions by Performance Band: An Effective Way to Deal with Modeling Error

2004-03-08
2004-01-1688
Robust optimization usually requires numerous functional evaluations, which is not feasible when the functional evaluation is time-consuming. Examples in automobile industry include crash worthiness/safety and fatigue life simulations. In practice, a response surface model (RSM) is often used as a surrogate to the CAE model, so that robust optimization can be carried out. However, if the error in the RSM is significant, the solution based on the RSM can be invalid. This paper proposes a method of finding multiple candidate solutions, all of which have similar predicted performances. This approach is effective in finding the close-to-optimum solutions when the model has error, and providing design alternatives. Examples are provided to illustrate the method.
Technical Paper

Rollover Sensor Signature Test Development

2007-04-16
2007-01-0375
Although rollover crashes represent a small fraction (approximately 3%) of all motor vehicle crashes, they account for roughly one quarter of crash fatalities to occupants of cars, light trucks, and vans (NHTSA Traffic Safety Facts, 2004). Therefore, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has identified rollover injuries as one of its safety priorities. Motor vehicle manufacturers are developing technologies to reduce the risk of injury associated with rollover collisions. This paper describes the development by General Motors Corporation (GM) of a suite of laboratory tests that can be used to develop sensors that can deploy occupant protection devices like roof rail side air bags and pretensioners in a rollover as well as a discussion of the challenges of conducting this suite of tests.
Technical Paper

General Motors High Performance 4.3L V6 Engine

1992-02-01
920676
FIGURE 1 The 200 HP high performance 4.3L Vortec V6 engine has been developed to satisfy the need for a fuel efficient performance powerplant in the General Motors small truck platforms. Marketing requirements included strong low and mid range torque, relatively high specific power, smoothness and noise comparable to the best competitive six cylinder engines, excellent driveability, and a new technology image. Maintaining the 4.3L engine record of high reliability and customer satisfaction was an absolute requirement. Fuel economy and exhaust emission performance had to meet expected customer and legislated requirements in the mid 1990's.
Technical Paper

Running Loss Test Procedure Development

1992-02-01
920322
A running loss test procedure has been developed which integrates a point-source collection method to measure fuel evaporative running loss from vehicles during their operation on the chassis dynamometer. The point-source method is part of a complete running loss test procedure which employs the combination of site-specific collection devices on the vehicle, and a sampling pump with sampling lines. Fugitive fuel vapor is drawn into these collectors which have been matched to characteristics of the vehicle and the test cell. The composite vapor sample is routed to a collection bag through an adaptation of the ordinary constant volume dilution system typically used for vehicle exhaust gas sampling. Analysis of the contents of such bags provides an accurate measure of the mass and species of running loss collected during each of three LA-4* driving cycles. Other running loss sampling methods were considered by the Auto-Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AQIRP or Program).
Technical Paper

Selection and Development of a Particulate Trap System for a Light Duty Diesel Engine

1992-02-01
920142
In order to meet progressively stringent regulations on particulate emission from diesel engines, GM has developed and tested a variety of trap oxidizer systems over the years. A particulate trap system for a light duty diesel engine has been selected and developed based on this experience, with particular emphasis on production feasibility. The system components have been designed and developed in collaboration with potential suppliers, to the extent possible. The technical performance of this system has been demonstrated by successful system durability testing in the test cell and vehicle experience in computer controlled automatic operation mode. Although the system shows promise, its production readiness will require more development and extensive vehicle validation under all operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Crashworthiness Analysis Using Numerical Methods and Experiments

1992-06-01
921075
Past studies have shown the applicability of advanced numerical methods for crashworthiness simulation. Lumped parameter (LP) modeling and finite element (FE) modeling have been demonstrated as two useful methodologies for achieving this endeavor. Experimental tests and analytical modeling using LP and FE techniques were performed on an experimental vehicle in order to evaluate the compatibility and interrelationship of the two numerical methods for crashworthiness simulation. The objective of the numerical analysis was to simulate the vehicle crashworthiness in a 0 degree, 48.6 KPH frontal impact. Additionally, a single commercial software, LS-DYNA3D, was used for both the LP and FE analysis.
Technical Paper

Hybrid III Sternal Deflection Associated with Thoracic Injury Severities of Occupants Restrained with Force-Limiting Shoulder Belts

1991-02-01
910812
A relationship between the risk of significant thoracic injury (AIS ≥ 3) and Hybrid III dummy sternal deflection for shoulder belt loading is developed. This relationship is based on an analysis of the Association Peugeot-Renault accident data of 386 occupants who were restrained by three-point belt systems that used a shoulder belt with a force-limiting element. For 342 of these occupants, the magnitude of the shoulder belt force could be estimated with various degrees of certainty from the amount of force-limiting band ripping. Hyge sled tests were conducted with a Hybrid III dummy to reproduce the various degrees of band tearing. The resulting Hybrid III sternal deflections were correlated to the frequencies of AIS ≥ 3 thoracic injury observed for similar band tearing in the field accident data. This analysis indicates that for shoulder belt loading a Hybrid III sternal deflection of 50 mm corresponds to a 40 to 50% risk of an AIS ≥ 3 thoracic injury.
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