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Technical Paper

Diesel Flex Plate Development Process

1993-11-01
932981
Basic procedures are described for the design and development of flexible drive plates that couple automatic transmissions to engines. An innovative combination of analysis and test techniques were employed during the development of a drive plate for a turbocharged diesel truck engine when premature failures occurred. FEA (finite element analysis) was expanded from use as a preliminary design tool to the prediction of high stress conditions and the loading that caused them. A laboratory test was developed to rapidly assess drive plate design changes based on these FEA predictions.
Technical Paper

Racing Car Restraint System Frontal Crash Performance Testing

1994-12-01
942482
This paper presents the results of a series of over 30 impact sled simulations of racing car frontal crashes conducted as part of the GM Motorsports Safety Technology Research Program. A Hyge™ impact sled fitted with a simulated racing car seat and restraint system was used to simulate realistic crash loading with a mid-size male Hybrid III dummy. The results of tests, in the form of measured loads, displacements, and accelerations, are presented and comparisons made with respect to the levels of these parameters seen in typical passenger car crash testing and to current injury threshold values.
Technical Paper

A Progress Report on Electromagnetic Activity of Motor Vehicle Manufacturer's Association

1973-02-01
730057
Starting in 1965 and continuing through 1972, the Radio Committee of the Motor Vehicles Manufacturers Association (MVMA) has been the coordinator of a number of electromagnetic research projects. These investigations have included extensive applications of the updated SAE Standard, Measurement of Electromagnetic Radiation From Motor Vehicles (20-1000 MHz)-SAE J551a. Furthermore, there were joint testing programs with the Electronic Industries Association which encompassed measuring degradation in the performance of Land Mobile Radio Service receivers resulting from varying levels of impulsive-type radiation from motor vehicles. In addition, efforts were expended in using statistical approaches for testing a number of hypotheses covering a conversion of impulsive vehicle noise data to the interference potential to Land Mobile receivers.
Technical Paper

The 1978 Chrysler Torque Converter Lock-Up Clutch

1978-02-01
780100
A torque converter lock-up clutch was introduced by Chrysler Corporation in a majority of its passenger cars in the 1978 model year. The lock-up clutch improves fuel economy by eliminating torque converter slip in direct gear above a predetermined speed. The clutch and its controls were designed to fit within the confines of the existing transmission. The development of the clutch was primarily concerned with achieving adequate endurance life, good shift quality and isolation of torsional vibrations.
Technical Paper

Engine Mount for Integral Body Vehicle

1983-02-01
830258
A typical problem in integral body vehicles is the isolation of high frequency vibration and noise. A method of attacking this problem is presented for isolation of engine noise. A mount concept which acts as a mechanical low pass filter was analyzed, designed and tested. Results in reducing engine noise in the vehicle show it to be an effective method.
Technical Paper

Chrysler's New Front Wheel Drive Automatic Transmission

1979-02-01
790018
A new three-speed automatic transmission has been designed, developed and is being produced in the U.S. by the Chrysler Corporation for its new family of front wheel drive vehicles. The transmission was designed around the Chrysler-proven TorqueFlite concept. The features of the new transmission include a “folded” construction for installation in a transverse power train. The case is a one-piece aluminum die cast housing and contains the final drive and differential unit. This paper describes the design and development of this new automatic transmission.
Technical Paper

Design and Selection Factors for Automatic Transaxle Tapered Roller Bearings

1992-02-01
920609
Tapered roller bearings have proven successful in a number of high-volume automatic transaxle designs. Typically, tapered roller bearings are required to carry high loads generated by helical and hypoid gears. To meet the demands of a successful design, a number of factors must be considered in the selection and application of tapered roller bearings. This paper presents a discussion of these factors as well as results from Chrysler's transaxle testing. Selection of tapered roller bearings is based on the transmission duty cycle developed using load and speed histograms, gear data, size constraints, and life requirements. A bearing life analysis considering the total transaxle system is conducted using a sophisticated computer program. Various system effects are analyzed including the load/speed cycle, housing and shaft rigidity, lubrication, bearing setting, thermal effects, and bearing internal design.
Technical Paper

The Northstar DOHC V-8 Engine for Cadillac

1992-02-01
920671
General Motors Powertrain Division has developed a new V-8 engine for Cadillac vehicles in the 1990s. The Northstar engine incorporates the use of aluminum for both the cylinder block and head and other lightweight materials throughout. The valve train incorporates direct acting hydraulic lifters actuating the four valves per cylinder through dual overhead camshafts. The primary focus of the project has been to produce an engine of unquestioned reliability and exceptional value which is pleasing to the customer throughout the range of loads and speeds. The engine was designed with a light weight valve train, low valve overlap and moderate lift, resulting in a very pleasing combination of smooth idle and a broad range of power. The use of analytical methods early in the design stage enabled systems to be engineered to optimize reliability, pleaseability and value by reducing frictional losses, noise, and potential leak paths, while increasing efficiency and ease of manufacture.
Technical Paper

The Chrysler PowerFlite Transmission

1954-01-01
540261
THE design and construction of the PowerFlite automatic transmission are described by the authors. It is of the torque converter type, some models being water-cooled, while others are direct air cooled. Details of the hydraulic controls are explained, including the one-piece shift valve and the shuttle valve for controlling closed-throttle shifts. It is claimed that this transmission has relative simplicity, light weight, and smoothness of operation.
Technical Paper

POWERMATIC A New Automatic for Chevrolet Transmission Heavy-Duty Trucks

1957-01-01
570012
THIS paper describes the development of a truck automatic transmission, from a statement of broad objectives through the growing pains, to road testing of the final product. Emphasis is placed upon original thinking that led to the decision to undertake such a project, compromises that suggested themselves throughout the various stages, and features tried and found wanting as well as those retained. The finished product is described full though not in detail, stress being placed upon interesting and novel design features.
Technical Paper

WHERE DOES ALL THE POWER GO?

1957-01-01
570058
AS a basis for the analyses of this symposium, a hypothetical car has been used to evaluate the engine power distribution in performance. Effects of fuel,-engine accessories, and certain car accessories are evaluated. The role of the transmission in making engine power useful at normal car speeds is also discussed. Variables encountered in wind and rolling resistance determinations are reevaluated by improved test techniques. Net horsepower of the car in terms of acceleration, passing ability and grade capability are also summarized.
Technical Paper

THE GMR 4-4 “HYPREX” ENGINE A CONCEPT OF THE FREE-PISTON ENGINE FOR AUTOMOTIVE USE

1957-01-01
570032
DESCRIBED here is a 250-hp free-piston gasifier-turbine engine that has actually been installed in an automobile. A unique feature of this Hyprex engine is that it is a siamesed unit. The overall design has been selected, according to the author, to secure a compact, light-weight machine with improved thermal efficiency and with a reduction in general noise. Although the engine is still in the experimental stage, the author reports that analysis and results indicate it will be a serious contender for powering automotive vehicles.
Technical Paper

Considerations Affecting the Life of Automotive Camshafts and Tappets

1956-01-01
560015
WORK done in a development program relative to camshafts and tappets in the design of the Chrysler overhead-valve V-8 engine is described. The types of failure encountered are categorized as wear, scuffing, and fatigue. An accelerated test procedure was designed to promote early cam-tappet failures, and the development work was predicated upon the results obtained therefrom. Among the variables affecting the failure conditions, major emphasis was placed on material development. Specifically, the greater amount of time was spent in determining the optimum tappet material, while some time was devoted to the camshaft material. A combination of adjusted chemical composition and heat-treatment of hardenable cast iron for camshaft and tappets provided the best solution to the failure problems.
Technical Paper

AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION CONTROL SYSTEMS

1947-01-01
470242
THIS description of the hydraulic control used with the hydra-matic transmission reveals how the control operates to change ratios under power without direction from the driver. The control's pattern of automatic shifting for ordinary, high-range driving has been selected as the best compromise between top performance and low ratio of engine noise to wind noise. The control's low range shifts gears according to performance dictates alone, furnishing greater power for extreme conditions at low speeds and enabling the driver to use his engine as a brake on steep descents. Heart of the control system is a double hydraulic governor, sensitive both to car speed and throttle opening. THIS paper, as well as the two that follow, one by Messrs. Nutt and Smirl and the other by Mr. Kimberly, make up a symposium on automatic transmission components presented at the 1947 SAE Summer Meeting.
Technical Paper

Chrysler 3.5 Liter V-6 Engine

1993-03-01
930875
A new 3.5 liter, 60 degrees V6 engine has been designed specifically for Chrysler's 1993 MY line of mid-size sedans - Dodge Intrepid, Eagle Vision, Chrysler Concorde and New Yorker. This new engine features many new components for enchanced performance. The cylinder head has a single overhead cam, four valve-per - cylinder design. The intake system is a cross-flow design equipped with dual throttle bodies, and the manifold also incorporates a vacuum operated tuning valve that increases the mid-range torque of the engine. A windage tray is used on every engine to reduce drag on the rotating components within the crankcase. Dual knock sensors (one per cylinder bank) are used to take advantage of the aggressive spark advance and high compression ratio. The engine also utilizes a plastic, helical, water pump impeller that contributes to low parasitic power losses. The engine incorporates many components and features to ensure durability.
Technical Paper

Experience in Sand Casting Aluminum MMC Prototype Components

1993-03-01
930179
Typical sand-casting techniques have been shown to be inappropriate in pouring particulate reinforced aluminum metal matrix composite (Al-MMC) castings. New gating/risering configurations were necessary to produce castings of acceptable soundness. Several automotive components, including brake rotors, cylinder liners and camshaft thrust plates, were prepared using special techniques. Initial durability test results of several Al-MMC prototype components are presented.
Technical Paper

Sound Quality of Impulsive Noises: An Applied Study of Automotive Door Closing Sounds

1999-05-17
1999-01-1684
This paper discusses four general attributes which quantify the character of an impulsive sound event. These attributes include the time duration, amplitude and frequency content of the impulsive noise. A three dimensional plot relating time, frequency and amplitude have been developed for the presentation of the measured data. This format allows graphic illustration of the noise event, providing fast interpretation and communication of the measured sound. Application of this methodology to the sound of an automotive door closing event is presented here. Representative door closing sound events are analyzed, with correlation presented between the attributes above to dynamic events of the physical hardware within the door and vehicle systems. Modifications of the door-in-white, internal door hardware, seal systems and additional content are investigated for their effect on the sound quality of the door closing event. Finally, recommended values for these attributes are presented.
Technical Paper

Squeak Studies on Material Pair Compatibility

2001-04-30
2001-01-1546
The more noise and vibration improvements are incorporated into our vehicles, the more customers notice squeaks and rattles (S&R). Customers increasingly perceive S&R as a direct indicator of vehicle build quality and durability. The high profile nature of S&R has the automotive industry striving to develop the understanding and technology of how to improve the S&R performance in the vehicle. Squeaks and itches make up a significant amount of Squeak and Rattle complaints found in today's vehicles. Squeaks and itches are the result of stick slip behavior between two interacting surfaces. Squeak itch behavior is dependent upon a large number of parameters including but not limited to: the material itself, temperature, humidity, normal load, system compliance, part geometry, velocity, surface roughness, wear, contaminants, etc. This paper will describe the analysis of sound data and friction data and the relationship between them.
Technical Paper

The Application of Direct Body Excitation Toward Developing a Full Vehicle Objective Squeak and Rattle Metric

2001-04-30
2001-01-1554
In order to engineer Squeak & Rattle (S&R) free vehicles it is essential to develop an objective measurement method to compare and correlate with customer satisfaction and subjective S&R assessments. Three methods for exciting S&Rs -type surfaces. Excitation methods evaluated were road tests over S&R surfaces, road simulators, and direct body excitation (DBE). The principle of DBE involves using electromagnetic shakers to induce controlled, road-measured vibration into the body, bypassing the tire patch and suspension. DBE is a promising technology for making objective measurements because it is extremely quiet (test equipment noise does not mask S&Rs), while meeting other project goals. While DBE is limited in exposing S&Rs caused by body twist and suspension noises, advantages include higher frequency energy owing to electro-dynamic shakers, continuous random excitation, lower capital cost, mobility, and safety.
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