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Technical Paper

Forward Collision Warning: Preliminary Requirements for Crash Alert Timing

2001-03-05
2001-01-0462
Forward collision warning (FCW) systems are intended to provide drivers with crash alerts to help them avoid or mitigate rear-end crashes. To facilitate successful deployment of FCW systems, the Ford-GM Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership (CAMP) developed preliminary minimum functional requirements for FCW systems implemented on light vehicles (passenger cars, light trucks, and vans). This paper summarizes one aspect of the CAMP results: minimum requirements and recommendations for when to present rear-end crash alerts to the driver. These requirements are valid over a set of kinematic conditions that are described, and assume successful tracking and identification of a legitimate crash threat. The results are based on extensive closed-course human factors testing that studied drivers' last-second braking preferences and capabilities. The paper reviews the human factors testing, modeling of results, and the computation of FCW crash alert timing requirements and recommendations.
Technical Paper

1996 GM 7.4 Liter Engine Upgrade

1996-02-01
960012
General Motors Powertrain Division has developed the next generation big block V8 engine for introduction in the 1996 model year. In addition to meeting tighter emission and on-board diagnostic legislation, this engine evolved to meet both customer requirements and competitive challenges. Starting with the proven dependability of the time tested big block V8, goals were set to substantially increase the power, torque, fuel economy and overall pleaseability of GM's large load capacity gasoline engine. The need for this new engine to meet packaging requirements in many vehicle platforms, both truck and OEM, as well as a requirement for minimal additional heat rejection over the engine being replaced, placed additional constraints on the design.
Technical Paper

Design of a Dual Wall Air Gap Exhaust Manifold

1998-02-23
980045
The new regulations to reduce emissions have resulted in the development of new techniques to maintain or enhance competitive performance. A requirement for the manifold is to help meet the reduction in cold start emissions, particularly during the transient conditions from start to 100 seconds following the Federal Test Procedures for vehicle emissions. Finite element computer models were developed to predict inner and outer wall temperatures, and to determine structural soundness. Tests were performed to assure that noise levels were minimized. Dynamometer lab and field tests were performed to verify that the manifold would meet the design requirements. From the results of these tests and analyses, modifications were made to the weld and manufacturing techniques to improve product life and reduce noise. Dual wall manifolds have proven durability to meet high exhaust gas temperatures up to 1650°F (900°C), while meeting the performance, noise, and weight reduction goals.
Technical Paper

Dual Catalytic Converters

1975-02-01
750176
The stringent 1978 emission standards of 0.41 gm/mi HC, 3.4 gm/mile CO, and 0.4 gm/mi NOx may require the use of a dual catalytic converter system (reducing and oxidizing catalyst). These emission requirements have been achieved at low mileage with such a system, but it is complex and has exhibited poor durability. This system also results in the loss of fuel economy at the 1978 emission levels.
Technical Paper

General Motors Phase II Catalyst System

1978-02-01
780205
Three-way catalysts provide a means of catalytically achieving lower NOx emission levels while maintaining good control of HC and CO emissions. However, very accurate control of air-fuel ratio is necessary. The precise air-fuel ratio control required is accomplished by employing a closed loop fuel metering system in conjunction with an exhaust gas sensor and an electronic control unit. To gain production experience with this type of system, General Motors is introducing it on two 1978 engine families sold in California. One is a 2.5 litre L-4 engine and the other is a 3.8 litre V-6 engine. Closed loop controlled carburetors are used on both systems. This paper discusses these 1978 systems. The components used on both systems are described and emission and fuel economy results are reviewed.
Technical Paper

Changing Inspection and Maintenance Requirements: … A Result of New Emission Control Technology

1979-02-01
790783
Amendments to the Clean Air Act require the implementation of inspection/maintenance (I/M) programs in areas designated as non-attainment and unable to meet the National Ambient Air Quality Standards by 1982. Current I/M programs have been developed using data representative of pre- and early-catalyst emission control technology. Changes to current emission control systems and electronic computer controlled systems represent new emission control technology. This paper addresses the I/M situation as related to these system changes. Results of tests on a prototype system are presented. Parameter inspection and the utilization of built-in diagnostics on future systems have the potential to maximize the effectiveness of I/M programs.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of Engine Models Via Automated Dynamometer Tests

1979-02-01
790178
An automated engine dynamometer test procedure is developed and mathematical models for the main engine control variables are derived from the resulting data base. The new procedure involves sequential testing at many speed/load conditions for various combinations of air fuel ratio, spark timing and exhaust gas recirculation. The total testing time required for generating the data base of more than 2000 test points is less than twelve hours. An independent transient speed/load test is also conducted for the purpose of validating the engine models. The measured and model predicted data are compared for this test which corresponds to a segment of the EPA urban schedule.
Technical Paper

Emission and Fuel Economy Measurement Improvements

1979-02-01
790233
A program was initiated to improve the emission and fuel economy measurement accuracy and test cell to test cell correlation. Improvements were made to the Constant Volume Sampling System, electric dynamometer, instrument calibration ranges and system checks were initiated to improve the accuracy of the bag emissions, modal emissions, calculated and measured fuel economy. Unique emission and fuel economy problems associated with gasoline and diesel testing were studied and resolutions effected when possible.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Backpressure Estimation for an Internal Combustion Engine with a Variable Geometry Turbo Charger

2009-04-20
2009-01-0732
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is one of the key approaches applied to reduce emissions for an internal combustion engine. Recirculating a desired amount of EGR requires accurately estimating EGR mass flow. This can be calculated either from the gas flow equation of an orifice, or from the difference between charge air mass flow and fresh air mass flow. Both calculations need engine exhaust pressure as an input variable. This paper presents a method to estimate exhaust pressure for a variable geometry turbo charged diesel engine. The method is accurate and simple to fit production ECU application, therefore, saves cost of using a physical sensor.
Technical Paper

Opportunities and Challenges for Blended 2-Way SCR/DPF Aftertreatment Technologies

2009-04-20
2009-01-0274
Diesel engines offer better fuel economy compared to their gasoline counterpart, but simultaneous control of NOx and particulates is very challenging. The blended 2-way SCR/DPF is recently emerging as a compact and cost-effective technology to reduce NOx and particulates from diesel exhaust using a single aftertreatment device. By coating SCR catalysts on and inside the walls of the conventional wall-flow filter, the 2-way SCR/DPF eliminates the volume and mass of the conventional SCR device. Compared with the conventional diesel aftertreatment system with a SCR and a DPF, the 2-way SCR/DPF technology offers the potential of significant cost saving and packaging flexibility. In this study, an engine dynamometer test cell was set up to repeatedly load and regenerate the SCR/DPF devices to mimic catalyst aging experienced during periodic high-temperature soot regenerations in the real world.
Technical Paper

Thermal-Mechanical Durability of DOC and DPF After-treatment System for Light Heavy Pickup Truck Application

2009-11-02
2009-01-2707
The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)’s heavy duty diesel emission standard was tightened beginning from 2007 with the introduction of ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel. Most heavy duty diesel applications were required to equip Particulate Matter (PM) after-treatment systems to meet the new tighter, emission standard. Systems utilizing Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Catalyzed-Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) are a mainstream of modern diesel PM after-treatment systems. To ensure appropriate performance of the system, periodic cleaning of the PM trapped in DPF by its oxidation (a process called “regeneration”) is necessary. As a result, of this regeneration, DOC’s and DPF’s can be exposed to hundreds of thermal cycles during their lifetime. Therefore, to understand the thermo-mechanical performance of the DOC and DPF is an essential issue to evaluate the durability of the system.
Technical Paper

Application of Hydraulic Body Mounts to Reduce the Freeway Hop Shake of Pickup Trucks

2009-05-19
2009-01-2126
When pickup trucks are driven on concrete paved freeways, freeway hop shake is a major complaint. Freeway hop shake occurs when the vehicle passes over the concrete joints of the freeway which impose in-phase harmonic road inputs. These road inputs excite vehicle modes that degrade ride comfort. The worst shake level occurs when the vehicle speed is such that the road input excites the vehicle 1st bending mode and/or the rear wheel hop mode. The hop and bending mode are very close in frequency. This phenomenon is called freeway hop shake. Automotive manufacturers are searching for ways to mitigate freeway hop shake. There are several ways to reduce the shake amplitude. This paper documents a new approach using hydraulic body mounts to reduce the shake. A full vehicle analytical model was used to determine the root cause of the freeway hop shake.
Technical Paper

The CO2 Benefits of Electrification E-REVs, PHEVs and Charging Scenarios

2009-04-20
2009-01-1311
Reducing Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions is one of the major challenges for automobile manufacturers. This is driven by environmental, consumer, and regulatory demands in all major regions worldwide. For conventional vehicles, a host of technologies have been applied that improve the overall efficiency of the vehicle. This reduces CO2 contributions by directly reducing the amount of energy consumed to power a vehicle. The hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) continues this trend. However, there are limits to CO2 reduction due to improvements in efficiency alone. Other major improvements are realized when the CO2 content of the energy used to motivate vehicles is reduced. With the introduction of Extended Range Electric Vehicles (E-REVs) and Plug-in HEVs (PHEVs), electric grid energy displaces petroleum. This enables the potential for significant CO2 reductions as the CO2 per unit of electrical energy is reduced over time with the improving mix of energy sources for the electrical grid.
Technical Paper

Stability Analysis of Solid Axle, Torque Arm Suspension Vehicles under Heavy Acceleration and Braking Events

2008-04-14
2008-01-1144
Power-hop is a self-excited and potential locally unstable torsional vibration of a vehicle's driveline, caused by stick and slip of the tire. It is especially prevalent in high-powered cars and trucks, under heavy acceleration. Torque arms have been used to reduce power-hop for many solid axle suspension vehicles, mostly trucks and old rear wheel drive sports cars. It has long been known that the shortest torque arm easily reduces power-hop, but will increase hop under braking (braking-hop). The fundamental mechanism of torque arm effects on solid axle suspension vehicles, however, has not yet been fully explained. This study explains the stability of solid axle, torque arm suspension vehicles under heavy acceleration and braking. Analytical techniques utilize conventional linear analysis and a non-linear coupling force in a 4 degree of freedom dynamic model.
Technical Paper

Least-Enthalpy Based Control of Cabin Air Recirculation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0372
The vehicle air-conditioning system has significant impact on fuel economy and range of electric vehicles. Improving the fuel economy of vehicles therefore demand for energy efficient climate control systems. Also the emissions regulations motivate the reduced use of fuel for vehicle's cabin climate control. Solar heat gain of the passenger compartment by greenhouse effect is generally treated as the peak thermal load of the climate control system. Although the use of advanced glazing is considered first to reduce solar heat gain other means such as ventilation of parked car and recirculation of cabin air also have impetus for reducing the climate control loads.
Technical Paper

Measurements of Cycle to Cycle Variability of the Inlet Flow of Fuel Injectors Using LDA

2006-10-16
2006-01-3314
The focus of this research effort was to develop a technique to measure the cyclic variability of the mass injected by fuel injectors. Successful implementation of the measurement technique introduced in this paper can be used to evaluate injectors and improve their designs. More consistent and precise fuel injectors have the potential to improve fuel efficiency, engine performance, and reduce emissions. The experiments for this study were conducted at the Michigan State University Automotive Research Experiment Station. The setup consists of a fuel supply vessel pressurized by compressed nitrogen, a Dantec laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) system to measure the centerline velocity of fuel, a quartz tube for optical access, and a Cosworth IC 5460 to control the injector. The detector on the LDA system is capable of resolving Doppler bursts as short as 6μs, depending on the level of seeding, thus giving a detailed time/velocity profile.
Technical Paper

Rationale for Technology Selections in GM's PNGV Precept Concept Car Based on Systems Analysis

2000-04-02
2000-01-1567
The CY2000 cornerstone goal of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) is the demonstration in CY 2000 of a 5-passenger vehicle with fuel economy of up 80 mpg (3 l/100km). As a PNGV partner, GM will demonstrate a technology-demonstration concept vehicle, the Precept, having a lightweight aluminum-intensive body, hybrid-electric propulsion system and a portfolio of efficient vehicle technologies. This paper describes: 1) the strategy for the vehicle design including mass requirements, 2) the selection of dual axle application of regenerative braking and electric traction, and 3) the complementary perspective on energy management strategy. This paper outlines information developed through systems analysis that drove technology selections. The systems analyses relied on vehicle simulation models to estimate fuel economy associated with technology selections. Modeling analyses included consideration of both federal test requirements and more severe driving situations.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Modeling Evaluations of a Vacuum-Insulated Catalytic Converter

1999-10-25
1999-01-3678
Vehicle evaluations and model calculations were conducted on a vacuum-insulated catalytic converter (VICC). This converter uses vacuum and a eutectic PCM (phase-change material) to prolong the temperature cool-down time and hence, may keep the converter above catalyst light-off between starts. Tailpipe emissions from a 1992 Tier 0 5.2L van were evaluated after 3hr, 12hr, and 24hr soak periods. After a 12hr soak the HC emissions were reduced by about 55% over the baseline HC emissions; after a 24hr soak the device did not exhibit any benefit in light-off compared to a conventional converter. Cool-down characteristics of this VICC indicated that the catalyst mid-bed temperature was about 180°C after 24hrs. Model calculations of the temperature warm-up were conducted on a VICC converter. Different warm-up profiles within the converter were predicted depending on the initial temperature of the device.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Moving Mesh CFD Study of Semi-truck Passing a Stationary Vehicle with Hood Open

2007-04-16
2007-01-0111
This paper examines the aerodynamic forces on the open hood of a stationary vehicle when another large vehicle, such as an 18-wheel semi-truck, passes by at high speed. The problem of semi-truck passing a parked car with hood open is solved as a transient two-vehicle aerodynamics problem with a Dynamic Moving Mesh (DMM) capability in commercial CFD software package FLUENT. To assess the computational feasibility, a simplified compact car / semi-truck geometry and CFD meshes are used in the first trial example. At 70 mph semi-truck speed, the CFD results indicate a peak aerodynamic force level of 20N to 30N on the hood of the car, and the direction of the net forces and moments on the hood change multiple times during the passing event.
Technical Paper

Future Truck Steering Effort Optimization

2007-04-16
2007-01-1155
In an endeavor to improve upon historically subjective and hardware-based steering tuning development, a team was formed to find an optimal and objective solution using Design For Six Sigma (DFSS). The goal was to determine the best valve assembly design within a hydraulic power-steering assist system to yield improved steering effort and feel robustness for all vehicle models in a future truck program. The methodology utilized was not only multifaceted with several Design of Experiments (DOEs), but also took advantage of a CAE-based approach leveraging modeling capabilities in ADAMS for simulating full-vehicle, On-Center Handling behavior. The team investigated thirteen control factors to determine which minimized a realistic, compounded noise strategy while also considering the ideal steering effort function (SEF) desired by the customer. In the end, it was found that response-dependent variability dominated the physics of our valve assembly design concept.
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