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Technical Paper

Optimization of HVAC Temperature Regulation Curves with modeFrontier and Fluent

2007-04-16
2007-01-1397
Simultaneously obtaining a linear temperature control curve along with the correct temperature stratification at module outlets is one of the most difficult tasks in developing an automotive HVAC module. Traditionally, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) development of temperature control linearity has been accomplished by iteratively adjusting the location, size and orientation of baffles which redirect warm and cold airstreams. This approach demands considerable interaction from the engineer in building the computational mesh, defining boundary and operating conditions and post processing the simulation results. The present study was conducted to investigate the optimization of HVAC temperature regulation curves using the multi-objective optimization code modeFrontier (1, 3) in conjunction with CFD code, Fluent (2). An auxiliary HVAC module was selected for the present study.
Technical Paper

Expanding the Application of Magnesium Components in the Automotive Industry: A Strategic Vision

2007-04-16
2007-01-1033
There is an increasing global realization about the need for fuel efficient vehicles. An inexpensive way to accomplish this is through mass reduction, and one of the most effective ways that this can occur is through substituting current materials with magnesium, the lightest structural metal. This document describes the results of a U.S. Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) sponsored study [1] that examines why magnesium use has only grown 10% per year and identifies how to promote more widespread commercial applications beyond the 5-6 kg of component currently in vehicles. The issues and concerns which have limited magnesium use are discussed via a series of research and development themes. These address concerns associated with corrosion, fastening, and minimal metalworking/non-traditional casting processing. The automotive and magnesium supplier industries have only a limited ability to develop implementation-ready magnesium components.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Brake Lining Life Using an Energy-Based CAE Approach

2007-04-16
2007-01-1019
Due to competitive pressures and the need to rapidly develop new products for the automotive marketplace, the automotive industry has to rapidly develop and validate automotive subsystems and components. While many CAE tools are employed to decrease the time needed for a number of brake engineering tasks such as stress analysis, brake system sizing, thermo-fluid analysis, and structural dynamics, brake lining wear and the associated concept of “lining life” are still predominantly developed and validated through resource intensive public road vehicle testing. The goal of this paper is to introduce and detail an energy-based, lumped-parameter CAE approach to predict brake lining life in passenger cars and light trucks.
Technical Paper

Springback Prediction Improvement Using New Simulation Technologies

2009-04-20
2009-01-0981
Springback is a major concern in stamping of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). The existing computer simulation technology has difficulty predicting this phenomenon accurately even though it is well developed for formability simulations. Great efforts made in recent years to improve springback predictions have achieved noticeable progress in the computational capability and accuracy. In this work, springback simulation studies are conducted using FEA software LS-DYNA®. Various parametric sensitivity studies are carried out and key variables affecting the springback prediction accuracy are identified. Recently developed simulation technologies in LS-DYNA® are implemented including dynamic effect minimization, smooth tool contact and newly developed nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening material models. Case studies on lab-scale and full-scale industrial parts are provided and the predicted springback results are compared to the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Volume Morphing to Compensate Stamping Springback

2009-04-20
2009-01-0982
A common occurrence in computer aided design is the need to make changes to an existing CAD model to compensate for shape changes which occur during a manufacturing process. For instance, finite element analysis of die forming or die tryout results may indicate that a stamped panel springs back after the press line operation so that the final shape is different from nominal shape. Springback may be corrected by redesigning the die face so that the stamped panel springs back to the nominal shape. When done manually, this redesign process is often time consuming and expensive. This article presents a computer program, FESHAPE, that reshapes the CAD or finite element mesh models automatically. The method is based on the technique of volume morphing pioneered by Sederberg and Parry [Sederberg 1986] and refined in [Sarraga 2004]. Volume morphing reshapes regions of surfaces or meshes by reshaping volumes containing those regions.
Technical Paper

Robust Analysis of Clamp Load Loss in Aluminum Threads due to Thermal Cycling

2009-04-20
2009-01-0989
A DFSS study identified a new mechanism for clamp load loss in aluminum threads due to thermal cycling. In bolted joints tightened to yield, the difference in thermal expansion between the aluminum and steel threads can result in a loss of clamp load with each thermal cycle. This clamp load loss is significantly greater than the loss that can be explained by creep alone. A math model was created and used to conduct a robust analysis. This analysis led to an understanding of the design factors necessary to reduce the cyclic clamp load loss in the aluminum threads. This understanding was then used to create optimized design solutions that satisfy constraints common to powertrain applications. Estimations of clamp load loss due to thermal cycling from the math model will be presented. The estimates of the model will be compared to observed physical test data. A robust analysis, including S/N and mean effect summary will be presented.
Technical Paper

Application of Principle Component Analysis to Low Speed Rear Impact - Design for Six Sigma Project at General Motors

2009-04-20
2009-01-1204
This study involves an application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) conducted in support of a Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) project. Primary focus of the project is to optimize seat parameters that influence Low Speed Rear Impact (LSRI) whiplash performance. During the DFSS study, the project team identified a need to rank order critical design factors statistically and establish their contribution to LSRI performance. It is also required to develop a transfer function for the LSRI rating in terms of test response parameters that can be used for optimization. This statistical approach resulted in a reliable transfer function that can applied across all seat designs and enabled us to separate vital few parameters from several many.
Technical Paper

Predicting Running Vehicle Exhaust Back Pressure in a Laboratory Using Air Flowing at Room Temperature and Spreadsheet Calculations

2009-04-20
2009-01-1154
In today’s highly competitive automotive environment people are always looking to develop processes that are fast, efficient, and effective. Moving testing from expensive prototype vehicles into the laboratory is an approach being implemented for many different vehicle subsystems. Specifically a process has recently been developed at General Motors that predicts exhaust back pressure performance for a running vehicle using laboratory testing and spreadsheet calculations. This paper describes the laboratory facility and procedure, the theory behind the calculations, and the correlation between vehicle test and laboratory based results. It also comments on the benefits of the process with respect to reduction in design iterations, quicker availability of results, and money savings.
Technical Paper

Data-Driven Driving Skill Characterization: Algorithm Comparison and Decision Fusion

2009-04-20
2009-01-1286
By adapting vehicle control systems to the skill level of the driver, the overall vehicle active safety provided to the driver can be further enhanced for the existing active vehicle controls, such as ABS, Traction Control, Vehicle Stability Enhancement Systems. As a follow-up to the feasibility study in [1], this paper provides some recent results on data-driven driving skill characterization. In particular, the paper presents an enhancement of discriminant features, the comparison of three different learning algorithms for recognizer design, and the performance enhancement with decision fusion. The paper concludes with the discussions of the experimental results and some of the future work.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Brake System Performance during Race Track/High Energy Driving Conditions with Integrated Vehicle Dynamics and Neural-Network Subsystem Models

2009-04-20
2009-01-0860
In racetrack conditions, brake systems are subjected to extreme energy loads and energy load distributions. This can lead to very high friction surface temperatures, especially on the brake corner that operates, for a given track, with the most available traction and the highest energy loading. Individual brake corners can be stressed to the point of extreme fade and lining wear, and the resultant degradation in brake corner performance can affect the performance of the entire brake system, causing significant changes in pedal feel, brake balance, and brake lining life. It is therefore important in high performance brake system design to ensure favorable operating conditions for the selected brake corner components under the full range of conditions that the intended vehicle application will place them under. To address this task in an early design stage, it is helpful to use brake system modeling tools to analyze system performance.
Technical Paper

Early Noise Analysis for Robust Quiet Brake Design

2009-04-20
2009-01-0858
At the early design stage it is easier to achieve impacts on the brake noise. However most noise analyses are applied later in the development stage when the design space is limited and changes are costly. Early noise analysis is seldom applied due to lack of credible inputs for the finite element modeling, the sensitive nature of the noise, and reservations on the noise event screening of the analysis. A high quality brake finite element model of good components’ and system representation is the necessary basis for credible early noise analysis. That usually requires the inputs from existing production hardware. On the other hand in vehicle braking the frequency contents and propensity of many noise cases are sensitive to minor component design modifications, environmental factors and hardware variations in mass production. Screening the noisy modes and their sensitivity levels helps confirm the major noisy event at the early design stage.
Technical Paper

Axiomatic Design for a Total Robust Development Process

2009-04-20
2009-01-0793
In this article, the authors illustrate the benefits of axiomatic design (AD) for robust optimization and how to integrate axiomatic design into a total robust design process. Similar to traditional robust design, the purpose of axiomatic design is to improve the probability of a design in meeting its functional targets at early concept generation stage. However, axiomatic design is not a standalone method or tool and it needs to be integrated with other tools to be effective in a total robust development process. A total robust development process includes: system design, parameter design, tolerance design, and tolerance specifications [1]. The authors developed a step-by-step procedure for axiomatic design practices in industrial applications for consistent and efficient deliverables. The authors also integrated axiomatic design with the CAD/CAE/statistical/visualization tools and methods to enhance the efficiency of a total robust development process.
Journal Article

Exhaust Valve & Valve Seat Insert – Development for an Industrial LPG Application

2009-05-13
2009-01-1602
Automotive engines are regularly utilized in the material handling market where LPG is often the primary fuel used. When compared to gasoline, the use of gaseous fuels (LPG and CNG) as well as alcohol based fuels, often result in significant increases in valve seat insert (VSI) and valve face wear. This phenomenon is widely recognized and the engine manufacturer is tasked to identify and incorporate appropriate valvetrain material and design features that can meet the ever increasing life expectations of the end-user. Alternate materials are often developed based on laboratory testing – testing that may not represent real world usage. The ultimate goal of the product engineer is to utilize accelerated lab test procedures that can be correlated to field life and field failure mechanisms, and then select appropriate materials/design features that meet the targeted life requirements.
Technical Paper

Aeroacoustics of an Automobile A-Pillar Rain Gutter: Computational and Experimental Study

1999-03-01
1999-01-1128
Noise due to the flow over an automobile A-pillar rain gutter in isolation was computed using a two step procedure. Initially the flow solution was obtained by solving the Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations. Acoustical Sources were extracted from the flow solution and propagated to the far-field using the Lighthill-Curle equation. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the computations. Compared results include steady pressures, time dependent pressures, and sound intensity levels. Computed results and experimental data were reduced in a similar way to ensure a one to one comparison. Computed results are in good agreement with the experimental values. A-weighted noise levels are predicted reasonably well.
Technical Paper

GENERAL MOTORS EXPERIMENTAL SAFETY VEHICLE-POWERTRAIN & FUEL SYSTEM

1973-02-01
730280
The Experimental Safety Vehicle powertrain and fuel system developed by General Motors in compliance with Contract DOT-OS-00095 with the U.S. Department of Transportation include several special features: a low engine accessory package to meet the front visibility down angle of 8 degrees, engine and transmission mounting for retention at high decelerations, a light aluminum engine, an over-the-rear-axle fuel tank, and a unique evaporative emission fuel pipe routing. A comprehensive test program was planned and final testing to validate contract specifications was conducted.
Technical Paper

A Design Tool for Producing 3D Solid Models from Sketches

2004-03-08
2004-01-0482
A novel design tool that produces solid model geometry from computer-generated sketches was developed to dramatically increase the speed of component development. An understanding of component part break-up and section shape early in the design process can lead to earlier part design releases. The concept provides for a method to create 3-dimensional (3D) solid models from 2-dimensional (2D) digital image sketches. The traditional method of creating 3-dimensional surface models from sketches or images involves creation of typical sections and math surfaces by referencing the image only. There is no real use of the sketch within the math environment. An interior instrument panel and steering wheel is described as an example. The engineer begins with a 2-dimensional concept sketch or digital image. The sketch is scaled first by determining at least three known feature diameters.
Technical Paper

Development of a Benchmark Problem Set for Assessing Out-of-Position Simulation Capabilities

2004-03-08
2004-01-1628
The demand for Out-Of-Position (OOP) simulation capabilities in safety/crash software increased after the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) final ruling on FMVSS 208 in 2000. However, the development of this capability involves many technical challenges. To expedite the development and manage the technical difficulties, five benchmark problems were established in this study. Each of them addresses specific technical difficulties of airbag OOP simulations. One benchmark problem has an analytical solution; one has a well-known numerical solution and others have the test results. The benchmark set was designed starting from simple Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) problems to the complicated OOP applications such that the bugs and algorithmic errors of the code can be easily identified. This paper summarizes the solutions, test results, and associated technical issues of the benchmark problems.
Technical Paper

Development and Optimization of a Small-Displacement Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine - Stratified Operation

2004-03-08
2004-01-0033
Superior fuel economy was achieved for a small-displacement spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine by optimizing the stratified combustion operation. The optimization was performed using computational analyses and subsequently testing the most promising configurations experimentally. The fuel economy savings are achieved by the use of a multihole injector with novel spray shape, which allows ultra-lean stratification for a wide range of part-load operating conditions without compromising smoke and hydrocarbon emissions. In this regard, a key challenge for wall-controlled SIDI engines is the minimization of wall wetting to prevent smoke, which may require advanced injection timings, while at the same time minimizing hydrocarbon emissions, which may require retarding injection and thereby preventing over-mixing of the fuel vapor.
Technical Paper

CFD for Flow Rate and Air Re-Circulation at Vehicle Idle Conditions

2004-03-08
2004-01-0053
CFD method for the calculation of flow rate and air re-circulation at vehicle idle conditions is described. A small velocity is added to the ambient airflow in order to improve the numerical stability. The flow rate passing through the heat exchangers is insensitive to the ambient velocity, since the flow rate is largely determined by the fan operation. The air re-circulation, however, is quite sensitive to the ambient air velocity. The ambient velocity of U=-1m/s was found to be the more critical case, and is recommended for the air re-circulation analysis. The CFD analysis can also lead to design modifications improving the air re-circulation.
Technical Paper

SEA Modeling of A Vehicle Door System

2005-05-16
2005-01-2427
The Door system is one of the major paths for vehicle interior noise under a variety of load conditions. In this paper we consider the elements of the door lower (excluding glass) in terms of noise transmission. Passenger car doors are comprised of the outer skin, door cavity, door inner sheet metal, vapor barrier, and interior trim. Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) models must effectively describe these components in terms of their acoustic properties and capture the dominant behaviors relative to the overall door system. In addition, the models must interface seamlessly with existing vehicle level SEA models. SEA modeling techniques for the door components are discussed with door STL testing and model correlation results.
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