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Test Method for Seat Wrinkling and Bagginess

This study evaluates utilizing an accelerated test method that correlates customer interaction with a vehicle seat where bagginess and wrinkling is produced. The evaluation includes correlation from warranty returns as well as test vehicle results for test verification. Consumer metrics will be discussed within this paper with respect to potential application of this test method, including but not limited to JD Power ratings. The intent of the test method is to aid in establishing appropriate design parameters of the seat trim covers and to incorporate appropriate design measures such as tie downs and lamination. This test procedure was utilized in a Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) project as an aid in optimizing seat parameters influencing trim cover performance using a Design of Experiment approach. Presenter Lisa Fallon, General Motors LLC
Technical Paper

HEV Architectures - Power Electronics Optimization through Collaboration Sub-topic: Inverter Design and Collaboration

As the automotive industry quickly moves towards hybridized and electrified vehicles, the optimal integration of power electronics in these vehicles will have a significant impact not only on the cost, performance, reliability, and durability; but ultimately on customer acceptance and market success of these technologies. If properly executed with the right cost, performance, reliability and durability, then both the industry and the consumer will benefit. It is because of these interdependencies that the pace and scale of success, will hinge on effective collaboration. This collaboration will be built around the convergence of automotive and industrial technology. Where real time embedded controls mixes with high power and voltage levels. The industry has already seen several successful collaborations adapting power electronics to the automotive space in target vehicles.
Technical Paper

Particulate Characteristics for Varying Engine Operation in a Gasoline Spark Ignited, Direct Injection Engine

The objective of this research is a detailed investigation of particulate sizing and number count from a spark-ignited, direct-injection (SIDI) engine at different operating conditions. The engine is a 549 [cc] single-cylinder, four-valve engine with a flat-top piston, fueled by Tier II EEE. A baseline engine operating condition, with a low number of particulates, was established and repeatability at this condition was ascertained. This baseline condition is specified as 2000 rpm, 320 kPa IMEP, 280 [°bTDC] end of injection (EOI), and 25 [°bTDC] ignition timing. The particle size distributions were recorded for particle sizes between 7 and 289 [nm]. The baseline particle size distribution was relatively flat, around 1E6 [dN/dlogDp], for particle diameters between 7 and 100 [nm], before dropping off to decreasing numbers at larger diameters. Distributions resulting from a matrix of different engine conditions were recorded.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Stiffness and Damping Properties of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber

Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR), a copolymer of butadiene and styrene, is widely used in the automotive industry due to its high durability and resistance to abrasion, oils and oxidation. Some of the common applications include tires, vibration isolators, and gaskets, among others. This paper characterizes the dynamic behavior of SBR and discusses the suitability of a visco-elastic model of elastomers, known as the Kelvin model, from a mathematical and physical point of view. An optimization algorithm is used to estimate the parameters of the Kelvin model. The resulting model was shown to produce reasonable approximations of measured dynamic stiffness. The model was also used to calculate the self heating of the elastomer due to energy dissipation by the viscous damping components in the model. Developing such a predictive capability is essential in understanding the dynamic behavior of elastomers considering that their dynamic stiffness can in general depend on temperature.
Journal Article

Cosmetic Corrosion Test for Aluminum Autobody Panels: Final Report

Over the past several years a task group within the SAE Automotive Corrosion and Protection (ACAP) Committee has conducted extensive on-vehicle field testing and numerous accelerated lab tests with the goal of establishing a standard accelerated test method for cosmetic corrosion evaluations of finished aluminum auto body panels. This project has been a cooperative effort with OEM, supplier, and consultant participation and was also supported in part by DOE through USAMP (AMD 309). The focus of this project has been the identification of a standardized accelerated cosmetic corrosion test that exhibits the same appearance, severity, and type of corrosion products that are exhibited on identical painted aluminum panels exposed to service relevant environments. Multi-year service relevant exposures were conducted by mounting panels on-vehicles in multiple locations in the US and Canada.
Technical Paper

Defining In-Vehicle Location and Functional Attributes of a ‘Button-Style Electronic Automatic Transmission Shifter’ Using DFSS Methodology with Customer Clinic Approach

The implementation of electronic shifters (e-shifter) for automatic transmissions in vehicles has created many new opportunities for the customer facing transmission interface and in-vehicle packaging. E-shifters have become popular in recent years as their smaller physical size leads to packaging advantages, they reduce the mass of the automatic transmission shift system, they are easier to install during vehicle assembly, and act as an enabler for autonomous driving. A button-style e-shifter has the ability to create a unique customer interface to the automatic transmission, as it is very different from the conventional column lever or linear console shifter. In addition to this, a button-style e-shifter can free the center console of valuable package space for other customer-facing functions, such as storage bins and Human-Machine Interface controllers.
Technical Paper

Multi-Physics Based System Model for Early Stage Hybrid/Electric Vehicle HV Battery Design

Vehicle electrification is driven globally due to the increased concerns on carbon emissions. But the challenges in customer acceptance remains esp. in relation to vehicle costs. Virtual simulations can help in cutting down product development cost and enable faster launch of new vehicles. An early stage system model based design iterations can help in cutting down the product development costs and building more robust products. In the current paper, we develop and analyze a battery pack system model for early phase design. We extend a previously developed system model to include critical physics like sub-component level multiphysics for electrical joint integrity. Also, we demonstrate an integration of 3D FEM & system model for improving the accuracy of joint temperature predictions during charging and/or discharging. A typical High Voltage (HV) battery system comprises of battery modules (Li-ion cells, cooling channels, structural frames, interconnect boards) and HV bus bars.
Technical Paper

Utilizing a Tracked 3-Dimensional Acoustic Probe in the Development of an Automotive Front-of-Dash

During the development of an automotive acoustic package, valuable information can be gained by visualizing the acoustic energy flow through the Front-of-Dash (FOD) when a sound source is placed in the engine compartment. Two of the commonly used methods for generating the visual map of the acoustic field include Sound Intensity measurements and array technologies. An alternative method is to use a tracked 3-dimensional acoustic probe to scan and visualize the FOD in real-time when the sound source is injecting noise into the engine compartment. The scan is used to focus the development of the FOD acoustic package on the weakest areas by identifying acoustic leaks and locations with low Transmission Loss. This paper provides a brief discussion of the capabilities of the tracked 3-D acoustic probe, and presents examples of the implementation of the probe during the development of the FOD acoustic package for two mid-sized sedans.
Technical Paper

High Power Cell for Mild and Strong Hybrid Applications Including Chevrolet Malibu

Electric vehicles have a strong potential to reduce a continued dependence on fossil fuels and help the environment by reducing pollution. Despite the desirable advantage, the introduction of electrified vehicles into the market place continues to be a challenge due to cost, safety, and life of the batteries. General Motors continues to bring vehicles to market with varying level of hybrid functionality. Since the introduction of Li-ion batteries by Sony Corporation in 1991 for the consumer market, significant progress has been made over the past 25 years. Due to market pull for consumer electronic products, power and energy densities have significantly increased, while costs have dropped. As a result, Li-ion batteries have become the technology of choice for automotive applications considering space and mass is very critical for the vehicles.
Technical Paper

High Voltage Hybrid Battery Tray Design Optimization

Hybrid high voltage battery pack is not only heavy mass but also large in dimension. It interacts with the vehicle through the battery tray. Thus the battery tray is a critical element of the battery pack that interfaces between the battery and the vehicle, including the performances of safety/crash, NVH (modal), and durability. The tray is the largest and strongest structure in the battery pack holding the battery sections and other components including the battery disconnect unit (BDU) and other units that are not negligible in mass. This paper describes the mass optimization work done on one of the hybrid batteries using CAE simulation. This was a multidisciplinary optimization project, in which modal performance and fatigue damage were accessed through CAE analysis at both the battery pack level, and at the vehicle level.
Technical Paper

Measured and LES Motored-Flow Kinetic Energy Evolution in the TCC-III Engine

A primary goal of large eddy simulation, LES, is to capture in-cylinder cycle-to-cycle variability, CCV. This is a first step to assess the efficacy of 35 consecutive computed motored cycles to capture the kinetic energy in the TCC-III engine. This includes both the intra-cycle production and dissipation as well as the kinetic energy CCV. The approach is to sample and compare the simulated three-dimensional velocity equivalently to the available two-component two-dimensional PIV velocity measurements. The volume-averaged scale-resolved kinetic energy from the LES is sampled in three slabs, which are volumes equal to the two axial and one azimuthal PIV fields-of-view and laser sheet thickness. Prior to the comparison, the effects of sampling a cutting plane versus a slab and slabs of different thicknesses are assessed. The effects of sampling only two components and three discrete planar regions is assessed.
Technical Paper

An Innovative Hybrid Powertrain for Small and Medium Boats

Hybridization is a mainstream technology for automobiles, and its application is rapidly expanding in other fields. Marine propulsion is one such field that could benefit from electrification of the powertrain. In particular, for boats to sail in enclosed waterways, such as harbors, channels, lagoons, a pure electric mode would be highly desirable. The main challenge to accomplish hybridization is the additional weight of the electric components, in particular the batteries. The goal of this project is to replace a conventional 4-stroke turbocharged Diesel engine with a hybrid powertrain, without any penalty in terms of weight, overall dimensions, fuel efficiency, and pollutant emissions. This can be achieved by developing a new generation of 2-Stroke Diesel engines, and coupling them to a state-of-the art electric system. For the thermal units, two alternative designs without active valve train are considered: opposed piston and loop scavenged engines.
Technical Paper

Development of General Motors’ eAssist Gen3 Propulsion System

General Motors’ 3rd generation eAssist propulsion systems build upon the experience gained from the 2nd generation 115v system and the 1st generation 36v system. Extensive architectural studies were conducted to optimize the new eAssist system to maintain the performance and fuel economy gains of the 2nd generation 115v system while preserving passenger and cargo space, and reducing cost. Three diverse vehicle applications have been brought to production. They include two similar pickup trucks with 5.3 liter V8 engines and 8 speed transmissions, a 4-door passenger car with 2.5 liter 4 cylinder normally aspirated gasoline engine and a 6-speed automatic transmission, and a crossover SUV with a 2.0-liter turbocharged engine and 9 speed transmission. The key electrification components are a new water cooled induction motor/generator (MG), new water cooled power electronics module, and two major variants of 86v lithium ion battery packs.
Technical Paper

Development of the TOP TIERTM Diesel Standard

The TOP TIERTM Diesel fuel standard was first established in 2017 to promote better fuel quality in marketplace to address the needs of diesel engines. It provides an automotive recommended fuel specification to be used in tandem with regional diesel fuel specifications or regulations. This fuel standard was developed by TOP TIERTM Diesel Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) sponsors made up of representatives of diesel auto and engine manufacturers. This performance specification developed after two years of discussions with various stakeholders such as individual OEMs, members of Truck and Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA), fuel additive companies, as well as fuel producers and marketers. This paper reviews the major aspects of the development of the TOP TIERTM Diesel program including implementation and market adoption challenges.