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Test Method for Seat Wrinkling and Bagginess

2012-05-22
This study evaluates utilizing an accelerated test method that correlates customer interaction with a vehicle seat where bagginess and wrinkling is produced. The evaluation includes correlation from warranty returns as well as test vehicle results for test verification. Consumer metrics will be discussed within this paper with respect to potential application of this test method, including but not limited to JD Power ratings. The intent of the test method is to aid in establishing appropriate design parameters of the seat trim covers and to incorporate appropriate design measures such as tie downs and lamination. This test procedure was utilized in a Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) project as an aid in optimizing seat parameters influencing trim cover performance using a Design of Experiment approach. Presenter Lisa Fallon, General Motors LLC
Technical Paper

HEV Architectures - Power Electronics Optimization through Collaboration Sub-topic: Inverter Design and Collaboration

2010-10-19
2010-01-2309
As the automotive industry quickly moves towards hybridized and electrified vehicles, the optimal integration of power electronics in these vehicles will have a significant impact not only on the cost, performance, reliability, and durability; but ultimately on customer acceptance and market success of these technologies. If properly executed with the right cost, performance, reliability and durability, then both the industry and the consumer will benefit. It is because of these interdependencies that the pace and scale of success, will hinge on effective collaboration. This collaboration will be built around the convergence of automotive and industrial technology. Where real time embedded controls mixes with high power and voltage levels. The industry has already seen several successful collaborations adapting power electronics to the automotive space in target vehicles.
Technical Paper

Particulate Characteristics for Varying Engine Operation in a Gasoline Spark Ignited, Direct Injection Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1220
The objective of this research is a detailed investigation of particulate sizing and number count from a spark-ignited, direct-injection (SIDI) engine at different operating conditions. The engine is a 549 [cc] single-cylinder, four-valve engine with a flat-top piston, fueled by Tier II EEE. A baseline engine operating condition, with a low number of particulates, was established and repeatability at this condition was ascertained. This baseline condition is specified as 2000 rpm, 320 kPa IMEP, 280 [°bTDC] end of injection (EOI), and 25 [°bTDC] ignition timing. The particle size distributions were recorded for particle sizes between 7 and 289 [nm]. The baseline particle size distribution was relatively flat, around 1E6 [dN/dlogDp], for particle diameters between 7 and 100 [nm], before dropping off to decreasing numbers at larger diameters. Distributions resulting from a matrix of different engine conditions were recorded.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Stiffness and Damping Properties of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber

2011-05-17
2011-01-1628
Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR), a copolymer of butadiene and styrene, is widely used in the automotive industry due to its high durability and resistance to abrasion, oils and oxidation. Some of the common applications include tires, vibration isolators, and gaskets, among others. This paper characterizes the dynamic behavior of SBR and discusses the suitability of a visco-elastic model of elastomers, known as the Kelvin model, from a mathematical and physical point of view. An optimization algorithm is used to estimate the parameters of the Kelvin model. The resulting model was shown to produce reasonable approximations of measured dynamic stiffness. The model was also used to calculate the self heating of the elastomer due to energy dissipation by the viscous damping components in the model. Developing such a predictive capability is essential in understanding the dynamic behavior of elastomers considering that their dynamic stiffness can in general depend on temperature.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Systems Engineering and Control System Development via Virtual Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation

2010-10-19
2010-01-2325
Model-based control system design improves quality, shortens development time, lowers engineering cost, and reduces rework. Evaluating a control system's performance, functionality, and robustness in a simulation environment avoids the time and expense of developing hardware and software for each design iteration. Simulating the performance of a design can be straightforward (though sometimes tedious, depending on the complexity of the system being developed) with mathematical models for the hardware components of the system (plant models) and control algorithms for embedded controllers. This paper describes a software tool and a methodology that not only allows a complete system simulation to be performed early in the product design cycle, but also greatly facilitates the construction of the model by automatically connecting the components and subsystems that comprise it.
Journal Article

Cosmetic Corrosion Test for Aluminum Autobody Panels: Final Report

2010-04-12
2010-01-0726
Over the past several years a task group within the SAE Automotive Corrosion and Protection (ACAP) Committee has conducted extensive on-vehicle field testing and numerous accelerated lab tests with the goal of establishing a standard accelerated test method for cosmetic corrosion evaluations of finished aluminum auto body panels. This project has been a cooperative effort with OEM, supplier, and consultant participation and was also supported in part by DOE through USAMP (AMD 309). The focus of this project has been the identification of a standardized accelerated cosmetic corrosion test that exhibits the same appearance, severity, and type of corrosion products that are exhibited on identical painted aluminum panels exposed to service relevant environments. Multi-year service relevant exposures were conducted by mounting panels on-vehicles in multiple locations in the US and Canada.
Technical Paper

Feasibility Study Using FE Model for Tire Load Estimation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0175
For virtual simulation of the vehicle attributes such as handling, durability, and ride, an accurate representation of pneumatic tire behavior is very crucial. With the advancement in autonomous vehicles as well as the development of Driver Assisted Systems (DAS), the need for an Intelligent Tire Model is even more on the increase. Integrating sensors into the inner liner of a tire has proved to be the most promising way in extracting the real-time tire patch-road interface data which serves as a crucial zone in developing control algorithms for an automobile. The model under development in Kettering University (KU-iTire), can predict the subsequent braking-traction requirement to avoid slip condition at the interface by implementing new algorithms to process the acceleration signals perceived from an accelerometer installed in the inner liner on the tire.
Technical Paper

Defining In-Vehicle Location and Functional Attributes of a ‘Button-Style Electronic Automatic Transmission Shifter’ Using DFSS Methodology with Customer Clinic Approach

2017-03-28
2017-01-1131
The implementation of electronic shifters (e-shifter) for automatic transmissions in vehicles has created many new opportunities for the customer facing transmission interface and in-vehicle packaging. E-shifters have become popular in recent years as their smaller physical size leads to packaging advantages, they reduce the mass of the automatic transmission shift system, they are easier to install during vehicle assembly, and act as an enabler for autonomous driving. A button-style e-shifter has the ability to create a unique customer interface to the automatic transmission, as it is very different from the conventional column lever or linear console shifter. In addition to this, a button-style e-shifter can free the center console of valuable package space for other customer-facing functions, such as storage bins and Human-Machine Interface controllers.
Technical Paper

Design and Control of Torque Feedback Device for Driving Simulator Based on MR Fluid and Coil Spring Structure

2018-04-03
2018-01-0689
Since steering wheel torque feedback is one of the crucial factors for drivers to gain road feel and ensure driving safety, it is especially important to simulate the steering torque feedback for a driving simulator. At present, steering wheel feedback torque is mainly simulated by an electric motor with gear transmission. The torque response is typically slow, which can result in drivers’ discomfort and poor driving maneuverability. This paper presents a novel torque feedback device with magnetorheological (MR) fluid and coil spring. A phase separation control method is also proposed to control its feedback torque, including spring and damping torques respectively. The spring torque is generated by coil spring, the angle of coil spring can be adjusted by controlling a brushless DC motor. The damping torque is generated by MR fluid, the damping coefficient of MR fluid can be adjusted by controlling the current of excitation coil.
Technical Paper

Investigation and Development of a Slip Model for a Basic Rigid Ring Ride Model

2018-04-03
2018-01-1116
With the recent advances in rapid modeling and rapid prototyping, accurate simulation models for tires are very desirable. Selection of a tire slip model depends on the required frequency range and nonlinearity associated with the dynamics of the vehicle. This paper presents a brief overview of three major slip concepts including “Stationary slip”, “Physical transient slip”, and “Pragmatic transient slip”; tire models use these slip concepts to incorporate tire slip behavior. The review illustrates that there can be no single accurate slip model which could be ideally used for all modes of vehicle dynamics simulations. For this study, a rigid ring based semi-analytical tire model for intermediate frequency (up to 100 Hz) is used.
Technical Paper

Virtual Traffic Simulator for Connected and Automated Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0676
Connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technologies promise a substantial decrease in traffic accidents and traffic jams, and bring new opportunities for improving vehicle’s fuel economy. However, testing autonomous vehicles in a real world traffic environment is costly, and covering all corner cases is nearly impossible. Furthermore, it is very challenging to create a controlled real traffic environment that vehicle tests can be conducted repeatedly and compared fairly. With the capability of allowing testing more scenarios than those that would be possible with real world testing, simulations are deemed safer, more efficient, and more cost-effective. In this work, a full-scale simulation platform was developed to simulate the infrastructure, traffic, vehicle, powertrain, and their interactions. It is used as an effective tool to facilitate control algorithm development for improving CAV’s fuel economy in real world driving scenarios.
Technical Paper

Development of Wireless Message for Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Safety Applications

2018-04-03
2018-01-0027
This paper summarizes the development of a wireless message from infrastructure-to-vehicle (I2V) for safety applications based on Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC) under a cooperative agreement between the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partners LLC (CAMP) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). During the development of the Curve Speed Warning (CSW) and Reduced Speed Zone Warning with Lane Closure (RSZW/LC) safety applications [1], the Basic Information Message (BIM) was developed to wirelessly transmit infrastructure-centric information. The Traveler Information Message (TIM) structure, as described in the SAE J2735, provides a mechanism for the infrastructure to issue and display in-vehicle signage of various types of advisory and road sign information. This approach, though effective in communicating traffic advisories, is limited by the type of information that can be broadcast from infrastructures.
Technical Paper

Validating Prototype Connected Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Safety Applications in Real- World Settings

2018-04-03
2018-01-0025
This paper summarizes the validation of prototype vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) safety applications based on Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) in the United States under a cooperative agreement between the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partners LLC (CAMP) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). After consideration of a number of V2I safety applications, Red Light Violation Warning (RLVW), Curve Speed Warning (CSW) and Reduced Speed Zone Warning with Lane Closure Warning (RSZW/LC) were developed, validated and demonstrated using seven different vehicles (six passenger vehicles and one Class 8 truck) leveraging DSRC-based messages from a Road Side Unit (RSU). The developed V2I safety applications were validated for more than 20 distinct scenarios and over 100 test runs using both light- and heavy-duty vehicles over a period of seven months. Subsequently, additional on-road testing of CSW on public roads and RSZW/LC in live work zones were conducted in Southeast Michigan.
Journal Article

Iterative Learning Algorithm Design for Variable Admittance Control Tuning of A Robotic Lift Assistant System

2017-03-28
2017-01-0288
The human-robot interaction (HRI) is involved in a lift assistant system of manufacturing assembly line. The admittance model is applied to control the end effector motion by sensing intention from force of applied by a human operator. The variable admittance including virtual damping and virtual mass can improve the performance of the systems. But the tuning process of variable admittance is un-convenient and challenging part during the real test for designers, while the offline simulation is lack of learning process and interaction with human operator. In this paper, the Iterative learning algorithm is proposed to emulate the human learning process and facilitate the variable admittance control design. The relationship between manipulate force and object moving speed is demonstrated from simulation data. The effectiveness of the approach is verified by comparing the simulation results between two admittance control strategies.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Testing and Evaluation Approach for Autonomous Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0124
Performance testing and evaluation always plays an important role in the developmental process of a vehicle, which also applies to autonomous vehicles. The complex nature of an autonomous vehicle from architecture to functionality demands even more quality-and-quantity controlled testing and evaluation than ever before. Most of the existing testing methodologies are task-or-scenario based and can only support single or partial functional testing. These approaches may be helpful at the initial stage of autonomous vehicle development. However, as the integrated autonomous system gets mature, these approaches fall short of supporting comprehensive performance evaluation. This paper proposes a novel hierarchical and systematic testing and evaluation approach to bridge the above-mentioned gap.
Technical Paper

Utilizing a Tracked 3-Dimensional Acoustic Probe in the Development of an Automotive Front-of-Dash

2017-06-05
2017-01-1869
During the development of an automotive acoustic package, valuable information can be gained by visualizing the acoustic energy flow through the Front-of-Dash (FOD) when a sound source is placed in the engine compartment. Two of the commonly used methods for generating the visual map of the acoustic field include Sound Intensity measurements and array technologies. An alternative method is to use a tracked 3-dimensional acoustic probe to scan and visualize the FOD in real-time when the sound source is injecting noise into the engine compartment. The scan is used to focus the development of the FOD acoustic package on the weakest areas by identifying acoustic leaks and locations with low Transmission Loss. This paper provides a brief discussion of the capabilities of the tracked 3-D acoustic probe, and presents examples of the implementation of the probe during the development of the FOD acoustic package for two mid-sized sedans.
Technical Paper

High Power Cell for Mild and Strong Hybrid Applications Including Chevrolet Malibu

2017-03-28
2017-01-1200
Electric vehicles have a strong potential to reduce a continued dependence on fossil fuels and help the environment by reducing pollution. Despite the desirable advantage, the introduction of electrified vehicles into the market place continues to be a challenge due to cost, safety, and life of the batteries. General Motors continues to bring vehicles to market with varying level of hybrid functionality. Since the introduction of Li-ion batteries by Sony Corporation in 1991 for the consumer market, significant progress has been made over the past 25 years. Due to market pull for consumer electronic products, power and energy densities have significantly increased, while costs have dropped. As a result, Li-ion batteries have become the technology of choice for automotive applications considering space and mass is very critical for the vehicles.
Technical Paper

Studies on Drivers’ Driving Styles Based on Inverse Reinforcement Learning

2018-04-03
2018-01-0612
Although advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) have been widely introduced in automotive industry to enhance driving safety and comfort, and to reduce drivers’ driving burden, they do not in general reflect different drivers’ driving styles or customized with individual personalities. This can be important to comfort and enjoyable driving experience, and to improved market acceptance. However, it is challenging to understand and further identify drivers’ driving styles due to large number and great variations of driving population. Previous research has mainly adopted physical approaches in modeling drivers’ driving behavior, which however are often very much limited, if not impossible, in capturing human drivers’ driving characteristics. This paper proposes a reinforcement learning based approach, in which the driving styles are formulated through drivers’ learning processes from interaction with surrounding environment.
Technical Paper

Driving Behavior Prediction at Roundabouts Based on Integrated Simulation Platform

2018-04-03
2018-01-0033
Due to growing interest in automated driving, the need for better understanding of human driving behavior in uncertain environment, such as driving behavior at un-signalized crossroad and roundabout, has further increased. Driving behavior at roundabout is greatly influenced by different dynamic factors such as speed, distance and circulating flow of the potentially conflicting vehicles, and drivers should choose whether to leave or wait at the upcoming exit according to these factors. In this paper, the influential dynamic factors and driving behavior characteristics at the roundabout is analyzed in detail, random forest method is then deployed to predict the driving behavior. For training the driving behavior model, four typical roundabout layouts were created under a real-time driving simulator with PanoSim-RT and dSPACE. Traffic participants with different motion style were also set in the simulation platform to mimic real driving conditions.
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