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Technical Paper

Particulate Characteristics for Varying Engine Operation in a Gasoline Spark Ignited, Direct Injection Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1220
The objective of this research is a detailed investigation of particulate sizing and number count from a spark-ignited, direct-injection (SIDI) engine at different operating conditions. The engine is a 549 [cc] single-cylinder, four-valve engine with a flat-top piston, fueled by Tier II EEE. A baseline engine operating condition, with a low number of particulates, was established and repeatability at this condition was ascertained. This baseline condition is specified as 2000 rpm, 320 kPa IMEP, 280 [°bTDC] end of injection (EOI), and 25 [°bTDC] ignition timing. The particle size distributions were recorded for particle sizes between 7 and 289 [nm]. The baseline particle size distribution was relatively flat, around 1E6 [dN/dlogDp], for particle diameters between 7 and 100 [nm], before dropping off to decreasing numbers at larger diameters. Distributions resulting from a matrix of different engine conditions were recorded.
Technical Paper

Hydraulically Damped Rubber Body Mounts with High Lateral Rate for Improved Vehicle Noise, Vibration and Ride Qualities

2013-05-13
2013-01-1906
In today's competitive market, noise and vibration are among the most important parameters that impact the success of a vehicle. In body-on-frame construction vehicles, elastomeric body mounts play a major role in isolating the passenger compartment from road noise, harshness, shake, and other vibrations in the chassis as well as improving ride quality across a wide frequency range. This paper describes the work carried out to design a fluid filled mount with high lateral stiffness that can alter the perceived Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) performance of current production body-on-frame trucks. It was found that the quietness and ride qualities can be significantly improved by positioning the glycol-filled mounts at the anti-node of the frame first vertical bending mode; under the C-pillar intersection with the frame. The performance of mounts in this area is known to be critical to ride quality.
Technical Paper

Active Safety and Driver Assistance Technologies - An OEM Perspective: Technology Leadership Brief

2012-10-08
2012-01-9002
The overall technology trend of Active Safety and Driver Assistance systems is relatively clear: increasing capability to avoid crashes as well as convenience on a path toward autonomous driving. What's less obvious, though, is the selection of features/technologies will make sense at each step along the path. Specific vehicle contenting decisions get made early in the vehicle planning process and rely on forecasting factors such as technology readiness, consumer interest, the economics in the supply base, and projected government regulations and consumer metrics. Additionally, for these technologies to be effective, often they need to be introduced in conjunction with other features and grouped in ways that are intuitive and relevant to current consumer needs.
Technical Paper

Self-Certification Requirements for Adaptive Driving Beam Headlamps

2017-03-28
2017-01-1365
Vehicle certification requirements generally fall into 2 categories: self-certification and various forms of type approval. Self-certification requirements used in the United States under Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) regulations must be objective and measurable with clear pass / fail criteria. On the other hand, Type Approval requirements used in Europe under United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) regulations can be more open ended, relying on the mandated 3rd party certification agency to appropriately interpret and apply the requirements based on the design and configuration of a vehicle. The use of 3rd party certification is especially helpful when applying regulatory requirements for complex vehicle systems that operate dynamically, changing based on inputs from the surrounding environment. One such system is Adaptive Driving Beam (ADB).
Technical Paper

Comparison of Stochastic Pre-Ignition Behaviors on a Turbocharged Gasoline Engine with Various Fuels and Lubricants

2016-10-17
2016-01-2291
Stochastic pre-ignition (SPI) has been commonly observed in turbocharged spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engines at low-speed and high-load conditions, which causes extremely high cylinder pressures that can damage an engine immediately or degrade the engine life. The compositions and properties of fuels and lubricants have shown a strong impact on SPI frequency. This study experimentally evaluated SPI behaviors on a 2.0-liter 4-cylinder turbocharged SIDI engine with China V market fuel and China fuel blended to US Tier II fuel specifications. China V market fuel showed significantly higher SPI frequency and severity than China blended US Tier II fuel, which was attributed to its lower volatility between 100 °C to 150 °C (or lower T60 to T90 in the distillation curve). Two different formulations of lubricant oils were also tested and their impact on SPI were compared.
Technical Paper

Spark Assist for CA50 Control and Improved Robustness in a Premixed LTGC Engine – Effects of Equivalence Ratio and Intake Boost

2018-04-03
2018-01-1252
Low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) engines can deliver high efficiencies, with ultra-low emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). However, controlling the combustion timing and maintaining robust operation remains a challenge for LTGC engines. One promising technique to overcoming these challenges is spark assist (SA). In this work, well-controlled, fully premixed experiments are performed in a single-cylinder LTGC research engine at 1200 rpm using a cylinder head modified to accommodate a spark plug. Compression ratios (CR) of 16:1 and 14:1 were used during the experiments. Two different fuels were also tested, with properties representative of premium- and regular-grade market gasolines. SA was found to work well for both CRs and fuels. The equivalence ratio (ϕ) limits and the effect of intake-pressure boost on the ability of SA to compensate for a reduced Tin were studied. For the conditions studied, ϕ=0.42 was found to be most effective for SA.
Technical Paper

Learning Gasoline Direct Injector Dynamics Using Artificial Neural Networks

2018-04-03
2018-01-0863
In today’s race for improved fuel economy and lower emissions from gasoline engines, precise metering of delivered fuel is essential. Gasoline Direct Injection fuel systems provide the means for improved combustion efficiency through mixture preparation and better atomization. These improvements can be achieved from both increasing fuel pressure and using multiple injection events, which significantly reduce the required energizing time per injection, and in a number of cases, force the injector to operate at less than full stroke. When the injector operates in this condition, the influence of variation in injector dynamics account for a large percentage of the delivered fuel and require compensation to ensure accurate fuel delivery. Injector dynamics such as opening delay and closing time are influenced by operating conditions such as fuel pressure, energizing time, and temperature.
Technical Paper

Model Predictive Control of Turbocharged Gasoline Engines for Mass Production

2018-04-03
2018-01-0875
This paper describes the design of a multivariable, constrained Model Predictive Control (MPC) system for torque tracking in turbocharged gasoline engines scheduled for production by General Motors starting in calendar year 2018. The control system has been conceived and co-developed by General Motors and ODYS. The control approach consists of a set of linear MPC controllers scheduled in real time based on engine operating conditions. For each MPC controller, a linear model is obtained by system identification with data collected from engines. The control system coordinates throttle, wastegate, intake and exhaust cams in real time to track a desired engine torque profile, based on measurements and estimates of engine torque and intake manifold pressure.
Technical Paper

Development of the TOP TIERTM Diesel Standard

2019-04-02
2019-01-0264
The TOP TIERTM Diesel fuel standard was first established in 2017 to promote better fuel quality in marketplace to address the needs of diesel engines. It provides an automotive recommended fuel specification to be used in tandem with regional diesel fuel specifications or regulations. This fuel standard was developed by TOP TIERTM Diesel Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) sponsors made up of representatives of diesel auto and engine manufacturers. This performance specification developed after two years of discussions with various stakeholders such as individual OEMs, members of Truck and Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA), fuel additive companies, as well as fuel producers and marketers. This paper reviews the major aspects of the development of the TOP TIERTM Diesel program including implementation and market adoption challenges.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of V2V Reception Cadence- A New Metric for System Level Performance Analysis

2019-01-16
2019-01-0102
Vehicle to Everything (V2X) communication is a prominent solution for active safety collision avoidance and for providing autonomous vehicles Non-Line of Sight (NLOS) capabilities. For safety purposes, it is essential the V2X technology would support communication between all road users, e.g., Vehicles (V2V), pedestrians (V2P) and road infrastructure (V2I). Hence, the efficiency of a V2V communication solution should be evaluated through system level performance. In addition, the examined performance metrics need to reflect safety related properties. Metrics as Packet Reception Ratio (PRR) and transmission latencies, which are commonly used to assess V2X system’s functionality, aren’t enough since reception latencies are overlooked. The latter is crucial in ensuring messages would reach their destination on time to avoid hazardous incidents. The reception cadence may be much lower than this of the transmission due to various phenomenon (e.g. channel congestion).
Technical Paper

Braking with a Trailer and Mountain Pass Descent

2019-09-15
2019-01-2116
A truly strange - but very interesting - juxtaposition of thought occurs when considering customer’s deceleration needs for towing heavy trailers in mountainous regions, and the seemingly very different area of sizing brakes for Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) and other regenerative braking-intensive vehicle applications, versus brakes for heavy-duty trucks and other vehicles rated to tow heavy trailers. The common threads between these two very different categories of vehicles include (a) heavy dependence on the powertrain and other non-brake sources of energy loss to control the speed of the vehicle on the grade and ensure adequate capacity of the brake system, (b) a need to consider descent conditions where towing a heavy trailer is feasible (in the case of heavy trailer towing) or initiating a descent with a full state of charge is realistic (in the case of BEVs), which forces consideration of different descents versus the typical (for brake engineers) mountain peak descent.
Technical Paper

Development of an Alternative Predictive Model for Gasoline Vehicle Particulate Matter and Particulate Number

2019-04-02
2019-01-1184
The Particulate Matter Index (PMI) is a helpful tool which provides an indication of a fuel’s sooting tendency. Currently, the index is being used by various laboratories and OEMs as a metric to understand the gasoline fuels impact on both sooting found on engine hardware and vehicle out emissions. This paper will explore a new method that could be used to give indication of the sooting tendency of the gasoline range fuels, called the Particulate Evaluation Index (PEI), and provide the detailed equation in its initial form. In addition, the PEI will be shown to have a good correlation agreement to PMI. The paper will then give a detailed explanation of the data used to develop it. Initial vehicle PM/PN data will also be presented that shows correlations of the indices to the vehicle response.
Technical Paper

Combustion-Timing Control of Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) Engines by Using Double Direct-Injections to Control Kinetic Rates

2019-04-02
2019-01-1156
Low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) engines can provide high efficiencies and extremely low NOx and particulate emissions, but controlling the combustion timing remains a challenge. This paper explores the potential of Partial Fuel Stratification (PFS) to provide fast control of CA50 in an LTGC engine. Two different compression ratios are used (CR=16:1 and 14:1) that provide high efficiencies and are compatible with mixed-mode SI-LTGC engines. The fuel used is a research grade E10 gasoline (RON 92, MON 85) representative of a regular-grade market gasoline found in the United States. The fuel was supplied with a gasoline-type direct injector (GDI) mounted centrally in the cylinder. To create the PFS, the GDI injector was pulsed twice each engine cycle. First, an injection early in the intake stroke delivered the majority of the fuel (70 - 80%), establishing the minimum equivalence ratio in the charge.
Technical Paper

Crash-induced Loads in Liftgate Latching Systems

2018-04-03
2018-01-1333
Automotive liftgate latches have been subject to regulation for minimum strength and inertial resistance requirements since the late 1990’s in the US and globally since the early 2000’s, possibly due to liftgate ejections stemming from the first generation Chrysler minivans which employed latches that were not originally designed with this hazard in mind. Side door latches have been regulated since the 1960’s, and the regulation of liftgate, or back door latches, have been based largely on side door requirements, with the exception of the orthogonal test requirement that is liftgate specific. Based on benchmarking tests of liftgate latches, most global OEM’s design their latches to exceed the minimum regulatory requirements. Presumably, this is based on the need to keep doors closed during crashes and specifically to do so when subjected to industry standard tests.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Impact of Fuel Properties on Particulate Number Emission of a Modern Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0358
Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) has become the preferred technology for spark-ignition engines resulting in greater specific power output and lower fuel consumption, and consequently reduction in CO2 emission. However, GDI engines face a substantial challenge in meeting new and future emission limits, especially the stringent particle number (PN) emissions recently introduced in Europe and China. Studies have shown that the fuel used by a vehicle has a significant impact on engine out emissions. In this study, nine fuels with varying chemical composition and physical properties were tested on a modern turbo-charged side-mounted GDI engine with design changes to reduce particulate emissions. The fuels tested included four fuels meeting US certification requirements; two fuels meeting European certification requirements; and one fuel meeting China 6 certification requirements being proposed at the time of this work.
Technical Paper

Development of General Motors’ eAssist Gen3 Propulsion System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0422
General Motors’ 3rd generation eAssist propulsion systems build upon the experience gained from the 2nd generation 115v system and the 1st generation 36v system. Extensive architectural studies were conducted to optimize the new eAssist system to maintain the performance and fuel economy gains of the 2nd generation 115v system while preserving passenger and cargo space, and reducing cost. Three diverse vehicle applications have been brought to production. They include two similar pickup trucks with 5.3 liter V8 engines and 8 speed transmissions, a 4-door passenger car with 2.5 liter 4 cylinder normally aspirated gasoline engine and a 6-speed automatic transmission, and a crossover SUV with a 2.0-liter turbocharged engine and 9 speed transmission. The key electrification components are a new water cooled induction motor/generator (MG), new water cooled power electronics module, and two major variants of 86v lithium ion battery packs.
Journal Article

Wheel Bearing Brinelling and a Vehicle Curb Impact DOE to Understand Factors Affecting Bearing Loads

2017-09-17
2017-01-2526
As material cleanliness and bearing lubrication have improved, wheel bearings are experiencing less raceway spalling failures from rotating fatigue. Warranty part reviews have shown that two of the larger failure modes for wheel bearings are contaminant ingress and Brinell damage from curb and pothole impacts. Warranty has also shown that larger wheels have higher rates of Brinell warranty. This paper discusses the Brinell failure mode for bearings. It reviews a vehicle test used to evaluate Brinell performance for wheel bearings. The paper also discusses a design of experiments to study the effects of factors such as wheel size, vehicle loading and vehicle position versus the bearing load from a vehicle side impact to the wheel. As the trend in vehicle styling is moving to larger wheels and low profile tires, understanding the impact load can help properly size wheel bearings.
Journal Article

Development and Validation of the SAE J3052 High Pressure Differential Flow Rate Recommended Practice

2017-09-17
2017-01-2498
This paper describes the development work that went into the creation of the SAE J3052 “Brake Hydraulic Component Flow Rate Measurement at High Delta Pressure”, and also shows some example applications. The SAE J3052 recommended practice is intended to measure flow characteristics through brake hydraulic components and subsystems driven by pressure differentials above 1 bar, and was anticipated by the task force to be invoked for components and subsystems for which pressure response characteristics are critical for the operation of the system (such as service brake pressure response and stopping distance, or pressure rise rate of a single hydraulic circuit in response to an Electronic Stability Control command). Data generated by this procedure may be used as a direct assessment of the flow performance of a brake hydraulic component, or they may be used to build subsystem or system-level models.
Technical Paper

Measured and LES Motored-Flow Kinetic Energy Evolution in the TCC-III Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0192
A primary goal of large eddy simulation, LES, is to capture in-cylinder cycle-to-cycle variability, CCV. This is a first step to assess the efficacy of 35 consecutive computed motored cycles to capture the kinetic energy in the TCC-III engine. This includes both the intra-cycle production and dissipation as well as the kinetic energy CCV. The approach is to sample and compare the simulated three-dimensional velocity equivalently to the available two-component two-dimensional PIV velocity measurements. The volume-averaged scale-resolved kinetic energy from the LES is sampled in three slabs, which are volumes equal to the two axial and one azimuthal PIV fields-of-view and laser sheet thickness. Prior to the comparison, the effects of sampling a cutting plane versus a slab and slabs of different thicknesses are assessed. The effects of sampling only two components and three discrete planar regions is assessed.
Technical Paper

China Market Gasoline Review Using Fuel Particulate Emission Correlation Indices

2017-10-08
2017-01-2401
The impact of gasoline composition on vehicle particulate emissions response has been widely investigated and documented. Correlation equations between fuel composition and particulate emissions have also been documented, e.g. Particulate Matter Index (PMI) and Particulate Evaluation Index (PEI). Vehicle PM/PN emissions correlate very well with these indices. In a previous paper, global assessment with PEI on fuel sooting tendency was presented [1]. This paper will continue the previous theme by the authors, and cover China gasoline in more detail. With air pollution an increasing concern, along with more stringent emission requirements in China, both OEMs and oil industries are facing new challenges. Emissions controls require a systematic approach on both fuels and vehicles. Chinese production vehicle particulate emissions for a range of PEI fuels are also presented.
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