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Video

Flexible Real-Time Simulation of Truck and Trailer Configurations

2011-12-05
Real-time simulation of truck and trailer combinations can be applied to hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) systems for developing and testing electronic control units (ECUs). The large number of configuration variations in vehicle and axle types requires the simulation model to be adjustable in a wide range. This paper presents a modular multibody approach for the vehicle dynamics simulation of single track configurations and truck-and-trailer combinations. The equations of motion are expressed by a new formula which is a combination of Jourdain's principle and the articulated body algorithm. With the proposed algorithm, a robust model is achieved that is numerically stable even at handling limits. Moreover, the presented approach is suitable for modular modeling and has been successfully implemented as a basis for various system definitions. As a result, only one simulation model is needed for a large variety of track and trailer types.
Video

Test Method for Seat Wrinkling and Bagginess

2012-05-22
This study evaluates utilizing an accelerated test method that correlates customer interaction with a vehicle seat where bagginess and wrinkling is produced. The evaluation includes correlation from warranty returns as well as test vehicle results for test verification. Consumer metrics will be discussed within this paper with respect to potential application of this test method, including but not limited to JD Power ratings. The intent of the test method is to aid in establishing appropriate design parameters of the seat trim covers and to incorporate appropriate design measures such as tie downs and lamination. This test procedure was utilized in a Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) project as an aid in optimizing seat parameters influencing trim cover performance using a Design of Experiment approach. Presenter Lisa Fallon, General Motors LLC
Technical Paper

High Voltage Hybrid Battery Tray Design Optimization

2011-04-12
2011-01-0671
Hybrid high voltage battery pack is not only heavy mass but also large in dimension. It interacts with the vehicle through the battery tray. Thus the battery tray is a critical element of the battery pack that interfaces between the battery and the vehicle, including the performances of safety/crash, NVH (modal), and durability. The tray is the largest and strongest structure in the battery pack holding the battery sections and other components including the battery disconnect unit (BDU) and other units that are not negligible in mass. This paper describes the mass optimization work done on one of the hybrid batteries using CAE simulation. This was a multidisciplinary optimization project, in which modal performance and fatigue damage were accessed through CAE analysis at both the battery pack level, and at the vehicle level.
Technical Paper

Using Simulation to Verify Diagnosis Algorithms of Electronic Systems

2009-04-20
2009-01-1043
In modern vehicles the architecture of electronics is growing more and more complex because both the number of electronic functions – e.g. implemented as software modules – as well as the level of networking between electronic control units (ECUs) is steadily increasing. This complexity leads to greater propagation of failure symptoms, and diagnosing the causes of failure becomes a new challenge. Diagnostics aims at detecting failures such as defect sensors or faulty communication messages. It is subdivided into diagnosis algorithms on an ECU and algorithms running offboard, e.g. on a diagnostic tester. These algorithms have to complement each other in the best possible way. While in the past the diagnosis algorithm was developed late in the development process, nowadays there are efforts to start the development of such algorithms earlier – at least in parallel to developing a new feature itself. This would allow developers to verify the diagnosis algorithms in early design stages.
Technical Paper

CFD Analysis of Oil/Gas Flow in Piston Ring-Pack

2011-04-12
2011-01-1406
The oil consumption and blow-by are complex phenomena that need to be minimized to meet the ever changing modern emission standards. Oil flows from the sump to the combustion chamber and the blow-by gases flow from the combustion chamber to the crank case. There are several piston rings on the piston, which form a ring-pack. The ring pack has to be efficiently designed to minimize the oil consumption and blow-by. Since it is difficult and extremely costly to conduct experiments on every series of engines to check for the blow-by and oil consumption, a CFD analysis can be performed on the ring pack to study the blow-by and oil-consumption characteristics. In the CFD analysis described here, the region considered is between the compression chamber and the skirt, between the piston (including the rings) and the cylinder liner. The 3D CFD analysis was conducted for the engine running conditions of 5000 rpm and load of 13.5 kPa, for a 2.4L gasoline engine.
Technical Paper

Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing in the Context of ISO 26262

2012-04-16
2012-01-0035
Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation is now a standard component in the vehicle development process as a method for testing electronic control unit (ECU) software. HIL simulation is used for all aspects of development, naturally including safety-relevant functions and systems. This applies to all test tasks (from function testing to release tests, testing a single ECU or an ECU network, and so on) and also to different vehicle domains: The drivetrain, vehicle dynamics, driver assistance systems, interior/comfort systems and infotainment are all tested by HIL simulation. At the same time, modern vehicles feature more and more safety-related systems such as Adaptive Cruise Control, Electronic Stability Program, Power Assisted Steering, and Integrated Chassis Management.
Technical Paper

Utilizing Finite Element Tools to Model Objective Seat Comfort Results

2012-04-16
2012-01-0074
The comfort assessment of seats in the automotive industry has historically been accomplished by subjective ratings. This approach is expensive and time consuming since it involves multiple prototype seats and numerous people in supporting processes. In order to create a more efficient and robust method, objective metrics must be developed and utilized to establish measurable boundaries for seat performance. Objective measurements already widely accepted, such as IFD (Indentation Force Deflection) or CFD (Compression Force Deflection) [1], have significant shortcomings in defining seat comfort. The most obvious deficiency of these component level tests is that they only deal with a seats' foam rather than the system response. Consequently, these tests fail to take into account significant factors that affect seat comfort such as trim, suspension, attachments and other components.
Technical Paper

Advantages and Challenges of Closed-Loop HIL Testing for Commercial and Off-Highway Vehicles

2009-10-06
2009-01-2841
Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing is used by commercial vehicle original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in several fields of electronics development. HIL tests are a part of the standard development process for engine and machine control systems. For electronic control units (ECUs), not only the HIL test of the hardware but also the controller software validation is very important. For hardware diagnostics validation, a dynamic simulation of the real system could be omitted and an open-loop test of the controller is sufficient in most cases. For most controller software validation including OBD (on-board diagnosis) tests, detailed but real-time capable models have to be used. This article describes the needs and challenges of models in hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) based testing, taking into account the wide range of commercial and off-highway vehicles.
Technical Paper

Advancements in Hardware-in-the-Loop Technology in Support of Complex Integration Testing of Embedded System Software

2011-04-12
2011-01-0443
Automotive technology is rapidly changing with electrification of vehicles, driver assistance systems, advanced safety systems etc. This advancement in technology is making the task of validation and verification of embedded software complex and challenging. In addition to the component testing, integration testing imposes even tougher requirements for software testing. To meet these challenges dSPACE is continuously evolving the Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) technology to provide a systematic way to manage this task. The paper presents developments in the HIL hardware technology with latest quad-core processors, FPGA based I/O technology and communication bus systems such as Flexray. Also presented are developments of the software components such as advanced user interfaces, GPS information integration, real-time testing and simulation models. This paper provides a real-world example of implication of integration testing on HIL environment for Chassis Controls.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Drivetrain Simulation for Hardware-in-the-Loop Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-0455
This paper describes challenges and possible solution of hybrid electrical vehicles test systems with a special focus on hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test bench. The degree of novelty of this work can be seen in the fact that development and test of ECU for hybrid electrical powertrains can move more and more from mechanical test benches with real automotive components to HIL test systems. The challenging task in terms of electrical interface between an electric motor ECU and an HIL system and necessary real-time capable simulation models for electric machines have been investigated and partly solved. Even cell balancing strategies performed by battery management systems (BMU) can be developed and tested using HIL technology with battery simulation models and a precise cell voltage simulation on electrical level.
Technical Paper

Key Factors for Successful Integration of Automatic Code Generation in Series Production Development

2009-04-20
2009-01-0154
Model-based development and autocoding have become common practice in the automotive industry over the past few years. The industry is using these methods to tackle a situation in which complexity is constantly growing and development times are constantly decreasing, while the safety requirements for the software stay the same or even increase. The debate is no longer whether these methods are useful, but rather on the conditions for achieving optimum results with them. From the experiences made during the last decade this paper shows some of the key factors helping to achieve success when introducing or extending the deployment of automatic code generation in a model-based design process.
Technical Paper

Advances in Rapid Control Prototyping - Results of a Pilot Project for Engine Control -

2005-04-11
2005-01-1350
The technological development in the field of automotive electronics is proceeding at almost break-neck speed. The functions being developed and integrated into cars are growing in complexity and volume. With the increasing number and variety of sensors and actuators, electronics have to handle a greater amount of data, and the acquisition and generation of I/O signals is also growing in complexity, for example, in engine management applications. Moreover, intelligent and complex algorithms need to be processed in a minimum of time. This all intensifies the need for Rapid Control Prototyping (RCP), a proven method of decisively speeding up the model-based software development process of automotive electronic control units (ECUs) [1],[2]. All these demanding tasks, including connecting sensors and actuators to the RCP system, need to be performed within a standard prototyping environment.
Technical Paper

How to Do Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation Right

2005-04-11
2005-01-1657
Not only is the number of electronic control units (ECUs) in modern vehicles constantly increasing, the software of the ECUs is also becoming more complex. Both make testing a central task within the development of automotive electronics. Testing ECUs in real vehicles is time-consuming and costly, and comes very late in the automotive development process. It is therefore increasingly being replaced by laboratory tests using hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation. While new software functions are still being developed or optimized, other functions are already undergoing certain tests, mostly on module level but also on system and integration level. To achieve the highest quality, testing must be done as early as possible within the development process. This paper describes the various test phases during the development of automotive electronics (from single function testing to network testing of all the ECUs of a vehicle).
Technical Paper

Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing of Networked Electronics at Ford

2005-04-11
2005-01-1658
The number of electrical and electronic components in modern vehicles is constantly growing. Increasingly, functionalities are being distributed across several electronic control units (ECUs). While suppliers themselves are responsible for ensuring that individual ECUs function properly, only the OEM can test distributed functions. Moreover, with the volume of testing steadily growing, automated sequences are absolutely essential. To test electronic networks in the vehicle, Ford Europe is using platform-based hardware-in-the-loop simulation with integrated failure insertion. The company is setting up a uniform, project-independent procedure, from standardized test definition to automated test sequences on a virtual vehicle, right through to structured evaluation.
Technical Paper

Hydraulically Damped Rubber Body Mounts with High Lateral Rate for Improved Vehicle Noise, Vibration and Ride Qualities

2013-05-13
2013-01-1906
In today's competitive market, noise and vibration are among the most important parameters that impact the success of a vehicle. In body-on-frame construction vehicles, elastomeric body mounts play a major role in isolating the passenger compartment from road noise, harshness, shake, and other vibrations in the chassis as well as improving ride quality across a wide frequency range. This paper describes the work carried out to design a fluid filled mount with high lateral stiffness that can alter the perceived Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) performance of current production body-on-frame trucks. It was found that the quietness and ride qualities can be significantly improved by positioning the glycol-filled mounts at the anti-node of the frame first vertical bending mode; under the C-pillar intersection with the frame. The performance of mounts in this area is known to be critical to ride quality.
Technical Paper

Development of Production Control Algorithms for Hybrid Electric Vehicles by Using System Simulation: Technology Leadership Brief

2012-10-08
2012-01-9008
In an earlier paper, the authors described how Model-Based System Engineering could be utilized to provide a virtual Hardware-in-the-Loop simulation capability, which creates a framework for the development of virtual ECU software by providing a platform upon which embedded control algorithms may be developed, tested, updated, and validated. The development of virtual ECU software is increasingly valuable in automotive control system engineering because vehicle systems are becoming more complex and tightly integrated, which requires that interactions between subsystems be evaluated during the design process. Variational analysis and robustness studies are also important and become more difficult to perform with real hardware as system complexity increases. The methodology described in this paper permits algorithm development to be performed prior to the availability of vehicle and control system hardware by providing what is essentially a virtual integration vehicle.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Two-Zone NOx Emission Simulation in Diesel Engine Hardware-in-the-Loop Applications

2016-09-27
2016-01-8083
Increasing diagnosis capabilities in modern engine electronic control units (ECUs), especially in the exhaust path, in terms of emission and engine aftertreatment control utilize on-board NOx prediction models. Nowadays it is an established approach at hardware-in-theloop (HIL) test benches to replicate the engine's steady-state NOx emissions on the basis of stationary engine data. However, this method might be unsuitable for internal ECU plausibility checks and ECU test conditions based on dynamic engine operations. Examples of proven methods for modeling the engine behavior in HIL system applications are so-called mean value engine models (MVEMs) and crank-angle-synchronous (in-cylinder) models. Of these two, only the in-cylinder model replicates the engine’s inner combustion process at each time step and can therefore be used for chemical-based emission simulation, because the formation of the relevant gas species is caused by the inner combustion states.
Technical Paper

Defining In-Vehicle Location and Functional Attributes of a ‘Button-Style Electronic Automatic Transmission Shifter’ Using DFSS Methodology with Customer Clinic Approach

2017-03-28
2017-01-1131
The implementation of electronic shifters (e-shifter) for automatic transmissions in vehicles has created many new opportunities for the customer facing transmission interface and in-vehicle packaging. E-shifters have become popular in recent years as their smaller physical size leads to packaging advantages, they reduce the mass of the automatic transmission shift system, they are easier to install during vehicle assembly, and act as an enabler for autonomous driving. A button-style e-shifter has the ability to create a unique customer interface to the automatic transmission, as it is very different from the conventional column lever or linear console shifter. In addition to this, a button-style e-shifter can free the center console of valuable package space for other customer-facing functions, such as storage bins and Human-Machine Interface controllers.
Technical Paper

Experimental GT-POWER Correlation Techniques and Best Practices Low Frequency Acoustic Modeling of the Intake System of a Turbocharged Engine

2017-06-05
2017-01-1794
As regulations become increasingly stringent and customer expectations of vehicle refinement increase, the accurate control and prediction of induction system airborne acoustics are a critical factor in creating a vehicle that wins in the marketplace. The goal of this project was to improve the predicative accuracy of a 1-D GT-power engine and induction model and to update internal best practices for modeling. The paper will explore the details of an induction focused correlation project that was performed on a spark ignition turbocharged inline four-cylinder engine. This paper and SAE paper “Experimental GT-POWER Correlation Techniques and Best Practices” share similar abstracts and introductions; however, they were split for readability and to keep the focus on a single a single subsystem. This paper compares 1D GT-Power engine air induction system (AIS) sound predictions with chassis dyno experimental measurements during a fixed gear, full-load speed sweep.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Process to Improve Supplier’s Quality and Reduce Warranty

2017-03-28
2017-01-1604
The objective of this research is to develop a component based enhanced production process after End of Line (EOL) testing. This process will add more quality validation evaluations, but will not require any disassembling of the parts or damage to them. It will help the suppliers to avoid scrap and rework parts as well as General Motors (GM) to reduce warranty and recalls. An Enhanced Production Process was implemented in March, 2016 at a supplier in Mexico. The Enhanced Audit Station implementation is to ensure that the supplier is satisfying the Production Part Approval Process (PPAP) requirements. The most important four components are: Touch Appearance Lighting and Color (TALC), Appearance Approval Report (AAR), Dimensional Checks, and Function Testing. Through statistics, a pilot study was conducted to correlate the selected variables to reduce warranty.
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