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Technical Paper

A Two-Stage Heat-Release Model for Diesel Engines

A two-stage heat-release model was developed and applied to both a divided-chamber and an open-chamber diesel engine to determine the fuel burning rates and product temperatures from measured cylinder pressure-time profiles. Measured NO emission levels for several engine operating conditions were used to select the equivalence ratios of the two stages. Combustion in the first stage was taken to occur at a stoichiometric air-fuel ratio, while second-stage combustion was considered to occur at an equivalence ratio below the cylinder-averaged equivalence ratio. An empirical fit for the equivalence ratio of the second stage was determined. Good agreement between the results of this model and the corresponding single-stage model was obtained for heat-release and heat-transfer histories. The computed combustion temperatures for the rich stage were found to be consistently higher (7 to 22% on an absolute scale) than published flame-temperature measurements.
Technical Paper

Scavenger and Lead Poisoning of Automotive Oxidation Catalysts

The deactivation of noble metal oxidation catalysts by lead and halide lead scavengers was studied in engine and laboratory experiments. The halide scavengers caused rapid but completely reversible inhibition of the catalyst activity, which existed only as long as the halide was present. The effects of catalyst temperature and noble metal concentration indicated that the halide scavenger dissociated upon adsorption on the catalyst. Palladium and platinum-palladium catalysts were more susceptible to halide inhibition than were platinum catalysts. Lead alone or lead plus scavengers produced a persistent poisoning of the catalyst. Lead poisoning effects were increased by increased catalyst temperatures and fuel lead content. Tests with scavengers only, conducted in an engine previously operated on leaded fuel, showed that lead was transported to the catalyst causing lead poisoning even in the absence of lead in the fuel.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Measurement of Vehicle Sulfate and Methane Emissions with Tunable Diode lasers

A new analytical method, absorption of tunable diode laser radiation, can detect small concentrations of gases with fast response. This technique has been applied to the detection of vehicle sulfate emissions in the form of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) vapor. Previously available methods for sulfate analysis required collecting samples for 10 min. or more. Our laser system has a response time of 2.4 s. This allowed tracking the sulfate emissions of a vehicle during a Highway Fuel Economy Test. The data suggests that catalyst temperature is the major parameter controlling sulfate emissions and that storage and release of sulfur occurs at low and high catalyst temperatures, respectively. The same method detected methane during both the Highway Fuel Economy Test and the Federal Test Procedure. It identified the conditions, and corresponding concentrations, for high methane emissions. A qualitative comparison with total hydrocarbon emissions uncovered significant differences during accelerations.