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Technical Paper

Real-Time Integrated Economic and Environmental Performance Monitoring of a Production Facility

In this paper, we describe our work and experiences with integrating environmental and economic performance monitoring in a production facility of Interface Flooring Systems, Inc. The objective of the work is to create a ‘dashboard’ that integrates environmental and economic monitoring and assessment of manufacturing processes, and provides engineers and managers an easy to use tool for obtaining valid, comparable assessment results that can be used to direct attention towards necessary changes. To this purpose, we build upon existing and familiar cost management principles, in particular Activity-Based Costing and Management (ABC&ABM), and we extend those into environmental management in order to obtain a combined economic and environmental performance measurement framework (called Activity-Based Cost and Environmental Management).
Technical Paper

Low Speed Canard-Tip-Vortex Airfoil Interaction

This paper describes a series of ongoing experiments to capture the details of perpendicular vortex-airfoil interaction. Three test cases explored are: 1) a 21% thick symmetric airfoil at 1.1° angle of attack, 2)a thin flat plate of 2.5% thickness with rounded leading edge, sharp trailing edge and zero angle of attack and 3) A 12% thick symmetric airfoil at zero angle of attack. The tip vortex was generated by a NACA0016 wing at 5° AOA. The strength of the vortex was computed from the velocity profile measured upstream for the first two cases. Pressure measurements on the 21% airfoil were used to quantify the effect of the vortex as a function of its stand-off distance from the airfoil. Vortex trajectories over the airfoils were obtained from laser sheet videography. The vortex motion conforms to potential flow expectations except in regions of pressure gradient and during head-on interaction.
Technical Paper

New Approaches to Conceptual and Preliminary Aircraft Design: A Comparative Assessment of a Neural Network Formulation and a Response Surface Methodology

This paper critically evaluates the use of Neural Networks (NNs) as metamodels for design applications. The specifics of implementing a NN approach are researched and discussed, including the type and architecture appropriate for design-related tasks, the processes of collecting training and validation data, and training the network, resulting in a sound process, which is described. This approach is then contrasted to the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). As illustrative problems, two equations to be approximated and a real-world problem from a Stability and Controls scenario, where it is desirable to predict the static longitudinal stability for a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) at takeoff, are presented. This research examines Response Surface Equations (RSEs) as Taylor series approximations, and explains their high performance as a proven approach to approximate functions that are known to be quadratic or near quadratic in nature.
Technical Paper

On-Line Identification of End Milling Cutter Runout

Cutter runout has been a target for monitoring and control of machining processes in view of the constraint it places on the achievable productivity. Off-line metrology based on various displacement probes such as dial indicators or proximity sensors provides information regarding the runout characteristics in a non-cutting state. However, during the actual process of machining off-line calibrations often become irrelevant since the cutting parameters and machining configuration significantly affect the behavior of runout. This paper presents a methodology of in-process identification of cutter runout in end milling based on the analysis of cutting forces. The presence of cutter runout generates cutting force components at one spindle frequency above and below the tooth passing frequency.
Technical Paper

Aircraft Control Using Stagnation Point Displacement

A Stagnation Point Actuator is used to control the lateral dynamics of vortices generated over a sharp-pointed forebody, at high angles of attack, and the resulting rolling moment is studied. Effective roll control is demonstrated, including the ability to suppress the wing rock phenomenon. Piecewise-linear transfer functions are developed from experimental data for the changes in roll moment and pressure difference with actuator frequency content. These transfer functions are reduced to compact form in the frequency domain, and then to a time-domain model using 2 gains and 2 time scales. The roll response is classified according to angle of attack range. Some long time scales are observed in the surface pressure, velocity field and rolling moment, making the response relatively insensitive to speed. Thus over substantial speed ranges, linear transfer functions are shown to effectively describe the roll response to motion of the Stagnation Point Actuator.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear Adaptive Control of Tiltrotor Aircraft Using Neural Networks

Neural network augmented model inversion control is used to provide a civilian tilt-rotor aircraft with consistent response characteristics throughout its operating envelope, including conversion flight. The implemented response types are Attitude Command Attitude Hold in the longitudinal channel, and Rate Command Attitude Hold about the roll and yaw axes. This article describes the augmentation in the roll channel and the augmentation for the yaw motion including Heading Hold at low airspeeds and automatic Turn Coordination at cruise flight. Conventional methods require extensive gain scheduling with tilt-rotor nacelle angle and airspeed. A control architecture is developed that can alleviate this requirement and thus has the potential to reduce development time. It also facilitates the implementation of desired handling qualities, and permits compensation for partial failures.
Technical Paper

Expanding the Role of the Wind-Driven Manipulator

The wind-driven dynamic manipulator is a device which uses the wind tunnel freestream energy to drive multi-axis maneuvers of test models. This paper summarizes work performed using the device in several applications and discusses current work on characterizing the aerodynamics of an X-38 vehicle model in pitch-yaw maneuvers. Previous applications in flow visualization, adaptive control and linear-domain parameter identification are now extended to multi-axis inverse force and moment measurement over large ranges of attitude. A pitch-yaw-roll version is operated with active roll to measure forces and moments during maneuvers. A 3-D look-up table generated from direct force calibration allows operation of the manipulator through nonlinear regimes where control wing stall and boom wake-wing interactions are allowed to occur. Hybrid designs combining conventional and wind-driven degrees of freedom are discussed.
Technical Paper

A Technique for Testing and Evaluation of Aircraft Flight Performance During Early Design Phases

A technique is proposed for examining complex behaviors in the “pilot - vehicle - operational conditions” system using an autonomous situational model of flight. The goal is to identify potentially critical flight situations in the system behavior early in the design process. An exhaustive set of flight scenarios can be constructed and modeled on a computer by the designer in accordance with test certification requirements or other inputs. Distinguishing features of the technique include the autonomy of experimentation (the pilot and a flight simulator are not involved) and easy planning and quick modeling of complex multi-factor flight cases. An example of mapping airworthiness requirements into formal scenarios is presented. Simulation results for various flight situations and aircraft types are also demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Forecasting the Impact of Technology Infusion on Subsonic Transport Affordability

The design of complex systems, such as commercial aircraft, has drastically changed since the middle 1970's. Budgetary and airline requirements have forced many aerospace companies to reduce the amount of time and monetary investments in future revolutionary concepts and design methods. The current NASA administration has noticed this shift in aviation focus and responded with the “Three Pillars for Success” program. This program is a roadmap for the development of research, innovative ideas, and technology implementation goals for the next 20 years. As a response to this program, the Aerospace Systems Design Laboratory at Georgia Tech is developing methods whereby forecasting techniques will aid in the proper assessment of future vehicle concepts. This method is called Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF). This method is applied to a medium-range, intra-continental, commercial transport concept.
Technical Paper

A General Effectiveness Methodology for Aircraft Survivability Assessments

The quantification of aircraft survivability in modern battlefield environments is a complex mathematical problem. In general, consideration must be given to the quantification of aircraft vulnerability to individual weapon systems, single encounter aircraft survivability, and the mathematical mapping of single encounter aircraft survivability into mission attrition. A methodology for quantifying the impacts of electronic warfare (EW) upon aircraft survivability is realized by the General Effectiveness Methodology (GEM) which is based upon a hierarchy of computer models. This paper describes this hierarchy of computer simulation tools which extensively employs probability theory to estimate the various engagement events such as aircraft detection, acquisition, missile launch, missile intercept, and probability of aircraft kill.
Technical Paper

Transmission Electron Microscopy of Soot Particles sampled directly from a Biodiesel Spray Flame

For better understanding of soot formation and oxidation processes in a biodiesel spray flame, the morphology, microstructure and sizes of soot particles directly sampled in a spray flame fuelled with soy-methyl ester were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The soot samples were taken at different axial locations in the spray flame, 40, 50 and 70 mm from injector nozzle, which correspond to soot formation, peak, and oxidation zones, respectively. The biodiesel spray flame was generated in a constant-volume combustion chamber under a diesel-like high pressure and temperature condition (6.7 MPa, 1000K). Density, diameter of primary particles and radius of gyration of soot aggregates reached a peak at 50 mm from the injector nozzle and was lower or smaller in the formation or oxidation zones of the spray.
Technical Paper

Influence of Liquid Penetration Metrics on Diesel Spray Model Validation

It is common practice to validate diesel spray models against experimental diesel-spray images based on elastic light scattering, but the metric used to define the liquid boundary in a modeled spray can be physically inconsistent with the liquid boundary detected by light scattering measurements. In particular, spray models typically define liquid penetration based on a liquid mass threshold, while light scattering signal intensities are based on droplet size and volume fraction. These metrics have different response characteristics to changes in ambient conditions and fuel properties. Thus, when spray models are “tuned” or calibrated to match these types of measurements, the predictive capabilities of these models can be compromised. In this work, we compare two different liquid length metrics of an evaporating, non-reacting n-dodecane spray under diesel-like conditions using KIVA-3V.
Technical Paper

Laser Ignition of Multi-Injection Gasoline Sprays

Laser plasma ignition has been pursued by engine researchers as an alternative to electric spark-ignition systems, potentially offering benefits by avoiding quenching surfaces and extending breakdown limits at higher boost pressure and lower equivalence ratio. For this study, we demonstrate another potential benefit: the ability to control the timing of ignition with short, nanosecond pulses, thereby optimizing the type of mixture that burns in rapidly changing, stratified fuel-air mixtures. We study laser ignition at various timings during single and double injections at simulated gasoline engine conditions within a controlled, high-temperature, high-pressure vessel. Laser ignition is accomplished with a single low-energy (10 mJ), short duration (8 ns) Nd:YAG laser beam that is tightly focused (0.015 mm average measured 1/e₂ diameter) at a typical GDI spark plug location.
Technical Paper

An Analytic Foundation for the Two-Mode Hybrid-Electric Powertrain with a Comparison to the Single-Mode Toyota Prius THS-II Powertrain

General Motors has introduced a Two-Mode Transmission (2-MT) that provides significant improvements over the Toyota THS-II transmission. These improvements are achieved by employing additional planetaries with clutches and brakes to switch from a Mode-1 to Mode-2 as vehicle speed increases. In addition the 2-MT has four fixed-gear ratios that provide for a purely mechanical energy path from the IC engine to the driven wheels with the electric machines also able to provide additional driving torque. The purpose of this present paper is to extend the methodology in a previous paper [1] to include the 2-MT, thereby presenting an analytic foundation for its operation. The main contribution in this analysis is in the definition of dimensionless separation factors, defined in each mode that govern the power split between the parallel mechanical and electrical energy paths from the IC engine to the driven wheels.
Technical Paper

A Dynamic Surrogate Model Technique for Power Systems Modeling and Simulation

Heterogeneous physical systems can often be considered as highly complex, consisting of a large number of subsystems and components, along with the associated interactions and hierarchies amongst them. The simulation of a large-scale, complex system can be computationally expensive and the dynamic interactions may be highly nonlinear. One approach to address these challenges is to increase the computing power or resort to a distributed computing environment. An alternative to improve the simulation computational performance and efficiency is to reduce CPU required time through the application of surrogate models. Surrogate modeling techniques for dynamic simulation models can be developed based on Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN).This study will present a method to improve the overall speed of a multi-physics time-domain simulation of a complex naval system using a surrogate modeling technique.
Technical Paper

Control of PHEV and HEV Parallel Powertrains Using a Sequential Linearization Algorithm

Using measurable physical input variables, an implementable control algorithm for parallel architecture plug-in and non-plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV and HEV) powertrains is presented. The control of the electric drive is based on an algebraic mapping of the accelerator pedal position, the battery state-of-charge (SOC), and the vehicle velocity into a motor controller input torque command. This mapping is developed using a sequential linearization control (SLC) methodology. The internal combustion engine (ICE) control uses a modified accelerator pedal to throttle plate angle using an adjustable gain parameter that, in turn, determines the sustained battery SOC. Searches over an admissible control space or the use of pre-defined look-up tables are thus avoided. Actual on-road results for a Ford Explorer with a through-the-road (TTR) hybrid powertrain using this control methodology are presented.
Technical Paper

High-Performance Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Design Studies and Considerations

This paper presents a detailed design study and associated considerations supporting the development of high-performance plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Due to increasingly strict governmental regulations and increased consumer demand, automotive manufacturers have been tasked with the reduction of fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. PHEV powertrains can provide a needed balance in terms of fuel economy and vehicle performance by exploiting regenerative braking, pure electric vehicle operation, engine load-point shifting, and power-enhancing hybrid traction modes. Thus, properly designed PHEV powertrains can reduce fuel consumption while increasing vehicle utility and performance.
Technical Paper

A Cycloidal Rotor and Airship System for On-Demand Hypercommuting

An architecture is proposed for on-demand rapid commuting across congested-traffic areas. A lighter-than-air (LTA) vehicle provides the efficient loitering and part of the lift, while a set of cycloidal rotors provides the lift for payload as well as propulsion. This combination offers low noise and low downwash. A standardized automobile carriage is slung below the LTA, permitting driveway to driveway boarding and off-loading for a luxury automobile. The concept exploration is described, converging to the above system. The 6-DOF aerodynamic load map of the carriage is acquired using the Continuous-Rotation method in a wind tunnel. An initial design with rear ramp access is modified to have ramps at both ends. The initial design shows a divergence sped in access of 100 mph. An effort to improve the ride quality using yaw stabilizers, failed as the dynamic behavior becomes unstable. The requirements for control surfaces and instrumentation are discussed.
Technical Paper

Scale Similarity Analysis of Internal Combustion Engine Flows—Particle Image Velocimetry and Large-Eddy Simulations

This presentation is an assessment of the turbulence-stress scale-similarity in an IC engine, which is used for modeling subgrid dissipation in LES. Residual stresses and Leonard stresses were computed after applying progressively smaller spatial filters to measured and simulated velocity distributions. The velocity was measured in the TCC-II engine using planar and stereo PIV taken in three different planes and with three different spatial resolutions, thus yielding two and three velocity components, respectively. Comparisons are made between the stresses computed from the measured velocity and stress computed from the LES resolved-scale velocity from an LES simulation. The results present the degree of similarity between the residual stresses and the Leonard stresses at adjacent scales. The specified filters are systematically reduced in size to the resolution limits of the measurements and simulation.
Technical Paper

The Successful Personal Air Vehicle: Business Case Risk Reduction

The development of a universal personal air vehicle has been the dream of aeronautical visionaries since before the time of the Wright brothers' first flight. Through fits and starts the modern general aviation market developed both before and after the Second World War. However, the true personal airplane, one that rivals the automobile, has never emerged. There are a multitude of reasons for this; however, it is not possible to identify any single cause as the key component. Instead it is the complex interaction of regulations, market size, and technical and program risk. This paper shows that in the current environment there are few truly technical barriers to the development of a low-cost personal air vehicle. Instead, the market, regulatory, and program issues have come to dominate the problem. This means that the current impediment to the development of personal air vehicles is essentially an issue of finding a means to “close the business case.”