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Technical Paper

A Methodology for the Prediction of Rotor Blade Ice Formation and Shedding

2011-06-13
2011-38-0090
An integrated approach for modeling the ice accretion and shedding of ice on helicopter rotors is presented. A modular framework is used that includes state of the art computational fluid dynamics, computational structural dynamics, rotor trim, ice accretion, and shedding tools. Results are presented for performance degradation due to icing, collection efficiency, surface temperature and water film properties associated with runback-refreeze phenomena, and shedding. Comparisons with other published simulations and test data are given.
Journal Article

Accounting for the Duration of Analyses in Design Process Decisions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0908
Although the design phase can account for a sizable amount of the resources consumed during the product realization process, the time and costs associated with the design process are often neglected when making design decisions. To investigate this issue, we define a process-centric decision model in which the design-phase consumption of resources, such as time and money, is explicitly modeled. While it is clear that the utility of a design is almost always directly impacted by the monetary costs of the design process, our decision model also accounts for the fact that the profit earned by a product depends strongly on its launch date. The decision model allows us thus to consider the trade-off between the time necessary for analysis and the improvement in product quality that results from the analysis. The decision model is sufficiently generic that almost any set of beliefs about the alternatives or analyses, as well as any utility-based preference structure can be modeled.
Technical Paper

Activity Based Approach to Manufacturing Systems Modeling

2010-04-12
2010-01-0277
This paper looks at a method for decomposing a manufactured product into what is called an “activity space.” The method uses an activity based costing scheme to structure the model and organize the information. It is discussed how the activity space is used to perform sustainability assessments of a manufactured product and the manufacturing process from different viewpoints and perspectives. The way in which the activity space is used to perform an assessment from several viewpoints is discussed.
Technical Paper

Specification of a P3 Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle Architecture for the EcoCAR 3 Competition

2016-04-05
2016-01-1245
The Georgia Tech EcoCAR 3 team’s selection of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) architecture for the EcoCAR 3 competition is presented in detail, with a focus on the team’s modeling and simulation efforts and how they informed the team’s architecture selection and subsequent component decisions. EcoCAR 3, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy and General Motors, is the latest in a series of Advanced Vehicle Technology Competitions (AVTCs) and features 16 universities from the United States and Canada competing to transform the 2016 Chevrolet Camaro into a hybrid electric American performance vehicle. Team vehicles will be scored on performance, emissions, fuel economy, consumer acceptability, and more over the course of the four-year competition. During the first year, the Georgia Tech team considered numerous component combinations and HEV architectures, including series RWD and AWD, parallel, and power-split.
Technical Paper

An Analytic Foundation for the Toyota Prius THS-II Powertrain with a Comparison to a Strong Parallel Hybrid-Electric Powertrain

2006-04-03
2006-01-0666
Hybrid-electric powertrains for passenger vehicles and light trucks are generally being designed with two different configurations described as follows: The Toyota Hybrid System, THS-II, implemented in the 2004 Prius, the Lexus 400-H, and the Ford Hybrid Escape, is a power-split approach involving two electric machines and an internal combustion engine (ICE) mechanically coupled by a three-shaft planetary gear train. The second leading approach is a parallel hybrid-electric powertrain that generally includes a single electric machine and an ICE with a mating multi-ratio transmission. These parallel configurations are further divided as weak parallel and strong parallel. Honda uses a weak parallel powertrain in their Insight and Hybrid Civic. At Georgia Tech a strong (full), split-parallel hybrid powertrain has been implemented in a Ford Explorer. The vehicle is referred to as the Model GT.
Technical Paper

Eliminating Design Alternatives Based on Imprecise Information

2006-04-03
2006-01-0272
In this paper, the relationship between uncertainty and sets of alternatives in engineering design is investigated. In sequential decision making, each decision alternative actually consists of a set of design alternatives. Consequently, the decision-maker can express his or her preferences only imprecisely as a range of expected utilities for each decision alternative. In addition, the performance of each design alternative can be characterized only imprecisely due to uncertainty from limited data, modeling assumptions, and numerical methods. The approach presented in this paper recognizes the presence of both imprecision and sets in the design process by focusing on incrementally eliminating decision alternatives until a small set of solutions remains. This is a fundamental shift from the current paradigm where the focus is on selecting a single decision alternative in each design decision.
Technical Paper

A General Effectiveness Methodology for Aircraft Survivability Assessments

1987-10-01
871905
The quantification of aircraft survivability in modern battlefield environments is a complex mathematical problem. In general, consideration must be given to the quantification of aircraft vulnerability to individual weapon systems, single encounter aircraft survivability, and the mathematical mapping of single encounter aircraft survivability into mission attrition. A methodology for quantifying the impacts of electronic warfare (EW) upon aircraft survivability is realized by the General Effectiveness Methodology (GEM) which is based upon a hierarchy of computer models. This paper describes this hierarchy of computer simulation tools which extensively employs probability theory to estimate the various engagement events such as aircraft detection, acquisition, missile launch, missile intercept, and probability of aircraft kill.
Technical Paper

Viable Designs Through a Joint Probabilistic Estimation Technique

1999-10-19
1999-01-5623
A key issue in complex systems design is measuring the ‘goodness’ of a design, i.e. finding a criterion through which a particular design is determined to be the ‘best’. Traditional choices in aerospace systems design, such as performance, cost, revenue, reliability, and safety, individually fail to fully capture the life cycle characteristics of the system. Furthermore, current multi-criteria optimization approaches, addressing this problem, rely on deterministic, thus, complete and known information about the system and the environment it is exposed to. In many cases, this information is not be available at the conceptual or preliminary design phases. Hence, critical decisions made in these phases have to draw from only incomplete or uncertain knowledge. One modeling option is to treat this incomplete information probabilistically, accounting for the fact that certain values may be prominent, while the actual value during operation is unknown.
Technical Paper

A Parametric Design Environment for Including Signatures Analysis in Conceptual Design

2000-10-10
2000-01-5564
System effectiveness has become the prime metric for the evaluation of military aircraft. As such, it is the designer's goal to maximize system effectiveness. Industry documents indicate that all future military aircraft will incorporate signature reduction as an attempt to improve system effectiveness. Today's operating environments demand low observable aircraft which are able to reliably eliminate valuable, time critical targets. Thus, it is desirable to be able to evaluate the signatures of a vehicle, as well as the influence of signatures on the systems effectiveness of a vehicle. Previous studies have shown that shaping of the vehicle is one of the most important contributors to radar cross section and must be considered from the very beginning of the design process. This research strives to meet these needs by developing a parametric geometry radar cross section prediction tool.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Simulation and Evaluation for UT-HEV

2000-08-21
2000-01-3105
A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) simulation has been developed for an electric-assist parallel configuration vehicle, at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. The model was developed in MATLAB/SIMULINK using ADVISOR, a HEV simulation model developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The Neon simulation model implements a power control strategy using throttle position as the primary input. It incorporates other features of HEV power control such as battery regeneration and regenerative braking. A practical way of battery modeling is incorporated into this model. The model also simulates the vehicle operation as a pure electric vehicle (EV) or as a conventional vehicle (heat engine only). By using the Neon model, the performance of the vehicle has been analyzed using parametric analysis of the vehicle components and power control parameters. Recommendations are given for improving the design based on the simulation results.
Technical Paper

Digital Human Modeling for Universal Design

2003-06-17
2003-01-2199
Several research institutions and universities have taken on the challenge of providing solutions for accessible and universally designed workplace accommodations with a focus on people with disabilities. Accessible Design is a subset of what is termed Universal Design. Where Universal Design covers the design of products, systems and environments for all people and encompasses all design principles, Accessible Design focuses on principles that extend the standard design process to those people with some type of performance limitation. In order for individuals with disabiltities to gain better access to the work environments and the products that facilitate independence, health, safety, and social participation a multi-disciplined approach to the research is needed to identify needs and challenges of the targeted population.
Technical Paper

Impact of Configuration and Requirements on the Sonic Boom of a Quiet Supersonic Jet

2002-11-05
2002-01-2930
Market forecasts predict a potentially large market for a Quiet Supersonic Business Jet provided that several technical hurdles are overcome prior to fielding such a vehicle. In order to be economically viable, the QSJ must be able to fly at supersonic speeds overland and operate from regional airports in addition to meeting government noise and emission requirements. As a result of these conflicting constraints on the design, the process of selecting a configuration for low sonic boom is a difficult one. Response Surface Methodology along with physics-based analysis tools were used to create an environment in which the sonic boom can be studied as a function of design and mission parameters. Ten disciplinary codes were linked with a sizing and synthesis code by using a commercial wrapper in order to calculate the required responses with the desired level of fidelity.
Technical Paper

New Approaches to Multidisciplinary Synthesis: An Aero-Structures-Control Application Using Statistical Techniques

1996-10-01
965501
An evolving aircraft synthesis simulation environment which offers improvements to existing methods at multiple levels of a design process is described in this paper. As design databases become obsolete due to the introduction of new technologies and classes of vehicles and as sophisticated analysis codes are often too computationally expensive for iterative applications, the design engineer may find a lack of usable information needed for decision making. Within the environment developed in this paper, rapid sensitivity analysis is possible through a unique representation of the relationship between fundamental design variables and system objectives. The combined use of the Design of Experiments and Response Surface techniques provides the ability to form this design relationship among system variables and target values, which is termed design-oriented in nature.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Assessment of the Economic Viability of a Family of Very Large Transport Configurations

1996-10-01
965516
A family of Very Large Transport (VLT) concepts were studied as an implementation of the affordability aspects of the Robust Design Simulation (RDS) methodology which is based on the Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD) initiative that is sweeping through industry. The VLT is envisioned to be a high capacity (600 to 1000 passengers), long range (∼7500 nm), subsonic transport. Various configurations with different levels of technology were compared, based on affordability issues, to a Boeing 747-400 which is a current high capacity, long range transport. The varying technology levels prompted a need for an integration of a sizing/synthesis (FLOPS) code with an economics package (ALCCA). The integration enables a direct evaluation of the added technology on a configuration economic viability.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Aerobatic Flight Safety Using Autonomous Modeling and Simulation

2000-04-11
2000-01-2100
An affordable technique is proposed for fast quantitative analysis of aerobatics and other complex flight domains of highly maneuverable aircraft. A generalized autonomous situational model of the “pilot (automaton) – vehicle – operational environment” system is employed as a “virtual test article”. Using this technique, a systematic knowledge of the system behavior in aerobatic flight can be generated on a computer, much faster than real time. This information can be analyzed via a set of knowledge mapping formats using a 3-D graphics visualization tool. Piloting and programming skills are not required in this process. Possible applications include: aircraft design and education, applied aerodynamics, flight control systems design, planning and rehearsal of flight test and display programs, investigation of aerobatics-related flight accidents and incidents, physics-based pilot training, research into new maneuvers, autonomous flight, and onboard AI.
Technical Paper

An Application of a Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF) Method to an Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicle

1999-10-19
1999-01-5633
In today’s atmosphere of lower U.S. defense spending and reduced research budgets, determining how to allocate resources for research and design has become a critical and challenging task. In the area of aircraft design there are many promising technologies to be explored, yet limited funds with which to explore them. In addition, issues concerning uncertainty in technology readiness as well as the quantification of the impact of a technology (or combinations of technologies), are of key importance during the design process. The methodology presented in this paper details a comprehensive and structured process in which to explore the effects of technology for a given baseline aircraft. This process, called Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF), involves the creation of a forecasting environment for use in conjunction with defined technology scenarios. The advantages and limitations of the method will be discussed, as well its place in an overall methodology used for technology infusion.
Technical Paper

Development of Wing Structural Weight Equation for Active Aeroelastic Wing Technology

1999-10-19
1999-01-5640
A multidisciplinary design study considering the impact of Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) technology on the structural wing weight of a lightweight fighter concept is presented. The study incorporates multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) and response surface methods to characterize wing weight as a function of wing geometry. The study involves the sizing of the wing box skins of several fighter configurations to minimum weight subject to static aeroelastic requirements. In addition, the MDO problem makes use of a new capability, trim optimization for redundant control surfaces, to accurately model AAW technology. The response surface methodology incorporates design of experiments, least squares regression, and makes use of the parametric definition of a structural finite element model and aerodynamic model to build response surface equations of wing weight as a function of wing geometric parameters for both AAW technology and conventional control technology.
Technical Paper

Physical Properties of Bio-Diesel and Implications for Use of Bio-Diesel in Diesel Engines

2007-10-29
2007-01-4030
In this study we identify components of a typical biodiesel fuel and estimate both their individual and mixed thermo-physical and transport properties. We then use the estimated mixture properties in computational simulations to gauge the extent to which combustion is modified when biodiesel is substituted for conventional diesel fuel. Our simulation studies included both conventional diesel combustion (DI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). Preliminary results indicate that biodiesel ignition is significantly delayed due to slower liquid evaporation, with the effects being more pronounced for DI than PCCI. The lower vapor pressure and higher liquid heat capacity of biodiesel are two key contributors to this slower rate of evaporation. Other physical properties are more similar between the two fuels, and their impacts are not clearly evident in the present study.
Journal Article

Model-Based Optimization of a Hydraulic Backhoe using Multi-Attribute Utility Theory

2009-04-20
2009-01-0565
Modeling and simulation are commonly used in all stages of the design process. This is particularly vital to the success of systems engineering projects where the system under consideration is complex and involves interactions between many interdisciplinary subsystems. In the refining stages of the design process (after concept selection), models and simulations can be used to refine and optimize a system with respect to the decision maker’s objectives. In this paper, a dynamic model of a hydraulic backhoe serves as a test-bed for a large-scale sensitivity analysis and subsequent optimization of the most significant design parameters. The model is optimized under uncertainty with respect to a multi-attribute utility function that includes fuel consumption, cost of the key components, and machine performance.
Technical Paper

A Dynamic Surrogate Model Technique for Power Systems Modeling and Simulation

2008-11-11
2008-01-2887
Heterogeneous physical systems can often be considered as highly complex, consisting of a large number of subsystems and components, along with the associated interactions and hierarchies amongst them. The simulation of a large-scale, complex system can be computationally expensive and the dynamic interactions may be highly nonlinear. One approach to address these challenges is to increase the computing power or resort to a distributed computing environment. An alternative to improve the simulation computational performance and efficiency is to reduce CPU required time through the application of surrogate models. Surrogate modeling techniques for dynamic simulation models can be developed based on Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN).This study will present a method to improve the overall speed of a multi-physics time-domain simulation of a complex naval system using a surrogate modeling technique.
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