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Technical Paper

Methodology for the Parametric Structural Conceptual Design of Hypersonic Vehicles

2000-10-10
2000-01-5618
The design of hypersonic vehicles is influenced by tightly coupled interactions between aerodynamics, propulsion, and structures. Therefore, in the conceptual design phases, the identification and mitigation of potential problem areas and disciplinary interrelations are critical. Although the multidisciplinary character of hypersonic designs is well known, research in hypersonics is primarily focused on the isolated disciplines with side notes on the interactions. The designer has to integrate all the disciplinary information and create a successful system. This integration is a tedious and elaborate process involving time-consuming iterations. This paper proposes a new approach and entails the creation of Response Surface Equations from the various constituent disciplines considered. This method allows to quickly assess the implication of design decisions at the top level using the multiple disciplinary meta-models.
Technical Paper

A Parametric Design Environment for Including Signatures Analysis in Conceptual Design

2000-10-10
2000-01-5564
System effectiveness has become the prime metric for the evaluation of military aircraft. As such, it is the designer's goal to maximize system effectiveness. Industry documents indicate that all future military aircraft will incorporate signature reduction as an attempt to improve system effectiveness. Today's operating environments demand low observable aircraft which are able to reliably eliminate valuable, time critical targets. Thus, it is desirable to be able to evaluate the signatures of a vehicle, as well as the influence of signatures on the systems effectiveness of a vehicle. Previous studies have shown that shaping of the vehicle is one of the most important contributors to radar cross section and must be considered from the very beginning of the design process. This research strives to meet these needs by developing a parametric geometry radar cross section prediction tool.
Technical Paper

MODELING AND CONTROL OF TRANSIENT ENGINE CONDITIONS

2001-10-01
2001-01-3231
In gasoline direct injection engines, fuel is injected into the port walls and the valve. During the engine startup cycle, the temperature of these parts is not adequate to evaporate all the fuel that impacts the walls. As a result, a fraction of the injected fuel does not contribute to the combustion cycle. This fraction forms fuel puddles (wall-wetting) and a portion of it passes to the crankcase. The efficiency of the engine during the startup cycle is decreased and hydrocarbon emissions increased. It is obvious that a control strategy is necessary to minimize the effects of this transient performance of the engine. This paper investigates a modeling framework for the valve, and simulation results validate model performance when compared to available experimental data. The simulation studies lead to a conceptual control design, which is briefly outlined.
Technical Paper

Towards Electric Aircraft: Progress under the NASA URETI for Aeropropulsion and Power Technology

2006-11-07
2006-01-3097
The environmental impact of aircraft, specifically in the areas of noise and NOx emissions, has been a growing community concern. Coupled with the increasing cost and diminishing supply of traditional fossil fuels, these concerns have fueled substantial interest in the research and development of alternative power sources for aircraft. In 2003, NASA and the Department of Defense awarded a five year research cooperative agreement to a team of researchers from three different universities to address the design and analysis of revolutionary aeropropulsion technologies.
Technical Paper

Test Results for a Fuel Cell-Powered Demonstration Aircraft

2006-11-07
2006-01-3092
A fuel cell powered airplane has been designed and constructed at the Georgia Insitute of Technology to develop an understanding of the design and implementation challenges of fuel cell-powered unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). A custom 448W net output proton exchange membrane fuel cell powerplant has been constructed and tested. A demonstrator aircraft was designed and built to accommodate this powerplant and the fuel cell powered aircraft has performed seven test flights to date. Test data show that the aircraft performance validates the models used for design and optimization and that the fuel cell aircraft is capable of longer endurance, higher performance test flights.
Technical Paper

Battery Modeling for HEV Simulation Model Development

2001-03-05
2001-01-0960
Battery modeling is of major concern for Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) and Electric vehicle (EV) modeling. The major issue lies in characterizing the battery power output in relation to battery's State of Charge (SOC) in various application conditions. In particular, the challenge is associated with the difficulty that the characteristic parameters of the battery, i.e. the accurate data on the open circuit voltage and the internal resistance are hardly obtainable in practical conditions. In this paper, a battery capacity representation and a practical way of battery modeling is introduced for simulation model development based on the experimental data. A realistic way of battery SOC representation is generated from the battery output data. Empirical formulation is derived from the data to correlate the battery current, voltage output with the battery SOC.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Simulation and Evaluation for UT-HEV

2000-08-21
2000-01-3105
A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) simulation has been developed for an electric-assist parallel configuration vehicle, at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. The model was developed in MATLAB/SIMULINK using ADVISOR, a HEV simulation model developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The Neon simulation model implements a power control strategy using throttle position as the primary input. It incorporates other features of HEV power control such as battery regeneration and regenerative braking. A practical way of battery modeling is incorporated into this model. The model also simulates the vehicle operation as a pure electric vehicle (EV) or as a conventional vehicle (heat engine only). By using the Neon model, the performance of the vehicle has been analyzed using parametric analysis of the vehicle components and power control parameters. Recommendations are given for improving the design based on the simulation results.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Aerobatic Flight Safety Using Autonomous Modeling and Simulation

2000-04-11
2000-01-2100
An affordable technique is proposed for fast quantitative analysis of aerobatics and other complex flight domains of highly maneuverable aircraft. A generalized autonomous situational model of the “pilot (automaton) – vehicle – operational environment” system is employed as a “virtual test article”. Using this technique, a systematic knowledge of the system behavior in aerobatic flight can be generated on a computer, much faster than real time. This information can be analyzed via a set of knowledge mapping formats using a 3-D graphics visualization tool. Piloting and programming skills are not required in this process. Possible applications include: aircraft design and education, applied aerodynamics, flight control systems design, planning and rehearsal of flight test and display programs, investigation of aerobatics-related flight accidents and incidents, physics-based pilot training, research into new maneuvers, autonomous flight, and onboard AI.
Technical Paper

A System Dynamics Approach for Dynamic Uncertainty Assessment in a PAV Design Environment

2006-08-30
2006-01-2434
One the most critical barriers to the advancement of Personal Air Vehicles in today's market environment is that the technological capabilities can never seem to outweigh the risks associated with financing such an endeavor. To address such a need, a system dynamics approach with the capability to model the uncertainties in the supply chain is presented in this paper. The overall modeling framework is first presented and the modeling process of the various relevant elements, such as demand prediction and manufacturer analysis, is then described. The aim of this research is ultimately to assess the viability of a next-generation aircraft program beyond the static confines of a net present value approach, through the inclusion of dynamic events and uncertainties that can occur throughout the life-cycle of the aircraft.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of a Multi-Gas Generator Fan to a Turbofan Engine on a Vertical Takeoff and Landing Personal Air Vehicle

2006-08-30
2006-01-2435
This paper attempts to assess the benefits of a unique distributed propulsion concept, known as the Multi-Gas Generator Fan (MGGF) system, over conventional turbofan engines on civilian vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) applications. The MGGF-based system has shown the potential to address the fundamental technical challenge in designing a VTOL aircraft: the significant mismatch between the power requirements at lift-off/hover and cruise. Vehicle-level performance and sizing studies were implemented using the Grumman Design 698 tilt-nacelle V/STOL aircraft as a notional personal air vehicle (PAV), subjected to hypothetical single engine failure (SEF) emergency landing requirements and PAV mission requirements.
Technical Paper

Quiet, Clean, and Efficient, but Heavy - Concerns for Future Fuel Cell Powered Personal Air Vehicles

2006-08-30
2006-01-2436
Unfortunately, the promises of efficient, clean, quiet power that fuel cells offer are balanced by extremely low power densities and great infrastructure-related challenges. Studies by government and industry have investigated their feasibility for primary propulsion in light aircraft. These studies have produced mixed results but have tended to rely on integrating fuel cells into existing airframes, with respectably-performing light sport planes being turned into underpowered show planes with horribly compromised range and payload capabilities. Fuel cells today are in the earliest phases of technological development. As an aircraft propulsion system, they are as advanced as the Wright's reciprocating engine was a hundred years ago.
Technical Paper

Engineering a Space Based Construction Robot

2005-10-03
2005-01-3406
This paper describes a machine to quarry construction material, sinter walls, and assemble future space station modules. In prior work, we explored the solar energy requirements to build a 50m diameter, 50m high, cylindrical module out of pulverized rock from a Near-Earth Object, using tailored radio wave fields. In this paper, we describe the issues in the conceptual design of the robotic construction machines. The 4-legged Rock breaker is designed to fit the payload bay of a modern heavy-lift booster to reach Low Earth Orbit, and primary solar-sail propulsion for most of its journey. It uses beamed microwave energy for its cutting operations. Rotating, telescoping arms use integrated laser/plasma jet cutter arrays to dig trenches in spiral patterns which will form blocks of material. Cut blocks are sent into a toroidal cloud of material for use in the force field tailoring for automatic module formation.
Technical Paper

Conceptual Design of Current Technology and Advanced Concepts for an Efficient Multi-Mach Aircraft

2005-10-03
2005-01-3399
A design process is formulated and implemented for the taxonomy selection and system-level optimization of an Efficient Multi-Mach Aircraft Current Technology Concept and an Advanced Concept. Concept space exploration of taxonomy alternatives is performed with multi-objective genetic algorithms and a Powell’s method scheme for vehicle optimization in a multidisciplinary modeling and simulation environment. A dynamic sensitivity visualization analysis tool is generated for the Advanced Concept with response surface equations.
Technical Paper

Technology Assessment of a Supersonic Business Jet

2005-10-03
2005-01-3393
This paper presents a quantitative process to track the progress of technology developments within NASA’s Vehicle Systems Program (VSP) as implemented on a Supersonic Business Jet (SBJ). The process, called the Technology Metric Assessment and Tracking (TMAT) process, accounts for the temporal aspects of technology development programs such that technology portfolio assessments, in the form of technological progress towards VSP sector goals, may be tracked and assessed. Progress tracking of internal research and development programs is an essential element to successful strategic endeavors and justification of the pursuit of capital projects [1].
Technical Paper

A General Aviation Aircraft Retrofit with a PEM Fuel Cell

2008-11-11
2008-01-2914
As gas prices and climate change become the preeminent issues of today, more research effort is being directed towards the development of cheaper and cleaner alternative energy sources. These efforts have been further complemented with research into the applicability of these sources to air, land and sea borne vehicles. In this report a notional C-172R general aviation aircraft is retrofitted with a PEM power plant as a case-study. Lower bounds for useful load and range are set in such a way that the results can be useful in determining how much improvement in the technology would be required to power a useful general aviation vehicle. It is seen that even at the predicted 2015 fuel cell technology level (per US Department of Energy projections), PEM systems would still be infeasible for this vehicle due to low specific power. Further investigation revealed that a PEM-battery hybrid system had better chances of feasibility.
Technical Paper

A Model for Water Consumption in Vehicle Use within Urban Regions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1152
The recent development of electric vehicles creates a new area of interest regarding their potential impacts on natural resource and energy networks. Water consumption is of particular interest, as water scarcity becomes a growing problem in many regions of the world. Water usage can be traced to the production of gasoline, as well as electricity, for regular operation of these vehicles. This paper focuses on the development of a framework to analyze the amount of water consumed in the operation of both conventional and electric vehicles. Using the Systems Modeling Language, a model was developed based on the water consumed directly in energy generation and processing as well as water consumed in obtaining and processing a vehicle's fuels. This model and framework will use the above water consumption breakdown to examine conventional and electric vehicles in metropolitan Atlanta to assess their impacts on that and other urban networks.
Technical Paper

Laser Ignition of Multi-Injection Gasoline Sprays

2011-04-12
2011-01-0659
Laser plasma ignition has been pursued by engine researchers as an alternative to electric spark-ignition systems, potentially offering benefits by avoiding quenching surfaces and extending breakdown limits at higher boost pressure and lower equivalence ratio. For this study, we demonstrate another potential benefit: the ability to control the timing of ignition with short, nanosecond pulses, thereby optimizing the type of mixture that burns in rapidly changing, stratified fuel-air mixtures. We study laser ignition at various timings during single and double injections at simulated gasoline engine conditions within a controlled, high-temperature, high-pressure vessel. Laser ignition is accomplished with a single low-energy (10 mJ), short duration (8 ns) Nd:YAG laser beam that is tightly focused (0.015 mm average measured 1/e₂ diameter) at a typical GDI spark plug location.
Technical Paper

Impact of Configuration and Requirements on the Sonic Boom of a Quiet Supersonic Jet

2002-11-05
2002-01-2930
Market forecasts predict a potentially large market for a Quiet Supersonic Business Jet provided that several technical hurdles are overcome prior to fielding such a vehicle. In order to be economically viable, the QSJ must be able to fly at supersonic speeds overland and operate from regional airports in addition to meeting government noise and emission requirements. As a result of these conflicting constraints on the design, the process of selecting a configuration for low sonic boom is a difficult one. Response Surface Methodology along with physics-based analysis tools were used to create an environment in which the sonic boom can be studied as a function of design and mission parameters. Ten disciplinary codes were linked with a sizing and synthesis code by using a commercial wrapper in order to calculate the required responses with the desired level of fidelity.
Technical Paper

An Analytic Foundation for the Toyota Prius THS-II Powertrain with a Comparison to a Strong Parallel Hybrid-Electric Powertrain

2006-04-03
2006-01-0666
Hybrid-electric powertrains for passenger vehicles and light trucks are generally being designed with two different configurations described as follows: The Toyota Hybrid System, THS-II, implemented in the 2004 Prius, the Lexus 400-H, and the Ford Hybrid Escape, is a power-split approach involving two electric machines and an internal combustion engine (ICE) mechanically coupled by a three-shaft planetary gear train. The second leading approach is a parallel hybrid-electric powertrain that generally includes a single electric machine and an ICE with a mating multi-ratio transmission. These parallel configurations are further divided as weak parallel and strong parallel. Honda uses a weak parallel powertrain in their Insight and Hybrid Civic. At Georgia Tech a strong (full), split-parallel hybrid powertrain has been implemented in a Ford Explorer. The vehicle is referred to as the Model GT.
Technical Paper

Monitoring and Diagnostics for Electric Drivetrain Components in HEVs

2006-04-03
2006-01-1124
This paper presents monitoring and diagnostic techniques for drivetrain components in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The particular focus of this work is the gear box of the drivetrain and mechanical faults of the electric motor. Permanent magnet motor magnet failures and rotor eccentricities are investigated and diagnosed. For induction motors, the presented mechanical fault cases are electrical rotor asymmetries (defective bars and end rings) and rotor eccentricities, as well. Apart from stationary operation, the presented techniques can also be applied to transient operating conditions. Measurement results are presented and discussed.
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