Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Possibilities and Limits of 1D CFD Simulation Methodology for the Layout of 2-Stroke GDI Combustion System

2010-09-28
2010-32-0017
The development process of 2-stroke engines is characterized by limited CFD investigations in combination with long-term development phases on the test bench with high prototype costs. To reduce the costs and to realize shorter development time together with a higher prediction quality of the engine potential, a higher implementation level of 1D and 3D simulation tools into the development process is necessary. This publication outlines the 1D simulation methods in the layout phase of GDI combustion processes of 2-stroke engine categories. By means of conceptual investigations, the demands, the potential and the limits of 1D CFD simulation methodology are defined. Using a comparison between 1D and 3D or 1D/3D coupled simulation methods the limits of solely 1D simulation are shown. For advanced simulation tasks with a higher demand for prediction quality, the entire engine is simulated in 1D, whereas special parts of the engine design are simulated in a 3D model.
Journal Article

Reed Valve CFD Simulation of a 2-Stroke Engine Using a 2D Model Including the Complete Engine Geometry

2010-09-28
2010-32-0015
CFD has been widely used to predict the flow behavior inside 2-stroke engines over the past twenty years. Usually a mass flow profile or a simple 0D model is used for the inlet boundary condition, which replaces the complete intake geometry, such as reed valve, throttle, and air box geometries. For a CFD simulation which takes into account the exact reed valve geometry, a simulation of all above mentioned domains is required, as these domains are coupled together and thus interact. As the high speed of the engine affects the opening dynamic and closure of the reed valve, the transient data from the crank case volume and the section upstream the reed valve have an important influence on the reed petal dynamic and therewith on the sucked fresh air mass of the engine. This paper covers a methodology for the transient CFD simulation of the reed petals of a 2-stroke engine by using a 2D model.
Technical Paper

Challenges and Solutions for Range Extenders - From Concept Considerations to Practical Experiences

2011-06-09
2011-37-0019
For a broad acceptance of electric vehicles, the trade-off between all electric range and battery cost respectively weight represents the most important challenge. The all electric range obtained under real world conditions most often deviates significantly from the nominal value which is measured under idealized conditions. Under extreme conditions - slow traffic and demanding requirements for cabin heating or cooling - the electrical range might become less a question of spatial distance but even more of total operation time. Whereas with conventional powertrain, high flexibility of the total driving range can be obtained without sacrificing cost, with a pure battery vehicle this results in extreme high cost and weight of the energy storage. Therefore the difference between the typical daily driving range (e.g. in Germany 80-90% is below 50 km) and the minimum total range requested by most customers for acceptance of battery vehicles (200- 250 km), becomes essential.
Technical Paper

Low Cost Range Extender Technology for Hybrid Electric City Scooters

2012-10-23
2012-32-0083
Electric driving is generally limited to short distances in an emission sensible urban environment. In the present situation with high cost electric storage and long charging duration hybridization is the key to enable electric driving. In comparison to the passenger car segment, where numerous manufacturers are already producing and offering different hybrid configurations for their premium class models, the two wheeler sector is not yet affected by this trend. The main reason for the retarded implementation of this new hybrid technology is its high system costs, as they cannot be covered by a reasonable product price. Especially for the two wheeler class L1e, with a maximum speed of 45 km/h and an engine displacement of less than 50 cm₃, the cost factor is highly important and decisive for its market acceptance, because the majority of vehicles are still low-cost products equipped with simple carbureted 2-stroke engines.
Technical Paper

Assessment of a Multi Zone Combustion Model for Analysis and Prediction of CI Engine Combustion and Emissions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1439
The paper describes a universally structured simulation platform which is used for the analysis and prediction of combustion in compression ignition (CI) engines. The models are on a zero-dimensional crank angle resolved basis as commonly used for engine cycle simulations. This platform represents a kind of thermodynamic framework which can be linked to single and multi zone combustion models. It is mainly used as work environment for the development and testing of new models which thereafter are implemented to other codes. One recent development task focused on a multi zone combustion model which corresponds to the approach of Hiroyasu. This model was taken from literature, extended with additional features described in this paper, and implemented into the thermodynamic simulation platform.
Technical Paper

Exhaust System Simulation of a 2-Cylinder 2-Stroke Engine Including Heat Transfer Effects

2010-09-28
2010-32-0035
The exhaust system design has an important influence on the charge mass and the composition of the charge inside the cylinder, due to its gas dynamic behavior. Therefore the exhaust system determines the characteristics of the indicated mean effective pressure as well. The knowledge of the heat transfer and the post-combustion process of fuel losses inside the exhaust system are important for the thermodynamic analysis of the working process. However, the simulation of the heat transfer over the exhaust pipe wall is time consuming, due to the demand for a transient simulation of many revolutions until a cyclic steady condition is reached. Therefore, the exhaust pipe wall temperature is set to constant in the conventional CFD simulation of 2-stroke engines. This paper covers the discussion of a simulation strategy for the exhaust system of a 2-cylinder 2-stroke engine until cyclic steady condition including the heat transfer over the exhaust pipe wall.
Technical Paper

Basic Investigations on the Prediction of Spray-Wall and Spray-Fluid Interaction for a GDI Combustion Process

2010-09-28
2010-32-0030
This publication covers investigations on different 3D CFD models for the description of the spray wall and droplet-fluid interaction and the influence of these models on the mixture formation calculation results. Basic experimental investigations in a spray chamber and a flow tunnel as well as the corresponding 3D CFD simulation were conducted in order to clarify the prediction quality of the physical phenomena of spray-wall and spray-fluid interaction by the simulation. Influencing parameters such as the piston top temperature, piston bowl geometry, soot deposits on the piston top as well as flow velocity are investigated. This paper provides a direct link between the underlying simulation models of the mixture formation and actual real world combustion system development processes - underlining the importance of a close interaction of the model calibration and the development process.
Technical Paper

Study of Possible Range Extender Concepts with Respect to Future Emission Limits

2010-09-28
2010-32-0129
The future exhaust emission legislation limits and the procedures for running the test cycles will have an important influence on future range extender concepts. Due to the special steady state operation strategy of the range extender engines, it is possible to create a simple methodology for comparing engine test bench emissions with the emission limits of exhaust gas legislations. Therefore the energy demand of a predefined vehicle was simulated with PHEM, a longitudinal dynamic simulation tool. According to that, the influence of different exhaust gas after treatment systems and preheating options on the tolerated raw emission concentration will be analyzed. With this information, a few chosen range extender engine concepts will be compared concerning their suitability for future exhaust emission legislations. The selection of the range extender concepts was carried out with the methotology of a value benefit analysis.
Technical Paper

Investigations on Low Pressure Gasoline Direct Injection for a Standard GDI Combustion System

2010-09-28
2010-32-0094
In the course of the last few years a continuous increase of the injection pressure level of gasoline direct injection systems appeared. Today's systems use an injection pressure up to 200bar and the trend shows a further increase for the future. Although several benefits go along with the increased injection pressure, the disadvantages such as higher system costs and higher energy demand lead to the question of the lowest acceptable injection pressure level for low cost GDI combustion systems. Lowering injection pressure and costs could enable the technological upgrading from MPFI to GDI in smaller engine segments, which would lead to a reduction of CO2 emission. This publication covers the investigation of a low pressure GDI system (LPDI) with focus on small and low cost GDI engines. The influence of the injection pressure on the fuel consumption and emission behavior was investigated using a 1.4l series production engine.
Technical Paper

High Efficient 125- 250 cm3 LPDI Two-Stroke Engines, a Cheap and Robust Alternative to Four-Stroke Solutions?

2010-09-28
2010-32-0019
The Institute of Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics at Graz University of Technology has developed a low-pressure (5 bar) direct injection (LPDI) combustion system for 50 cm₃ two-stroke engines during the last years. The 50 cm₃ two-stroke engine is a specific European engine class. Worldwide the 125 cm₃ class is more important. In order to investigate the potential of higher displacement engines equipped with the LPDI combustion process, a demonstrator engine with 250 cm₃ has been developed. The results of this demonstrator from the engine test bench and from the chassis dynamometer are discussed to show the potential of this two-stroke technology. In order to ease the interpretation, the results of a homogenously scavenged two-stroke engine and of a naturally aspirated four-stroke engine serve as reference. The results show that the LPDI technology is a real alternative to expensive four-stroke engines.
Technical Paper

Evaluation and Modeling of Rotor Position Sensor Characteristics for Electric Traction Motors

2016-04-05
2016-01-1065
Vehicles driven by electric or hybrid technologies have the advantage that a high torque potential can be used from the start, hence the initial vehicle acceleration is higher compared to conventional propulsion concepts [1]. The speed-torque characteristic of electric machines is nearly ideal for the use in automotive applications and electrical machines can be controlled with a high efficiency. The aim of the present work is the examination of different sensor technologies, which are used in such automotive applications to measure the rotor position of electric motors. The project includes the assessment and evaluation of different sensor technologies, e.g. resolver, eddy current sensors and sensors based on magneto-resistive effects. The quality of the sensor angular measurement depends on different parameters, for example misalignment in planar direction, longitudinal direction, tilt angle, temperature, rotational speed and supply voltage.
Technical Paper

Multimethod Concept for Continuous Wear-Analysis of the Piston Group

2018-04-03
2018-01-0839
Friction losses as well as lube oil consumption at the piston group are key factors for future engine downsizing concepts regarding to emissions and consumption. This means an early identification of friction losses and wear is essential within development. The main problem is that the wear assessment is based on long durability tests which are typically performed in a later phase. This may lead to the fact that an early optimized configuration with respect to friction can cause a potential wear problem later in the durability test program. Still ongoing trends in combustion engine engineering lead to both the minimized oil supply in the tribocontact piston bore interface and improved wear resistance. One is forced to the conclusion that understanding and quantifying wear will be a key driver for the future engine development process. The aim is a holistic concept that combines different methods to investigate wear and furthermore its combination with friction loss studies.
Technical Paper

“Pedestrian in the Loop”: An Approach Using Augmented Reality

2018-04-03
2018-01-1053
A large number of testing procedures have been developed to ensure vehicle safety in common and extreme driving situations. However, these conventional testing procedures are insufficient for testing autonomous vehicles. They have to handle unexpected scenarios with the same or less risk a human driver would take. Currently, safety related systems are not adequately tested, e.g. in collision avoidance scenarios with pedestrians. Examples are the change of pedestrian behaviour caused by interaction, environmental influences and personal aspects, which cannot be tested in real environments. It is proposed to use augmented reality techniques. This method can be seen as a new (Augmented) Pedestrian in the Loop testing procedure.
Technical Paper

Advances in Automated Coupling of CFD and Radiation

2008-04-14
2008-01-0389
Research and development engineers have paid much attention to coupling commercial tools for examining complex systems, recently. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate an automated coupling of a CFD program with a commercial thermal radiation tool. Based on a previous work the coupling behaviour of a parallelized CFD code is being demonstrated. The automation thus speeds up the calculation procedure even for transient simulations not relying on codes of just one vendor. The simulation is then compared with measurements of temperatures of an actual SUV and conclusions are drawn.
Technical Paper

CFD Simulation of a Real World High-Performance Two Stroke Engine with Use of a Multidimensional Coupling Methodology

2008-09-09
2008-32-0042
CFD simulation (Computational Fluid Dynamics) is a state of the art tool for the development of internal combustion engines, especially for internal mixture preparation, scavenging process and combustion. Simulation offers an array of information in the early development phase without the need of building a prototype engine. It shortens the development time, reduces the number of prototypes and therewith test bench costs. In previous investigations [SAE 2005-32-0099] and [SAE 2007-32-0030] a new coupling methodology which bases on the combination of three-dimensional (3D), one-dimensional (1D), and zero-dimensional (0D) CFD calculation has been presented. This methodology uses a new multidimensional interface technology and is able to handle 3D-0D, 3D-1D and 3D-3D connections. The special feature of this methodology is the capability of being placed on any position in the 3D CFD mesh.
Technical Paper

Application of Low Pressure Direct Injection and Semi-Direct Injection to a Small Capacity Two-Stroke Engine

2008-09-09
2008-32-0059
Based on the fundamental analysis of the two-stroke process (SETC 2005-32-0098) and the development of a stratified scavenged small capacity two-stroke engine (SETC 2006-32-0065), a further approach to achieve low emissions in this engine category is the main subject of this publication. The principles of the system are described by design activities, results of the 3D-CFD simulation and the visualization of the spray in the cylinder. The benefit of this system on exhaust emissions is demonstrated by engine test bench as well as chassis dynamometer results. The achievable reduction of exhaust emissions, especially with an applied oxidation catalytic converter, is remarkable and the potential to fulfill future emission limits has already been demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Dual Fuel Compression Ignition Combustion Concept for Gasoline and Diesel

2014-04-01
2014-01-1319
Dual Fuel concepts are of interest from different perspectives: use of available fuel, independence of supplier, emission reduction and energy costs. This article presents the results of experimental work investigating the possible combination and functional effects of gasoline and diesel fuels. The test bed setup for a single cylinder research engine with a displacement of 2 liters allows gasoline to be added by external mixture formation and combustion to be started by diesel pilot injection. The goal is to reduce the engine out pollutant emissions, while keeping the efficiency at a level comparable to a modern diesel engine. The main focus is on reducing soot and nitric oxide emissions. The charge composition of gasoline is homogenous, so the combustion system can also be seen as a partial or fully homogenous combustion concept, depending on the ignition timing and the ignition delay of the diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Occupant Simulation Through the Coupling of PC-Crash and MADYMO

1999-03-01
1999-01-0444
During recent years the accident simulation program PC-Crash was developed. This software simulates vehicle movement before, during and after the impact, using 3D vehicle and scene models. When reconstructing car accidents, quite often questions arise regarding occupant movement and loading. Especially important is the influence of different types of restraint systems on the occupant. MADYMO® is a software tool which was developed by TNO in the Netherlands and which is well known in the automotive industry for the simulation of occupant movement. It allows the simulation of all kinds of modern restraint systems such as airbags and seatbelts with and without pretensioners. As the software is used in the automotive industry quite extensively, a huge validated database of dummy and human models is available. Since MADYMO® demands the setup of quite complicated input files, its use normally requires a high level of expertise.
Technical Paper

Engine Operating Parameter-based Heat Transfer Simulation to Predict Engine Warm-up

2014-04-01
2014-01-1103
Optimization of engine warm-up behavior has traditionally made use of experimental investigations. However, thermal engine models are a more cost-effective alternative and allow evaluation of the fuel saving potential of thermal management measures in different driving cycles. To simulate the thermal behavior of engines in general and engine warm-up in particular, knowledge of heat distribution throughout all engine components is essential. To this end, gas-side heat transfer inside the combustion chamber and in the exhaust port must be modeled as accurately as possible. Up to now, map-based models have been used to simulate heat transfer and fuel consumption; these two values are calculated as a function of engine speed and load. To extend the scope of these models, it is increasingly desirable to calculate gas-side heat transfer and fuel consumption as a function of engine operating parameters in order to evaluate different ECU databases.
Technical Paper

Vibration Comfort Control for HEV Based on Machine Learning

2014-06-30
2014-01-2091
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) with a power-split system offer a variety of possibilities in reduction of CO2 emissions and fuel consumption. Power-split systems use a planetary gear sets to create a strong mechanical coupling between the internal combustion engine, the generator and the electric motor. This concept offers rather low oscillations and therefore passive damping components are not needed. Nevertheless, during acceleration or because of external disturbances, oscillations which are mostly influenced by the ICE, can still occur which leads to a drivability and performance downgrade. This paper proposes a design of an active damping control system which uses the electric motor to suppress those oscillations instead of handling them within the ICE control unit. The control algorithm is implemented as part of an existing hybrid controller without any additional hardware introduced.
X