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Technical Paper

Assessment of a Multi Zone Combustion Model for Analysis and Prediction of CI Engine Combustion and Emissions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1439
The paper describes a universally structured simulation platform which is used for the analysis and prediction of combustion in compression ignition (CI) engines. The models are on a zero-dimensional crank angle resolved basis as commonly used for engine cycle simulations. This platform represents a kind of thermodynamic framework which can be linked to single and multi zone combustion models. It is mainly used as work environment for the development and testing of new models which thereafter are implemented to other codes. One recent development task focused on a multi zone combustion model which corresponds to the approach of Hiroyasu. This model was taken from literature, extended with additional features described in this paper, and implemented into the thermodynamic simulation platform.
Technical Paper

Basic Investigations on the Prediction of Spray-Wall and Spray-Fluid Interaction for a GDI Combustion Process

2010-09-28
2010-32-0030
This publication covers investigations on different 3D CFD models for the description of the spray wall and droplet-fluid interaction and the influence of these models on the mixture formation calculation results. Basic experimental investigations in a spray chamber and a flow tunnel as well as the corresponding 3D CFD simulation were conducted in order to clarify the prediction quality of the physical phenomena of spray-wall and spray-fluid interaction by the simulation. Influencing parameters such as the piston top temperature, piston bowl geometry, soot deposits on the piston top as well as flow velocity are investigated. This paper provides a direct link between the underlying simulation models of the mixture formation and actual real world combustion system development processes - underlining the importance of a close interaction of the model calibration and the development process.
Technical Paper

Study of Possible Range Extender Concepts with Respect to Future Emission Limits

2010-09-28
2010-32-0129
The future exhaust emission legislation limits and the procedures for running the test cycles will have an important influence on future range extender concepts. Due to the special steady state operation strategy of the range extender engines, it is possible to create a simple methodology for comparing engine test bench emissions with the emission limits of exhaust gas legislations. Therefore the energy demand of a predefined vehicle was simulated with PHEM, a longitudinal dynamic simulation tool. According to that, the influence of different exhaust gas after treatment systems and preheating options on the tolerated raw emission concentration will be analyzed. With this information, a few chosen range extender engine concepts will be compared concerning their suitability for future exhaust emission legislations. The selection of the range extender concepts was carried out with the methotology of a value benefit analysis.
Technical Paper

Investigations on Low Pressure Gasoline Direct Injection for a Standard GDI Combustion System

2010-09-28
2010-32-0094
In the course of the last few years a continuous increase of the injection pressure level of gasoline direct injection systems appeared. Today's systems use an injection pressure up to 200bar and the trend shows a further increase for the future. Although several benefits go along with the increased injection pressure, the disadvantages such as higher system costs and higher energy demand lead to the question of the lowest acceptable injection pressure level for low cost GDI combustion systems. Lowering injection pressure and costs could enable the technological upgrading from MPFI to GDI in smaller engine segments, which would lead to a reduction of CO2 emission. This publication covers the investigation of a low pressure GDI system (LPDI) with focus on small and low cost GDI engines. The influence of the injection pressure on the fuel consumption and emission behavior was investigated using a 1.4l series production engine.
Technical Paper

“Pedestrian in the Loop”: An Approach Using Augmented Reality

2018-04-03
2018-01-1053
A large number of testing procedures have been developed to ensure vehicle safety in common and extreme driving situations. However, these conventional testing procedures are insufficient for testing autonomous vehicles. They have to handle unexpected scenarios with the same or less risk a human driver would take. Currently, safety related systems are not adequately tested, e.g. in collision avoidance scenarios with pedestrians. Examples are the change of pedestrian behaviour caused by interaction, environmental influences and personal aspects, which cannot be tested in real environments. It is proposed to use augmented reality techniques. This method can be seen as a new (Augmented) Pedestrian in the Loop testing procedure.
Technical Paper

Advances in Automated Coupling of CFD and Radiation

2008-04-14
2008-01-0389
Research and development engineers have paid much attention to coupling commercial tools for examining complex systems, recently. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate an automated coupling of a CFD program with a commercial thermal radiation tool. Based on a previous work the coupling behaviour of a parallelized CFD code is being demonstrated. The automation thus speeds up the calculation procedure even for transient simulations not relying on codes of just one vendor. The simulation is then compared with measurements of temperatures of an actual SUV and conclusions are drawn.
Technical Paper

Application of Low Pressure Direct Injection and Semi-Direct Injection to a Small Capacity Two-Stroke Engine

2008-09-09
2008-32-0059
Based on the fundamental analysis of the two-stroke process (SETC 2005-32-0098) and the development of a stratified scavenged small capacity two-stroke engine (SETC 2006-32-0065), a further approach to achieve low emissions in this engine category is the main subject of this publication. The principles of the system are described by design activities, results of the 3D-CFD simulation and the visualization of the spray in the cylinder. The benefit of this system on exhaust emissions is demonstrated by engine test bench as well as chassis dynamometer results. The achievable reduction of exhaust emissions, especially with an applied oxidation catalytic converter, is remarkable and the potential to fulfill future emission limits has already been demonstrated.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Occupant Simulation Through the Coupling of PC-Crash and MADYMO

1999-03-01
1999-01-0444
During recent years the accident simulation program PC-Crash was developed. This software simulates vehicle movement before, during and after the impact, using 3D vehicle and scene models. When reconstructing car accidents, quite often questions arise regarding occupant movement and loading. Especially important is the influence of different types of restraint systems on the occupant. MADYMO® is a software tool which was developed by TNO in the Netherlands and which is well known in the automotive industry for the simulation of occupant movement. It allows the simulation of all kinds of modern restraint systems such as airbags and seatbelts with and without pretensioners. As the software is used in the automotive industry quite extensively, a huge validated database of dummy and human models is available. Since MADYMO® demands the setup of quite complicated input files, its use normally requires a high level of expertise.
Technical Paper

The Potential of Key Process/Performance Indicators (KPIs) in Automotive Software Quality Management

2016-04-05
2016-01-0046
A steady increasing share and complexity of automotive software is a huge challenge for quality management during software development and in-use phases. In cases of faults occurring in customer’s use, warranty leads to product recalls which are typically associated with high costs. To avoid software faults efficiently, quality management and enhanced development processes have to be realized by the introduction of specific analysis methods and Key Process/Performance Indicators (KPIs) to enable objective quality evaluations as soon as possible during product development process. The paper introduces an application of specific analysis methods by using KPIs and discusses their potential for automotive software quality improvement. Target is to support quality evaluation and risk-analysis for the release process of automotive software.
Technical Paper

Precise Dummy Head Trajectories in Crash Tests based on Fusion of Optical and Electrical Data: Influence of Sensor Errors and Initial Values

2015-04-14
2015-01-1442
Precise three-dimensional dummy head trajectories during crash tests are very important for vehicle safety development. To determine precise trajectories with a standard deviation of approximately 5 millimeters, three-dimensional video analysis is an approved method. Therefore the tracked body is to be seen on at least two cameras during the whole crash term, which is often not given (e.g. head dips into the airbag). This non-continuity problem of video analysis is surmounted by numerical integration of differential un-interrupted electrical rotation and acceleration sensor signals mounted into the tracked body. Problems of this approach are unknown sensor calibration errors and unknown initial conditions, which result in trajectory deviations above 10 centimeters.
Technical Paper

A Demonstration of Emissions' Behaviour of Various Handheld Engines Including Investigations on Particulate Matter

2013-10-15
2013-32-9130
To get an overview of the emission situation in the field of small non-road mobile machinery powered by various types of SI engines, the Association for Emissions Control by Catalyst (AECC), together with the Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics (IVT) of Graz University of Technology, conducted a customized test program. The main goal for this campaign was to derive information regarding the emissions of regulated gaseous components (following European Directive 97/68/EC) as well as particulate matter. With regard to the big variety of different engines that are available on the European and North-American market, the most representative ones had to be chosen. This resulted in a pool of test devices to cover different engine working principles (2-Stroke and 4-Stroke), technological standards (low-cost and professional tools) and different emissions control strategies (advanced combustion and exhaust gas aftertreatment).
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Loss Analysis of a High Power Motorcycle Engine with Focus on Alcohol Blended Fuels

2017-11-05
2017-32-0070
The development of future internal combustion engines and fuels is influenced by decreasing energy resources, restriction of emission legislation and increasing environmental awareness of humanity itself. Alternative renewable fuels have, in dependency on their physical and chemical properties, on the production process and on the raw material, the potential to contribute a better well-to-wheel-CO2-emission-balance in automotive and nonautomotive applications. The focus of this research is the usage of alcohol fuels, like ethanol and 2-butanol, in motorcycle high power engines. The different propulsion systems and operation scenarios of motorcycle applications in comparison to automobile applications raise the need for specific research in this area.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emission Reduction in Small Capacity Two- and Four-Stroke Engine Technologies

2006-11-13
2006-32-0091
State of the art technologies of 2 and 4 stroke engines have to fulfill severe future exhaust emission regulations, with special focus on the aspects of rising performance and low cost manufacturing, leading to an important challenge for the future. In special fields of applications (e.g. mopeds, hand held or off-road equipment) mainly engines with simple mixture preparation systems, partially without exhaust gas after treatment are used. The comparison of 2 and 4 stroke concepts equipped with different exhaust gas after treatment systems provides a decision support for applications in a broad field of small capacity engine classes.
Technical Paper

Potential of Synergies in a Vehicle for Variable Mixtures of CNG and Hydrogen

2009-04-20
2009-01-1420
Synergies in infrastructure and customer acceptance can be achieved by running internal combustion engines on mixtures of hydrogen and natural gas. Alongside the bridging effect between natural gas and hydrogen, such mixing offers advantages in terms of reduced emissions and improvements to the combustion process. The wide ignition limits and high flame speed of hydrogen have as positive an impact on the combustion of H2NG mixture as does the higher energy density of natural gas on range. A bi-fuel gasoline-natural gas vehicle was adapted to operation with gasoline, natural gas, hydrogen and any H2NG mixtures. For that purpose, the intake manifold was replaced by an aluminum construction, the injectors were replaced and the ECU had to be adjusted. Essentially quality-controlled hydrogen operation was possible throughout the engine map.
Technical Paper

COST 346 emissions and fuel consumption from heavy-duty vehicles

2001-09-23
2001-24-0075
The greenhouse gas emission reduction targets agreed at Kyoto represent a first step to reduce emissions in the long term in order to stabilize the earth's climate. The European Union has made an important contribution to the Kyoto agreement and the European Commission intends to develop a strategy to reach the Union's Kyoto target. This will require action in all sectors of the economy including the transport sector. Of the six gases covered by the Kyoto protocol, carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most important as it accounts for about 80% of the total global warming potential of all six greenhouse gases. In the European Union, the share of transport CO2 emissions in total increased from 19% in 1985 to 26% in 1995. Road traffic is the most important source, and largely determines the trend in the transport sector; and road freight accounts for about 35% of transport CO2 emissions. As well as CO2, road freight transport causes considerable amounts of other pollutant emissions.
Technical Paper

Size distribution of particulate matter~Results from roadside measurements

2001-09-23
2001-24-0078
Measurements of ultrafine particles (diameter < 300 nm) and total suspended particulates (TSP) were performed in 2 tunnels (Lundby, Gothenborg, S, and Plabutsch, Graz, A). The measurements in the Lundby tunnel were performed directly in the tunnel tube at the roadside whereas the measurements at the Plabutsch tunnel took place at the top of a 90 m high ventilation shaft. There was good correlation for all diameters (7.91 nm - 300 nm) between ultrafine particles and TSP for the measurements at the Lundby tunnel. At the Plabutsch site a correlation between ultrafine particles and TSP was detected only for particles > 35 nm. The maximum of the particle size distribution function for Lundby was at 30 nm and for the Plabutsch tunnel at 80 nm.
Journal Article

Sulfur Poisoning of a NOx Storage Catalyst - A Comprehensive Modelling Approach

2016-04-05
2016-01-0964
This paper describes the development of a 0-D-sulfur poisoning model for a NOx storage catalyst (NSC). The model was developed and calibrated using findings and data obtained from a passenger car diesel engine used on testbed. Based on an empirical approach, the developed model is able to predict not only the lower sulfur adsorption with increasing temperature and therefore the higher SOx (SO2 and SO3) slip after NSC, but also the sulfur saturation with increasing sulfur loading, resulting in a decrease of the sulfur adsorption rate with ongoing sulfation. Furthermore, the 0-D sulfur poisoning model was integrated into an existing 1-D NOx storage catalyst kinetic model. The combination of the two models results in an “EAS Model” (exhaust aftertreatment system) able to predict the deterioration of NOx-storage in a NSC with increasing sulfation level, exhibiting higher NOx-emissions after the NSC once it is poisoned.
Journal Article

Advanced Knock Detection for Diesel/Natural Gas Engine Operation

2016-04-05
2016-01-0785
As emission limits become increasingly stringent and the price of gaseous fuels decreases, more emphasis is being placed on promoting gas engines. In the field of large engines for power generation, dual fuel combustion concepts that run on diesel/natural gas are particularly attractive. Knock in diesel/natural gas dual fuel engines is a well known yet not fully understood complex phenomenon that requires consideration in any attempt to increase load and efficiency. Thus combustion concept development requires a reliable yet robust methodology for detecting knock in order to ensure knock-free engine operation. Operating parameters such as rail pressure, start of injection and amount of diesel injected are the factors that influence oscillations in the in-cylinder pressure trace after the start of combustion. Oscillations in the pre-mixed combustion phase, or ringing, are caused by the rapid conversion of large parts of the injected diesel.
Journal Article

Experimental Optimization of a Small Bore Natural Gas-Diesel Dual Fuel Engine with Direct Fuel Injection

2016-04-05
2016-01-0783
Dual fuel combustion processes, which burn varying ratios of natural gas and diesel, are an attempt to reach high efficiencies similar to diesel engines while exploiting the CO2 savings potential of natural gas. As shown in earlier studies, the main challenge of this combustion process is the high emission of unburned hydrocarbons during low load operation. Many publications have focused on a layout which utilizes port injection of natural gas and a direct injection of diesel to initiate combustion. However, previous studies indicated that a sequential direct injection of both fuels is more promising. It enables charge stratification of natural gas and air, whereby a remarkable reduction of the unburned hydrocarbon emissions was observed. This work develops this approach further, utilizing a low pressure direct injection of natural gas.
Technical Paper

A Demonstration of the Emission Behaviour of 50 cm3 Mopeds in Europe Including Unregulated Components and Particulate Matter

2011-11-08
2011-32-0572
The European emission legislation for two-wheeler vehicles driven by engines of ≤ 50 cm₃ is continuously developing. One of the most important issues in the near future will be the finalization of the European Commission's proposals for future steps in the emissions regulations as well as the verification of the impacts of current standards on the market. To have a basis for the discussion about these topics, the Association for Emissions Control by Catalyst (AECC) with the Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics of Graz University of Technology (IVT) carried out an extensive test program to show the actual emission situation of state-of-the-art mopeds including mass and number of particulate matter as well as unregulated gaseous components. One of the main goals of these tests was to measure exhaust emissions without any modifications to the engines of standard production vehicles available on the European market.
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