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Technical Paper

Rotary Drum Separator and Pump for the Sabatier Carbon Dioxide Reduction System

2005-07-11
2005-01-2863
A trade study conducted in 2001 selected a rotary disk separator as the best candidate to meet the requirements for an International Space Station (ISS) Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA). The selected technology must provide micro-gravity gas/liquid separation and pump the liquid from 69 kPa (10 psia) at the gas/liquid interface to 124 kPa (18 psia) at the wastewater bus storage tank. The rotary disk concept, which has pedigree in other systems currently being built for installation on the ISS, failed to achieve the required pumping head within the allotted power. The separator discussed in this paper is a new design that was tested to determine compliance with performance requirements in the CRA. The drum separator and pump (DSP) design is similar to the Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA) Rotary Separator Accumulator (RSA) in that it has a rotating assembly inside a stationary housing driven by a integral internal motor[1].
Technical Paper

Status of ISS Oxygen Generation and Water Processor Assemblies

2003-07-07
2003-01-2691
Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International, Inc. (HSSSI) is under contract to NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to develop a Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) for the international Space Station (ISS). The WPA produces potable quality water from humidity condensate, carbon dioxide reduction water, water obtained from fuel cells, reclaimed urine distillate, hand wash and oral hygiene waste waters. The Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) electrolyzes potable water from the Water Recovery System (WRS) to provide gaseous oxygen to the Space Station module atmosphere. The OGA produces oxygen for metabolic consumption by crew and biological specimens. The OGA also replenishes oxygen lost by experiment ingestion, airlock depressurization, CO2 venting, and leakage. As a byproduct, gaseous hydrogen is generated. The hydrogen will be supplied at a specified pressure range to support future utilization.
Technical Paper

Testing and Development of New Catalysts for Vapor Phase Ammonia Oxidation

2003-07-07
2003-01-2502
Catalytic oxidation is an effective means of controlling the build up of ammonia and other trace gas contaminants within closed spaces. However, it sometimes leads to the formation of noxious gases that need to be removed in post-treatment systems. In addition, ammonia removal is an issue when regeneration of water from wastewater is considered since ammonia is a byproduct of urea decomposition. For example, the VPCAR (Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Reduction) advanced water processor system includes an oxidation reactor for the destruction of ammonia and of other volatile organics that are not separated out in the evaporator due to their volatility. The oxidation of ammonia may produce nitrogen, nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and water vapor. The Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration (SMAC) for NO and NO2 are respectively 4.5 and 0.5 ppm whereas the Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for N2O is 25 ppm.
Technical Paper

Requirements and Potential for Enhanced EVA Information Interfaces

2003-07-07
2003-01-2413
NASA has long recognized the advantages of providing improved information interfaces to EVA astronauts and has pursued this goal through a number of development programs over the past decade. None of these activities or parallel efforts in industry and academia has so far resulted in the development of an operational system to replace or augment the current extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) Display and Controls Module (DCM) display and cuff checklist. Recent advances in display, communications, and information processing technologies offer exciting new opportunities for EVA information interfaces that can better serve the needs of a variety of NASA missions. Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International (HSSSI) has been collaborating with Simon Fraser University and others on the NASA Haughton Mars Project and with researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Boeing, and Symbol Technologies in investigating these possibilities.
Technical Paper

Performance Characteristics of a High Intensity Cryogenic Flow Boiler

2003-07-07
2003-01-2507
Hamilton Sundstrand has been working on the development of a new cryogenic flow boiler based on its patented compact, high-intensity cooler (CHIC) technology intended to provide low weight and volume and overcome freezing problems associated with cryogen use in EVA spacesuit cooling. Tests of the prototype device resulting from that effort have now been completed. The test data demonstrate that the design is extremely resistant to freezing the heat transport fluid as anticipated. Highly effective heat transfer is achieved in a compact device combining the functions of several conventional heat exchangers. This novel heat exchanger, a “normal flow” layered impingement arrangement should provide a very compact solution to any heat transfer applications where the cold fluid operates below the warm fluid's freezing point. Test results are generally consistent with design analyses for the prototype.
Technical Paper

Development Status and Maintainability Features of ISS Oxygen Generation and Water Processor Assemblies

2001-07-09
2001-01-2314
Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International, Inc. (HSSSI) is under contract to NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to develop a Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) for the International Space Station (ISS). The WPA produces potable quality water from humidity condensate, carbon dioxide reduction water, water obtained from fuel cells, reclaimed urine distillate, shower, handwash and oral hygiene waste waters. The Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) electrolyzes potable water from the Water Recovery System (WRS) to provide gaseous oxygen to the Space Station module atmosphere. The OGA produces oxygen for metabolic consumption by crew and biological specimens. The OGA also replenishes oxygen lost by experiment ingestion, airlock depressurization, CO2 venting, and leakage. As a byproduct, gaseous hydrogen is generated. The hydrogen will be supplied at a specified pressure range to support future utilization.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Technology Readiness Level of a Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) for Use on International Space Station

2004-07-19
2004-01-2446
When technologies are traded for incorporation into vehicle systems to support a specific mission scenario, they are often assessed in terms of “Technology Readiness Level” (TRL). TRL is based on three major categories of Core Technology Components, Ancillary Hardware and System Maturity, and Control and Control Integration. This paper describes the Technology Readiness Level assessment of the Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) for use on the International Space Station. A team comprising of the NASA Johnson Space Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, Southwest Research Institute and Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International have been working on various aspects of the CRA to bring its TRL from 4/5 up to 6. This paper describes the work currently being done in the three major categories. Specific details are given on technology development of the Core Technology Components including the reactor, phase separator and CO2 compressor.
Technical Paper

Development Status of the ISS Oxygen Generation Assembly and Key Components

2002-07-15
2002-01-2269
Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International, Inc. (HSSSI) is under contract to NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to develop, an Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) for the International Space Station (ISS). The Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) electrolyzes potable water from the Water Recovery System (WRS) to provide gaseous oxygen to the Space Station module atmosphere. The OGA produces oxygen for metabolic consumption by crew and biological specimens. The OGA also replenishes oxygen lost by experiment ingestion, airlock depressurization, CO2 venting, and leakage. As a byproduct, gaseous hydrogen is generated. The hydrogen will be supplied at a specified pressure range to support future utilization. Initially, the hydrogen will be vented overboard to space vacuum. The OGA has been under development at HSSSI for 3 years. This paper will update last year's ICES paper on the design/development of the OGA.
Technical Paper

Development, Testing, and Packaging of a Redundant Regenerable Carbon Dioxide Removal System (RRCRS)

2002-07-15
2002-01-2530
Enhancements to the Regenerable Carbon Dioxide Removal System (RCRS) have undergone full-scale, pre-prototype development and testing to demonstrate a redundant system within the volume allotted for the RCRS on the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The concept for a Redundant Regenerable Carbon Dioxide Removal System (RRCRS) utilizes the existing canister of the RCRS, but partitions it into two, independent, two-bed systems. This partitioning allows for two, fully capable RCRS units to be packaged within the original volume, thus reducing stowage volume and launch weight when compared to the flight RCRS plus the backup LiOH system. This paper presents the results of development and testing of a full-scale, pre-prototype RRCRS and includes an overview of the design concept for a redundant system that can be packaged within the existing envelope.
Technical Paper

Sabatier CO2 Reduction System Design Status

2002-07-15
2002-01-2531
Carbon dioxide reduction in a closed loop life support system recovers water from otherwise waste carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Incorporation of a carbon dioxide reduction assembly (CRA) into the International Space Station life support system frees up thousands of pounds of payload capacity in the supporting Space Shuttle that would otherwise be required to transport water. Achievement of this water recovery goal requires coordination of the CRA design to work within the existing framework of the interface systems that are either already on orbit or well advanced in their development; namely, the Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA), Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) and Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The Oxygen Generation System (OGS) rack is in its final design phase and is scarred to accept later installation of the CRA.
Technical Paper

Development Status of ISS Water Processor Assembly

2002-07-15
2002-01-2363
Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International, Inc. (HSSSI) is under contract to NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to develop a Water Processor Assembly (WPA) for the International Space Station (ISS). The WPA produces potable quality water from humidity condensate, carbon dioxide reduction water, water obtained from fuel cells, reclaimed urine distillate, shower, handwash and oral hygiene wastewaters. All planned development testing has been completed and this paper provides the status of the development activities and results for the WPA.
Technical Paper

Development Status and Safety Features of ISS Oxygen Generation and Water Processor Assemblies

2000-07-10
2000-01-2349
Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International, Inc. HSSSI) is under contract to NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to develop a Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) for the International Space Station (ISS). The WPA produces potable quality water from humidity condensate, carbon dioxide reduction water, water obtained from fuel cells, reclaimed urine distillate, shower, handwash and oral hygiene waste waters. The Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) electrolyzes potable water from the Water Recover System (WRS) to provide gaseous oxygen to the Space Station module atmosphere. The OGA produces oxygen for metabolic consumption by crew and biological specimens. The OGA also replenishes oxygen lost by experiment ingestion, airlock depressurization, CO2 venting, and leakage. As a byproduct, gaseous hydrogen is generated. The hydrogen will be supplied at a specified pressure range to support future utilization.
Technical Paper

Effects of Enhanced Pressure Suit Ankle Mobility on Locomotion on Uneven Terrain

2000-07-10
2000-01-2481
Previous studies have shown that a multi-axis ankle joint accommodating abduction and adduction as well as ankle flexion/extension and rotation could be practically incorporated into a pressure suit. Several candidate configurations were manufactured and the performance of the enhanced ankle joints evaluated. Experience has suggested that these enhancements could be of significant benefit for planetary exploration missions requiring extensive walking over uneven terrain. During 1999, prototype pressure suit boots incorporating a multi-axis ankle joint configuration were manufactured. Their effect on balance stability and locomotion capabilities across slopes and over uneven surfaces in a pressurized spacesuit were evaluated in a series of 1-g experiments. This paper describes the enhanced test boots, the test procedure, and the results. Design refinements and further testing are recommended.
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