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High Temperature Power Device and Packaging - The Technology Leap to Achieve Cost, Power Density and Reliability Target

The three major challenges in the power electronics in hybrid and electric vehicles are: System cost, power density and reliability. High temperature power device and packaging technologies increases the power density and reliability while reducing system cost. Advanced Silicon devices with synthesized high-temperature packaging technologies can achieve junction temperature as high as 200C (compared to the present limitation of 150C) eliminating the need for a low-temperature radiator and therefore these devices reduces the system cost. The silicon area needed for a power inverter with high junction temperature capability can be reduced by more than 50 - 75% thereby significantly reducing the packaging space and power device and package cost. Smaller packaging space is highly desired since multiple vehicle platforms can share the same design and therefore reducing the cost further due to economies of scale.
Technical Paper

A throttle/brake control law for vehicle intelligent cruise control

A throttle/brake control law for the intelligent cruise control (ICC) system has been proposed in this paper. The ICC system consists of a vehicle detection sensor, a controller and throttle/brake actuators. For the control of a throttle/brake system, we introduced a solenoid-valve-controlled electronic vacuum booster (EVB) and a step-motor-controlled throttle actuator. Nonlinear computer model for the electronic vacuum booster has been developed and the simulations were performed using a complete nonlinear vehicle model. The proposed control law in this paper consists of an algorithm that generates the desired acceleration/deceleration profile in an ICC situation, a throttle/brake switching logic and a throttle and brake control algorithm based on vehicle dynamics. The control performance has been investigated through computer simulations and experiments.
Technical Paper

Numerical analysis of light-off performance and thermo-fluid characteristics in a three-way monolithic catalytic converter

Mathematical modeling of three-way catalytic converter (3WCC) operation is used increasingly in the optimization of automobile converter systems. But almost all of previous computational models were based on "adiabatic one- channel" approach with the reaction kinetics computations, which is useful and efficient in predicting real-world performance of the catalyst. However, as long as flow maldistribution is not accounted for in the models, simulation results will not be reliable. In this work, two-dimensional performance prediction of catalyst coupled with turbulent reacting flow simulation has been performed and the results were compared with experimental data and one-channel simulation in the literature. The computational results from this study show the better prediction accuracy in terms of CO, HC and NO conversion efficiencies compared to those of 1-D adiabatic model. Varying cell density and hot spot moving pattern within the monolith during warm-up period are also considered.
Technical Paper

A new element removal method for topology optimization

The purpose of this study was to develop a new element removal method for ESO (Evolutionary Structural Optimization), which is one of the topology optimization methods. ESO starts with the maximum allowable design space and the optimal topology emerges by a process of removal of lowly stressed elements. The element removal ratio of ESO is fixed throughout topology optimization at 1 or 2%. BESO (bidirectional ESO) starts with either the least number of elements connecting the loads to the supports, or an initial design domain that fits within the maximum allowable domain, and the optimal topology evolves by adding or subtracting elements. But the convergence rate of BESO is also very slow. In this paper, a new element removal method for ESO was developed for improvement of the convergence rate. Then it was applied to the same problems as those in papers published previously.
Technical Paper

Vehicle electric power simulator for optimizing the electric charging system

The electrical power system is the vital lifeline to most of the control systems on modern vehicles. The demands on the system are highly complex, and a detailed understanding of the system behavior is necessary both to the process of systems integration and to the economic design of a specific control system or actuator. The vehicle electric power system, which consists of two major components: a generator and a battery, has to provide numerous electrical and electronic systems with enough electrical energy. A detailed understanding of the characteristics of the electric power system, electrical load demands, and the driving environment such as road, season, and vehicle weight are required when the capacities of the generator and the battery are to be determined for a vehicle. An easy-to-use and inexpensive simulation program may be needed to avoid the over/under design problem of the electric power system. A vehicle electric power simulator is developed in this study.
Journal Article

Intelligent ECU End of Line Testing to Support ISO26262 Functional Safety Requirements

The recent adoption of the ISO26262 Functional Safety Standard has lead to the need for a greater degree of rigor in the technical, organizational and process aspects of electronic ECU engineering. One new facet of this standard also covers (in part 9.7) the analysis of dependent failures at manufacturing time, not only the microcontroller, but also for the plethora of connected system ASICs, input circuits, output drivers and communication devices in the PCB of the ECU. This paper will describe the CAN based end of line ECU self test system that was implemented at a major tier 1 supplier to address the issues of efficiently gaining a high degree of diagnostic coverage of single point faults and latent faults in highly integrated automotive ECUs.
Technical Paper

Development of an Optimum Design Program for Wiper Linkages

An optimization program for the design of wiper linkages is developed to minimize jerky motion while satisfying design constraints on kinematic and torque performances, mobility condition, and packaging. The lengths/orientations of links and the position of a driving motor are selected as design variables. In our optimum design program for wiper linkages, an optimization module interacts with an analysis module which calculates kinematic and force/torque properties, until convergence. The optimization results of a particular wiper linkage are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the program developed.
Journal Article

Managing System Design Process Using Axiomatic Design: A Case on KAIST Mobile Harbor Project

As world-wide container volume increases and very large container ships emerge as a dominant player in the maritime cargo transport market, functional capabilities of container ports need to be greatly enhanced. To address this problem, KAIST is undertaking a project to design a novel container transport system, namely Mobile Harbor. Mobile Harbor refers to a system that can go out to a large container ship anchoring in the open sea, load and unload containers between the container ship and the Mobile Harbor, and transport them to their destinations. Designing Mobile Harbor presents a number of challenges as with many other large-scale engineering projects, especially at the beginning stage of the project.
Journal Article

Design Information Management of an On-Line Electric Vehicle Using Axiomatic Design

Axiomatic design is utilized to identify the design characteristics of an On-Line Electric Vehicle and to manage the design information. The On-Line Electric Vehicle, which is being developed at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, is a different concept of an electric vehicle from conventional electric vehicles which use the electric power of a charged battery(s). It is operated by an electric power supplied by the contactless power transmission technique between the roadway side and the vehicle. In other words, the power is transmitted based on the principle of an electric transformer. The On-Line Electric Vehicle can overcome the limitations of conventional electric vehicles such as the weight of the battery and driving distance problems. Because designers have little experience and knowledge about the On-Line Electric Vehicle in the developmental stage, an appropriate design guide is needed. The axiomatic approach is employed for the design process.
Technical Paper

ABS/ESC/EPB Control of Electronic Wedge Brake

A new control algorithm of a wedge brake system has been developed. The proposed control algorithm is based on the position control and current control of electronic wedge brake(EWB). The EWB control system in rear wheel has both active braking functions like ABS and ESC and convenient function such as EPB. In this paper, development of control algorithm was performed using hybrid brake system(HBS) which consists of hydraulic brake in front wheel and electronic brake in rear wheel. At first, the configuration of EWB system is explained. Next, structure of electronic control in HBS is explained. And then ABS/ESC/EPB control algorithms are shown. ABS control algorithm has wheel slip calculation, wheel error calculation, wheel slip control, position control, current control, and duty control. ESC algorithm consists of yaw error calculation, yaw moment control, wheel slip control, position control, current control, and duty control.
Technical Paper

Timing Analysis and Tracing Concepts for ECU Development

Integration scenarios for ECU software become more complicated, as more constraints with regards to timing, safety and security need to be considered. Multi-core microcontrollers offer even more hardware potential for integration scenarios. To tackle the complexity, more and more model based approaches are used. Understanding the interaction between the different software components, not only from a functional but also from a timing view, is a key success factor for high integration scenarios. In particular for multi-core systems, an amazing amount of timing data can be generated. Usually a multi-core system handles more software functionality than a single-core system. Furthermore, there may be timing interference on the multicore systems, due to the shared usage of buses, memory banks or other hardware resources.
Technical Paper

Efficient Multi-Core Software Design Space Exploration for Hybrid Control Unit Integration

Multi-core systems are adopted quickly in the automotive domain, Proof of concepts have been implemented for power train, body and chassis, involving hard real-time constraints. However, depending on the degree of integration, it can be costly, especially in those cases where existing single-core software has to be migrated over. Furthermore, there seems to be a high level of uncertainty, whether a found solution, with regards to partitioning, mapping and orchestration of software is close to an optimum solution. Some integrated solutions demonstrate considerably less performance, for instance due to communication overhead compared to execution on single-core systems. This paper discusses a methodology, as to how to effectively and efficiently investigate the software architecture design space for multi-core software development.
Technical Paper

High Performance Processor Architecture for Automotive Large Scaled Integrated Systems within the European Processor Initiative Research Project

Autonomous driving systems and connected mobility are the next big developments for the car manufacturers and their suppliers during the next decade. To achieve the high computing power needs and fulfill new upcoming requirements due to functional safety and security, heterogeneous processor architectures with a mixture of different core architectures and hardware accelerators are necessary. To tackle this new type of hardware complexity and nevertheless stay within monetary constraints, high performance computers, inspired by state of the art data center hardware, could be adapted in order to fulfill automotive quality requirements. The European Processor Initiative (EPI) research project tries to come along with that challenge for next generation semiconductors. To be as close as possible to series development needs for the next upcoming car generations, we present a hybrid semiconductor system-on-chip architecture for automotive.
Technical Paper

Embedded System Tool to Support Debugging, Calibration, Fast Prototyping and Emulation

Infineon's latest high-end automotive microcontrollers like TC1796 are complex Systems On Chip (SoC) with two processor cores and up to two internal multi-master buses. The complex interaction between cores, peripherals and environment provides a big challenge for debugging. For mission critical control like engine management the debugging approach must not be intrusive. The provided solution are dedicated Emulation Devices which are able to deal with several 10 Gbit/s of raw internal trace data with nearly no cost adder for mass production and system design. Calibration, which is used later in the development cycle, has different requirements, but is covered by the Emulation Devices as well. The architecture of TC1796ED comprises the unchanged TC1796 silicon layout, extended by a full In-Circuit Emulator (ICE) and calibration overlay memory on the same die. In most cases, the only debug/calibration tool hardware needed is a USB cable.
Technical Paper

Smart IGBT's for Advanced Distributed Ignition Systems

Driven by factors like consumption, power output per liter, comfort and more stringent exhaust gas standards the powertain control area, has developed rapidly in the last decades. This trend has also brought with it many innovations in the ignition application. Today we can see a trend to Pencil-coil or Plug-top-coil ignition systems. The next step in system partitioning is to remove the power driver from the ECU and place it directly in/on the coil body. The advantages of the new partitioning - e.g. no high voltage wires, reduced power dissipation on the ECU - are paid with different, mainly tougher requirements for the electronic components. By using specialized technologies for the different functions - IGBT for switching the power, SPT for protection, supply and diagnostics - in chip-on-chip technology all required functions for a decentralized ignition system can be realized in a TO220/ TO263 package.
Technical Paper

Seamless Solution for Electronic Power Steering

The number of safety critical automotive applications employing high current brushless motors continues to increase (Steering, Braking, and Transmission etc.). There are many benefits when moving from traditional solutions to electrically actuated solutions. Some of these benefits can include increased fuel economy, simplified vehicle installation and packaging, increased feature set, improved safety and/or convenience, simplified unit assembly and modular testability prior as well as during vehicle manufacturing. The trend to implement brushless motors in these applications (which require electronically controlled commutation) has also brought with it the need for powerful inverters, which primarily consist of Power MOSFETs and MOSFET Driver ICs. This paper reviews the challenges associated with the design of safety critical electronic systems which combine sensing, control and actuation.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Powertrain Control Strategy for Series-Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles

The series-parallel hybrid electric vehicle(HEV), which employs a planetary gear set to combine one internal combustion engine(ICE) and two electric motors(EMs), can take advantages of both series and parallel hybrid system. The efficient powertrain operating point of the system can be obtained by the instantaneous optimization of equivalent fuel consumption. However, heavy computational requirements and variable constraints of the optimization process make it difficult to build real-time control strategy. To overcome the difficulty, this study suggests the control strategy which divides the optimization process into 2 stages. In the first stage, a target of charge/discharge power is determined based on equivalent fuel consumption, then in the second stage, an engine operating point is determined taking power transfer efficiency into account.
Technical Paper

Design Considerations for Power Electronics in HEV Applications

Today the majority of power electronics is developed based on the requirements set by the main fields of application e.g. power generation, power supply, industrial drive and traction. With introduction to automotive applications new requirements have to be taken into account. This paper discusses how interconnection technologies for power semiconductors can be improved to meet the demand for higher temperature capability in HEV applications.
Technical Paper

Advanced Gasoline Engine Management Platform for Euro IV & CHN IV Emission Regulation

The increasingly stringent requirements in relation to emission reduction and onboard diagnostics are pushing the Chinese automotive industry toward more innovative solutions and a rapid increase in electronic control performance. To manage the system complexity the architecture will require being well structure on hardware and software level. The paper introduces GEMS-K1 (Gasoline Engine Management System - Kit 1). GEMS-K1 is a platform being compliant with Euro IV emission regulation for gasoline engines. The application software is developed using modeling language, the code is automatically generated from the model. The driver software has a well defined structure including microcontroller abstraction layer and ECU abstraction layer. The hardware is following design rules to be robust, 100% testable and easy to manufacture. The electronic components use the latest innovation in terms of architecture and technologies.
Technical Paper

Cost Efficient Integration for Decentralized Automotive ECU

As the demand for enhanced comfort, safety and differentiation with new features continues to grow and as electronics and software enable most of these, the number of electronic units or components within automobiles will continue to increase. This will increase the overall system complexity, specifically with respect to the number of controller actuators such as e-motors. However, hard constraints on cost and on physical boundaries such as maximum power dissipation per unit and pin-count per unit/connector require new solutions to alternative system partitioning. Vehicle manufacturers, as well as system and semiconductor suppliers are striving for increased scalability and modularity to allow for most cost optimal high volume configurations while featuring platform reuse and feature differentiation. This paper presents new semiconductor based approaches with respect to technologies, technology mapping and assembly technologies.