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Technical Paper

Alternative Measures of Restraint System Effectiveness: Interaction with Crash Severity Factors

1982-02-01
820798
The effectiveness of restraint systems in preventing fatalities or reducing injury has been estimated by extrapolation of data from several sources: (1) Sled tests with dummies (2) Analysis of accident case studies (3) Statistical comparison of belted and unbelted persons in crashed cars. (4) Before and after studies (e.g., with respect to belt-usage legislation, or as with the 1974 starter-interlock program) Fatality reduction estimated by the case study method is on the order of 30 percent, but by the statistical comparison method at 50 percent or sometimes as high as 60 percent. Other differences (e.g., driving habits) between belted and unbelted persons explain the disagreement between the two estimates. More complete analysis of available accident data suggests that the higher values were obtained without correction for such factors as crash severity or occupant age.
Technical Paper

Predictions of Mathematical Models Compared with Impact Sled Test Results Using Anthropometric Dummies

1970-02-01
700907
Mathematical models of the human body subjected to an impact environment have been developed by many research groups in industry, government, private research organizations, and universities. In most cases, the models have not been verified by or compared with experimental results. The purpose of this paper is to show comparisons between the two- and three-dimensional crash victim simulators, which have been developed at the Highway Safety Research Institute of The University of Michigan, and front and side impact sled test results using anthropometric dummies.
Technical Paper

Development of a Mechanical Model of the Human Head - Determination of Tissue Properties and Synthetic Substitute Materials

1970-02-01
700903
A variety of mechanical head forms is used today in the evaluation of the crashworthiness of automotive interiors and the effectiveness of helmet designs. Most head forms are of a very rigid metallic construction, although frangible head forms that indicate skull fracture are presently available. None of the existing head forms can be considered a complete mechanical analog to the human head in terms of mechanical response. This paper describes the initial phases of the development of such a head form. The first step in the development of the model was the determination of the pertinent mechanical properties of the tissues of the human head (scalp, skull bone, dura mater, and brain). A testing program which determined these properties at both static and dynamic strain rates is described and the results are summarized. The second phase of the program was to find and develop synthetic materials which duplicated the mechanical properties of the human tissues.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Convex Exterior Mirrors on Lane-Changing and Passing Performance of Drivers

1971-02-01
710543
Drivers carried out a lane-changing and passing maneuver using convex and plane exterior mirrors alone or in combination with a plane interior mirror. The data showed that the addition of the plane interior mirror compensated for judgmental errors found when convex mirrors were used alone. When the speed difference was 15 mph between the overtaking car and the subject's car, subjects accepted gaps that were too short irrespective of the exterior mirror type. The data suggested that exterior convex mirrors of radii greater than 30 in. may be used reasonably safely by drivers and would have the advantage of providing a considerably increased field-of-view compared to currently used exterior mirrors.
Technical Paper

Deployable Head Restraints - A Feasibility Study

1971-02-01
710853
Present head restraint systems quite often restrict rearward visibility, and when not properly adjusted, their effectiveness suffers. The deployable head restraint can overcome both these problems and in addition provide head restraint performance better than fixed systems. This paper describes a project to study the feasibility of deployable head restraints. Starting with two-dimensional computer simulations of front seat occupant kinematics in rear-end collisions, initial performance criteria for deployment times, and restraint configurations were determined for various impact velocities. Based on these criteria, two types of deployable systems were designed and constructed, one an inflatable system and the other a rigid sliding system. These prototype systems then underwent a test and development program using anthropomorphic dummies and an impact sled. The test program evaluated the effectiveness of the head restraint systems under high- and low-speed crash simulations.
Technical Paper

A Comparison Between Human Kinematics and the Predictions of Mathematical Crash Victim Simulators

1971-02-01
710849
A study has been conducted as an initial step in determining the differences observed between the motions of a living human impact sled test subject and a dummy test subject. The mechanism which is proposed for accomplishing this is the HSRI Two-Dimensional Mathematical Crash Victim Simulator. A series of measurements were taken on human test subjects, including classical and nonclassical anthropometric measurements, range of motion measurements for the joints, and maximum foot force measurements. A series of mathematical expressions has been used to predict body segment weight, centers of gravity, and moments of inertia using the results of the various body measurements. It was then possible to prepare a data set for use with the mathematical model.
Technical Paper

Michigan Injury Criteria Hypothesis and Restraint System Effectiveness Index

1971-02-01
710872
This paper describes an injury criteria model implemented in computer language, and a restraint system effectiveness index for evaluating the degree to which the vehicle environment can prevent or reduce occupant injuries. The need for criteria of this type is based on the fact that if the degree of protection offered to a vehicle occupant by a restraint system or a vehicle interior (a function of the distribution and magnitude of the forces transmitted to the occupant) could be expressed in quantitative terms, then, more meaningful comparisons could be made between restraint configurations, and, areas of needed biomechanical research and statistical accident investigations could be more readily identified on the basis of the sensitivity of the results when the injury or effectiveness criteria are applied. The injury criteria model consists of three parts: 1.
Technical Paper

Door Crashworthiness Criteria

1971-02-01
710864
A study of the biomechanical factors concerned with the design of side structures and doors for crashworthiness has been made. Questions regarding optimum stiffness, location of reinforcing members, effect of armrests, and padding have been answered within the framework of injury criteria models. Results of animal studies, cadaver studies, and anthropometric dummies have been combined to produce injury criteria for lateral impacts to the head, thorax, and abdomen. Impacts were applied utilizing a specially designed “air gun” in a laboratory environment emphasizing reproducibility and control. Full-scale crash simulations were performed on an impact sled to verify the results of the more specialized tests and analyses. Scaled models of current production doors were used in the animal series. Scaling relationships for various species of animals have been developed and extrapolated to man. Significant differences in right and left side tolerances to impact were noted and detailed.
Technical Paper

Occupant Protection in Rear-End Collisions

1972-02-01
720033
This paper discusses the problem of occupant protection in severe rear-end collisions from the standpoint of high performance seat structures and head restraints. Consideration is given to both fixed head restraints and to deployable head restraints. Two-dimensional computer simulations of occupant kinematics in a variety of rear-end collisions are utilized to provide initial performance criteria for head restraint design configurations. The resulting prototype system underwent a test and development program on an impact sled. The results of the various prototype performances and general criteria for high performance head restraint systems are discussed.
Technical Paper

Driver Braking Performance as a Function of Pedal-Force and Pedal-Displacement Levels

1970-02-01
700364
Driver-vehicle tests were performed in which the deceleration/pedal-force ratio (i.e., gain), pedal-displacement level, speed, surface-tire friction, and driver characteristics were systematically varied in order to determine the influence of these variables upon minimum stopping distance and other performance variables. Tests performed on a low coefficent of friction surface showed that high values of deceleration/pedal-force gain result in a greater number of wheel lockups and longer stopping distances compared to results achieved with intermediate or low deceleration/pedal-force gains. Tests performed on the two test surfaces with high and intermediate levels of friction showed that low deceleration/pedal-force gains produced longer stopping distances than were obtained with high gain, even though a high-gain brake system causes higher frequencies of wheel lockup.
Technical Paper

A Systems Engineering Evaluation of Passive Restraint Systems for Crash-Impact Attenuation in Air Transport Aircraft

1974-02-01
740044
Advanced crash-impact protective equipment and techniques which have application to crew and passenger crash safety in jet transport aircraft have been evaluated. Thirty-two state-of-the-art concepts have been analyzed from a systems engineering viewpoint with respect to several engineering, psychological, and medical disciplines. In order to provide a framework to determine the function level of each concept, an event-oriented flow chart of the crash and escape event has been prepared. The 17 events occurring during a crash are included, beginning with system installation and concluding with emergency evacuation of a disabled aircraft. Performance with respect to the events on the flow chart are rated in terms of hazards of system use, maintainability, reliability, human factors, and other technological considerations.
Technical Paper

Response of Human Larynx to Blunt Loading

1973-02-01
730967
Direct impact to the larynx is usually prevented in accidents by the protective nature of the chin. In some situations, the occupant motions leave the larynx unprotected and susceptible to impact by the steering wheel rim or instrument panel. As one of the unpaired vital organs of the body, there is no easy way to provide an alternative for its functions when the larynx is lost or damaged. Information available on the tolerance of the unembalmed human larynx to force is quite limited. This paper describes a multidisciplinary study to determine the response of unembalmed human larynges to blunt mechanical loading and to interpret the response with respect to clinical data. Fresh intact larynges were obtained at autopsy and tested at either static or dynamic loading conditions utilizing special test fixtures in materials-testing machines. Load and deformation data were obtained up to levels sufficient to produce significant fractures in both the thyroid and cricoid cartilages.
Technical Paper

The MVMA Two-Dimensional Crash Victim Simulation

1974-02-01
741195
This paper presents the various features and operational properties of a two-dimensional mathematical model of crash victim motions. The earliest forms of this model can be traced to the early 1960s. Developmental work on two-dimensional models then continued both within the automotive industry and in independent organizations such as the Highway Safety Research Institute (HSRI). The most recent product of this activity is the MVMA two-dimensional mathematical crash victim simulation developed at HSRI for the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association. The features of this model include: 1. An eight mass representation of the human body where contact between the crash victim and the vehicle is represented in terms of independent force-deformation properties of the victim and the vehicle. 2. An extensible multi-joint neck and a realistically flexible shoulder joint. 3. A real-line representation of the vehicle interior or exterior where shape is given as a network of points. 4.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Sources of Error in Headlamp Aim

1974-02-01
740312
The literature on headlamp aiming is surveyed in detail to pinpoint the various sources and magnitudes of aim variance. Four major sources of variance are identified (differences between beam and mounting plane, photometric changes in use, long axis alignment, and human factors), along with a number of others of lesser consequence. Illustrations are offered showing the expected population variance under a variety of conditions. It is apparent that, at the present state-of-the-art, a substantial percentage of the lamp population can be expected to be beyond the limits recommended in SAE J599c. It is further apparent that this would be true regardless of whether or not a vehicle inspection program is in operation. Recommendations are given regarding research emphasis in headlighting. Ways of reducing variance from the most significant sources are considered and recommendations offered.
Technical Paper

In-Depth Accident Data and Occupant Protection - A Statistical Point of View

1974-02-01
740569
The current federal accident data collection system is inadequate. It does not produce representative data essential for answering cause-and-effect questions concerning accidents, injuries, and fatalities, and it does not produce adequate data essential for conducting cost-benefit analyses of changes in vehicle designs, highway designs, or driver licensing policies. A proposed federal data collection system (SIR) can solve those problems at a total cost of about $6 million a year. The SIR system would include 30 investigating teams precisely located throughout the U.S., and would include a Sampling program, an In-depth program, and a Rapid-response program. The sooner this system is established, the sooner government and industry will begin to obtain accurate and reliable answers to pressing questions in the field of highway safety.
Technical Paper

Human Chest Impact Protection Criteria

1974-02-01
740589
Serious injuries are caused to the chest and thoracic organs both in front and side automobile collisions, and statistical surveys indicate that overall chest injuries are the third most frequent after head and the lower limbs. For safer design of restraint systems and vehicle interiors experimental data has to be obtained to establish chest injury criteria. Unembalmed human cadavers were used to conduct nine frontal and fourteen lateral impacts including four with a simulated arm rest. All impacts used a six inch (15.2 cm) diameter impactor with impact velocities ranging from 12 mph (19.3 kph) to 20 mph (32.2 kph). Chest impacts were also conducted on rhesus monkeys and baboons to establish primate-human injury scaling criteria. Four human volunteers were used to obtain static load deflection curves in the lateral and frontal directions. The results of the above experiments and those conducted by other investigators are presented and analyzed.
Technical Paper

Side Impact Tolerance to Blunt Trauma

1973-02-01
730979
The object of this research program has been to extend the scope of earlier work to include long-duration head impacts and to develop new scaling relationships to allow extrapolation of impact data from infrahuman primates to living humans. A series of living primate side impacts to the head and torso was conducted in parallel with a series of impacts to human cadavers. Dimensional analysis techniques were employed to estimate in vivo human tolerance to side injury. The threshold of closed brain injury to humans was found to be 76 g for a pulse duration of 20 ms and an impact velocity of 43 ft/s (13.2 m/s). The maximum tolerable penetration to the chest was found to be 2.65 in (6.72 cm) for both the left and right sides. Scaling of abdominal injuries to humans was accomplished by employing a factor that relates impact contact area, animal mass, impact force, and pulse duration to injury severity.
Technical Paper

Cervical Range of Motion and Dynamic Response and Strength of Cervical Muscles

1973-02-01
730975
Basic physical characteristics of the neck have been defined which have application to the design of biomechanical models, anthropometric dummies, and occupant crash protection devices. The study was performed using a group of 180 volunteers chosen on the basis of sex, age (18-74 years), and stature. Measurements from each subject included anthropometry, cervical range-of-motion (observed with both x-rays and photographs), the dynamic response of the cervical flexor and extensor muscles to a controlled jerk, and the maximum voluntary strength of the cervical muscles. Data are presented in tabular and graphic form for total range-of-motion, cervical muscle reflex time, decelerations of the head, muscle activation time, and cervical muscle strength. The range-of-motion of females was found to average 1-12 deg greater than that of males, depending upon age, and a definite degradation in range-of-motion was observed with increasing age.
Technical Paper

Driver Anthropometry and Vehicle Design Characteristics Related to Seat Positions Selected Under Driving and Non-Driving Conditions

1979-02-01
790384
A sample population of 51 male and 57 female subjects ranging in age from 18 to 78 years was assembled and tested in six different vehicles for preferred seat positions under non-driving and driving conditions. Volunteer subjects were selected by age, stature, and weight criteria in order to match the U.S. adult population to the extent practical. Preliminary analyses of these data suggest that on a total sample basis there is little difference between seat positions selected under non-driving and driving conditions, but that individuals may show significant differences. The small differences in group mean positions observed in this study may be due to a seat belt and/or an initial seat position factor. Post-drive seat position results were analyzed in a variety of ways to identify factors that may influence a person's preferred seat position.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Performance of Child Seating Systems

1972-02-01
720971
In a previous study, an extensive study of the dynamic performance of child seating systems indicated that little protection was provided under circumstances other than panic braking. This study was performed with impact test conditions of 30 mph frontal and 20 mph lateral and rear barrier impacts with seating systems meeting the requirements of FMVSS 213. Additionally, the performance of prototype seats developed under contract with the Department of Transportation under similar test conditions will be presented to compare the protective qualities available with seats of current design and those that could become available in the future. The performance of the child seats will be evaluated using two criteria, motion limits and acceleration limits. It is believed that the performance of child seats can be determined without the extensive test equipment and facilities required for adult seating and restraint systems.
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