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Technical Paper

Control of Steering Effort and Response for Power Steering of Commercial Vehicles

The sensitivity of steering increases as the vehicle speed rises. It requires a driver to make different steering maneuvers at high speed zone from that at low speed zone. In order to reduce the difference and to have a better steering “feel” for the driver, the characteristics of steering should be studied from both “the vehicle lateral movement corresponding to steering effort” and “the time lag of the vehicle lateral movement to steering effort”. And both should be decreased as vehicle speed rises. This paper explains how the above conclusion was reached through the development of engine/vehicle speed sensing power steering for commercial vehicles.
Technical Paper

The Study of Particle Number Reduction Using After-Treatment Systems for a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

To reduce ultra fine particle number concentration from a heavy-duty diesel engine, the effects of diesel fuel property and after-treatment systems were studied. The reduction of ultra fine particle number concentration over steady state mode using an 8 liter turbocharged and after-cooled diesel engine was evaluated. PM size distribution was measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The evaluation used a commercially available current diesel fuel (Sulfur Content: 0.0036 wt%), high sulfur diesel fuel (Sulfur Content: 0.046 wt%) and low sulfur diesel fuel (Sulfur Content: 0.007 wt%). The after-treatment systems were an oxidation catalyst, a wire-mesh type DPF (Diesel Particle Filter) and a wall-flow type catalyzed DPF. The results show that fine particle number concentration is reduced with a low sulfur fuel, an oxidation catalyst, a wire-mesh type DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) and wall flow type catalyzed DPF, respectively.
Technical Paper

The Spray Models and Their Influence on Ignition

The differences between spray models are investigated by comparing calculation results with experimental data. The calculations are performed using the KIVA-II code. The spray models TAB, which is the original model of KIVA-II, and the model developed by Reitz are calculated and compared. A semi-empirical spray model based on the TAB model is also formulated and compared with the other models. The penetration and droplet size distribution are compared with data from constant pressure bomb tests. The calculated ignition delay is compared with actual engine operating data- Each spray model has different characteristics influencing the atomization process. These differences result in discrepancies during the penetration, evaporation, and ignition.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Mechanism of Engine Oil Consumption- Oil Upwards Transport via Piston Oil Ring Gap -

Reduction of oil consumption of engines is required to avoid a negative effect on engine after treatment devices. Engines are required fuel economy for reduction of carbon-dioxide emission, and it is known that reduction of piston frictions is effective on fuel economy. However friction reduction of pistons sometimes causes an increase in engine oil consumption. Therefore reduction of engine oil consumption becomes important subject recently. The ultimate goal of this study is developing the estimation method of oil consumption, and the mechanism of oil upward transport at oil ring gap was investigated in this paper. Oil pressure under the oil ring lower rail was measured by newly developed apparatus. It was found that the piston slap motion and piston up and down motion affected oil pressure rise under the oil ring and oil was spouted through ring-gap by the pressure. The effect of the piston design on the oil pressure generation was also investigated.
Technical Paper

Development of Efficient Urea-SCR Systems for EPA 2010-Compliant Medium Duty Diesel Vehicles

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued new emissions regulations, which came into effect in January, 2010. These EPA 2010 regulations are the most stringent emissions standards in the world, reducing both particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to nearly zero levels. Hino Motors improved upon its previous EPA 2007-compliant engine, developing a new exhaust after-treatment system in which a Diesel Particulate active Reduction System (DPR), a Urea-Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) System and a Burner System are employed to meet EPA 2010 emissions regulations for medium duty commercial vehicles. DPR was already developed and utilized to reduce PM to meet EPA 2007 standards, but the Urea-SCR System is newly developed technology used to reduce NOx emissions to comply with EPA2010 emissions regulations. In addition, a Burner System is used to elevate exhaust gas temperatures in order to improve both SCR performance and DPR active Regeneration.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Effects of a Higher Compression Ratio in the Combustion Chamber on Diesel Engine Performance

In order to improve the brake thermal efficiency of the engine, such as cooling and friction losses from the theoretical thermal efficiency, it is necessary to minimize various losses. However, it is also essential to consider improvements in theoretical thermal efficiency along with the reduction of the various losses. In an effort to improve the brake thermal efficiency of heavy-duty diesel engines used in commercial vehicles, this research focused on two important factors leading to the engine's theoretical thermal efficiency: the compression ratio and the specific heat ratio. Based on the results of theoretical thermodynamic cycle analyses for the effects of the above two factors, it was predicted that raising the compression ratio from a base engine specification of 17 to 26, and increasing the specific heat ratio would lead to a significant increase in theoretical thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Development of Next Generation Gear Oil for Heavy Duty Vehicles

Heavy duty vehicles take a large role in providing global logistics. It is required to have both high durability and reduced CO2 from the viewpoint of global environment conservation. Therefore lubricating oils for transmission and axle/differential gear box are required to have excellent protection and longer drain intervals. However, it is also necessary that the gear oil maintain suitable friction performance for the synchronizers of the transmission. Even with such good performance, both transmission and axle/differential gear box lubricants must balance cost and performance, in particular in the Asian market. The development of gear oil additives for high reliability gear oil must consider the available base oils in various regions as the additive is a global product. In many cases general long drain gear oils for heavy duty vehicles use the group III or IV base oils, but it is desirable to use the group I/II base oils in terms of cost and availability.
Technical Paper

Development of a Higher Boost Turbocharged Diesel Engine for Better Fuel Economy in Heavy Vehicles

This paper presents technical solutions and a development process to accomplish not only superior fuel economy but also excellent driveability with a turbocharged diesel engine for heavy duty trucks. For better fuel economy, one of the basic considerations is how to decrease the friction losses of the engine itself while keeping the required horsepower and torque characteristics. A high boost turbocharged small engine offers this possibility, but it has serious disadvantages such as inferior low speed torque, poorer accelerating response, insufficient engine braking performance, and finally not always so good fuel consumption in the engine operating range away from the matching point between engine and turbocharger. These are not acceptable in complicated traffic conditions like those in Japan - a mixture of mountainous and hilly roads, city road with numerous traffic signals, and freeways.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Diesel Soot Suppression with Soluble Fuel Additives

Experiments on a large number of soluble fuel additives were systematically conducted for diesel soot reduction. It was found that Ca and Ba were the most effective soot suppressors. The main determinants of soot reduction were: the metal mol-content of the fuel, the excess air factor, and the gas turbulence in the combustion chamber. The soot reduction ratio was expressed by an exponential function of the metal mol-content in the fuel, depending on the metal but independent of the metal compound. A rise in excess air factor or gas turbulence increased the value of a coefficient in the function, resulting in larger reductions in soot with the fuel additives. High-speed soot sampling from the cylinder showed that with the metal additive, the soot concentration in the combustion chamber was substantially reduced during the whole period of combustion. It is thought that the additive acts as a catalyst not only to improve soot oxidation but also to suppress soot formation.
Technical Paper

Low Emission Combustion influences Durability of Fuel Injection Pipe Line and Treatment of the Pipe

In order to reduce particulate and NOx emission from the direct injection diesel engine, most researchers have been expecting the utilization of higher injection pressure and injection rate for improvement of diesel combustion. In the case of pump-line-nozzle system, the injection pipe line is very important with regard to the high injection pressure. Namely, the pipe line must be able to resist not only high pressure but also cavitation erosion. In this paper, the effect of high injection pressure, injection rate and sharp cutting at the end of fuel injection are discussed along with cavitation phenomena on the injection pipe line. And durability tests on the pipe line system under high injection pressure using a test rig are also described. Regarding durability tests, several measures have been taken for the injection pipe. As a result, the authors have found that the best solution for the injection pipe is a composite pipe made with SUS and steel.
Technical Paper

The Hino E13C: A Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Developed for Extremely Low Emissions and Superior Fuel Economy

The Hino E13C was developed for heavy-duty truck application to meet Japan's 2003 NOx and 2005 particulate emissions standards simultaneously with significant fuel economy improvement. A combined EGR system consisting of an external EGR system with a highly efficient EGR cooler and an internal EGR system with an electronically controlled valve actuation device was newly developed to reduce NOx emissions for all operating conditions without requiring a larger engine coolant radiator. A Hino-developed DPR was installed to achieve extremely low particulate emissions at the tail pipe. Increased strength of engine structural components and a ductile cast iron piston enabled high BMEP operation at lower engine speeds and reductions of both engine size and weight. This paper describes key technologies developed for the E13C as well as the development results.
Technical Paper

Hino J-Series Diesel Engines Developed for The U.S. 2004 Regulations with Superior Fuel Economy

Hino Motors developed J-series 4.7-liter inline-four cylinder and 7.7-liter inline-six cylinder engines for complying with the 2004 U.S. exhaust emissions regulations. Several technologies were incorporated in the development process to accomplish simultaneous reductions in both exhaust emissions and fuel consumption while the engine performance, reliability, and durability were maintained at the levels acceptable for truck application. Newly developed technologies include a cooled EGR system, a common-rail fuel injection system, a VNT system, and an engine control system for harmonized control of EGR valve and VNT. This paper reports the development approaches and results.
Technical Paper

Integrated Internal EGR and Compression Braking System for Hino's E13C Engine

An integrated engine subsystem incorporating Internal Exhaust Gas Recirculation (IEGR) or alternatively referred to as Pulse EGR™ and Compression Release Retarding (CRR) functions has been developed and introduced to production with the new E13C engine from Hino Motors Ltd. This new system provides the nitrous oxide (NOX) reduction benefit of IEGR and the vehicle control and brake saving benefits of CRR in a single integrated package, without the need for increased vehicle cooling capacity or additional components external to the engine. The product is a result of a close cooperation between two companies, Hino Motors Ltd. of Japan and Jacobs Vehicle Systems, Inc. of the U.S.A.
Technical Paper

The Study of NOx and PM Reduction Using Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction System for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

To reduce NOx and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine, the effects of urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems were studied. Proto type urea SCR system was composed of NO oxidation catalyst, SCR catalyst and ammonia (NH3) reduction catalyst. The NOx reduction performance of urea SCR system was improved by a new zeolite type catalyst and mixer for urea distribution at the steady state operating conditions. NOx and PM reduction performance of the urea SCR system with DPF was evaluated over JE05 mode of Japan. The NOx reduction efficiency of the urea SCR catalyst system was 72% at JE05 mode. The PM reduction efficiency of the urea SCR catalyst system with DPF was 93% at JE05 mode. Several kinds of un-regulated matters were detected including NH3 and N2O leak from the exhaust gas. It is necessary to have further study for detailed measurements for un-regulated emissions from urea solution.
Technical Paper

Hino's Advanced Low-Emission Technologies Developed to Meet Stringent Emissions Standards

Japan's new 2005 long-term emissions regulation was implemented in October 2005. Both NOx and PM emissions standards were reduced to 2 g/kWh and 0.027 g/kWh, which were 40 and 85 percent lower than the 2003 new short-term emissions standards, respectively. These emissions standards are as stringent as the Euro5 standards that are scheduled for implementation in 2008. In addition, the transient-cycle test procedure for emissions compliance, labeled JE05, was introduced to replace the D13-mode steady-state test procedure. This paper describes exhaust emissions reduction technologies developed for Hino's 13-liter heavy-duty diesel engine so that it meets the above standards. A production catalyzed wall-flow DPF was employed to reduce PM emissions in both mass and small particles. NOx emissions were reduced by improving combustion with cooled EGR and without use of a NOx aftertreatment device.
Technical Paper

The IP Filter, a DOC-Integrated DPF, for an Advanced PM Aftertreatment System (2): An Evaluation of Fundamental Performance

DPR consists of a multiple fuel-injection system, an electronic engine control unit, and a DPR Cleaner. The DPR cleaner is one assembly unit consisting of a DOC, a catalyzed DPF, and an exhaust silencer. Thus, DPR is a system developed to achieve healthy operation of a DPF with active regeneration regardless of engine operating conditions. The IP Filter was developed to improve the DPR cleaner by reducing the size of the unit and shortening the regeneration time. Both the DOC and DPF are integrated into one unit structure. The IP Filter has open-ended cells on the front face unlike a conventional wall-flow DPF. Instead, the plugs are positioned at the interface between the DOC and DPF. On the rear face of the IP Filter, plugs are installed at the same positions as those of a conventional DPF. The DOC substrate of the IP Filter is made of highly porous, straight honeycomb, the same as that of DPF.
Technical Paper

Advanced Safety Technologies for Large Trucks

Large truck accidents sometimes result in severe damages or give large disturbance of traffic and there are demands of improving vehicle safety characteristics. Main types of traffic accidents concerned are rear-end collision and single accident. As countermeasures for rear-end collisions, world-first collision mitigation brake for commercial vehicles; Pre-crash Safety System, was developed. If there is possibility of collision, warning to driver and brake control intervention is carried out in stepwise fashion and collision speed is decreased. To achieve higher effect in collision mitigation, it is necessary to activate warning or brake-force in earlier timing. Inter-vehicle or infrastructure-vehicle communication offer promising prospect. Tractor-trailer combinations show some instable behaviors. “Roll Stability Assist” and “Vehicle Stability Control” were developed to assist drivers to avoid the occurrence of these instable behaviors.
Technical Paper

Development of Diesel Particulate Trap Systems for City Buses

Diesel particulate trap systems are one of the effective means for the control of particulate emission from diesel vehicles. Hino has been researching and developing various diesel particulate trap systems for city buses. This paper describes two of the systems. One uses a wall flow filter equipped with an electric heater and a sensing device for particulate loading for the purpose of filter regeneration. Another makes use of a special filter named “Cross Flow Filter” with an epoch-making regeneration method called “Reverse Jet Cleaning”, by which it becomes possible to separate the part for particulate burning from the filter. Both systems roughly have come to satisfy the functions of trap systems for city buses, but their durability and reliability for city buses are not yet sufficient.
Technical Paper

Effects of High-Boost Turbocharging on Combustion Characteristics and Improving Its Low Engine Speed Torque

This paper describes the experimental studies of turbocharged and intercooled diesel engines with particular emphasis on combustion characteristics following increase of boost pressure. Through these studies, it has become possible to determine the optimum air quantity for minimizing fuel consumption at each engine speed range under the restrictive conditions of NOx emission, exhaust smoke and maximum cylinder pressure. Discussed also is the lack of air quantity in the low engine speed range of high-boost turbocharged diesel engines. Various turbocharging systems to improve air quantity in this speed range are introduced herein. Practically the engine performance of conventional turbocharging, waste gate control turbocharging and variable geometry turbocharging are discussed from the viewpoint of torque recovery in the low engine speed range.
Technical Paper

Steer-Restoring Torque Controlled Driving Simulator for Developing Steering Road Feel

A driving simulator system for developing steering road feel has been developed. A new steering gear box or an electronic steering system is installed on the simulator and its road feel and control algorithm are developed according to the characteristics of any vehicle which has been programed into the engineering work-station. The vehicle model programed into the engineering work station runs according to the driver's operations, which are fed through the new steering system to be tested. The steer-restoring torque of the vehicle programed into the engineering work-station is produced by an actuator, and gives the impression through the new system of having been fed back from an actual road.