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Technical Paper

Experiments on the Coupling and Transmission Behavior of Crankshaft Torsional Bending and Longitudinal Vibrations in High Speed Engines

The coupling behavior of the torsional, bending, and longitudinal vibrations in the crankshaft is described. The incidental excitation forces under crankshaft torsional vibration due to reciprocating and rotating masses are derived theoretically. Experiments on the coupling behavior of the crankshaft vibrations and the excitation behavior in the engine structure were performed in a four-cylinder automotive engine; their results are discussed.
Technical Paper

Gear Tooth Contact Marking Measurement By Image Processing

Tooth contact marking of gears is an important quality characteristic that affects tooth strength and gear noise. Tooth contact marking measurement is generally done by painting the tooth surfaces of two meshed gears, rotating the gears and visually observing contact marks. Since it requires much working hours and experience to judge such a measurement, a method of measuring contact tooth markers by image processing has been developed. In this measurement method, the tooth surfaces of rotating gears are continuously observed by a TV camera, and the images are stored in an image memory device. Such quantities as the tooth surface size and tooth surface brightness level are set as initial settings, and the set values are compared with the observed images by a microcomputer to give the results of the measurement.
Technical Paper

Advanced Semi-Trailer Tractor-Improved Riding Comfort and Simplified Connecting Operations

A new model of 4 × 2 semi-trailer tractor was introduced to the Japanese truck market from HINO MOTORS last year, which has improved riding comfort and remarkable features for trailer connecting/disconnecting operations. This new model has two typical methods of comfortable ride, those are full-floating cab mount system and air ride suspension for the rear axle. Since the analysis of tractor vibrations and the vehicle height control system of this model have given satisfactory results, and their outline is described here.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Mechanism of Engine Oil Consumption- Oil Upwards Transport via Piston Oil Ring Gap -

Reduction of oil consumption of engines is required to avoid a negative effect on engine after treatment devices. Engines are required fuel economy for reduction of carbon-dioxide emission, and it is known that reduction of piston frictions is effective on fuel economy. However friction reduction of pistons sometimes causes an increase in engine oil consumption. Therefore reduction of engine oil consumption becomes important subject recently. The ultimate goal of this study is developing the estimation method of oil consumption, and the mechanism of oil upward transport at oil ring gap was investigated in this paper. Oil pressure under the oil ring lower rail was measured by newly developed apparatus. It was found that the piston slap motion and piston up and down motion affected oil pressure rise under the oil ring and oil was spouted through ring-gap by the pressure. The effect of the piston design on the oil pressure generation was also investigated.
Technical Paper

A Study on Reducing Cooling loss in a Partially Insulated Piston for Diesel Engine

To improve the thermal efficiency of an engine, it is particularly important to reduce the cooling loss from the combustion gas to the combustion chamber wall, which constitutes a major proportion of the total loss [1]. Previous studies addressing cooling loss reduction attempted to use ceramic in place of the conventional aluminum or iron alloys, but this led to a reduction in the volumetric efficiency and increased smoke emissions. This was caused by the ceramics having both a low thermal conductivity and high heat capacity, relative to aluminum and iron. These characteristics cause the piston wall temperature, which rises during combustion, to remain high during the intake stroke, thus increasing the intake temperature and reducing the volumetric efficiency. This increases the smoke emissions [2].
Technical Paper

Effect of Diamond-Like Carbon Coating on Anti-Scuffing Characteristics of Piston Pins

It has been proposed that downspeeding combined with high boost levels would effectively reduce fuel consumption in heavy-duty diesel engines. Under low-speed and high-boost operating conditions, however, the in-cylinder gas pressure, which acts on the piston crown, is greater than the piston inertia force (such that there is no force reversal), over the entire range of crank angles. Therefore, the piston pin never lifts away from the main loading area (the bottom) of the connecting rod small-end bushing where the contact pressure against the piston pin is highest. In such operating conditions, lubricant starvation is easily induced at the interface between the piston pin and small-end bushing. Through carefully devised engine tests, the authors confirmed that the piston pin scuffing phenomenon arises when the boost pressure exceeds a critical value at which the no-force reversal condition appears.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Effects of a Higher Compression Ratio in the Combustion Chamber on Diesel Engine Performance

In order to improve the brake thermal efficiency of the engine, such as cooling and friction losses from the theoretical thermal efficiency, it is necessary to minimize various losses. However, it is also essential to consider improvements in theoretical thermal efficiency along with the reduction of the various losses. In an effort to improve the brake thermal efficiency of heavy-duty diesel engines used in commercial vehicles, this research focused on two important factors leading to the engine's theoretical thermal efficiency: the compression ratio and the specific heat ratio. Based on the results of theoretical thermodynamic cycle analyses for the effects of the above two factors, it was predicted that raising the compression ratio from a base engine specification of 17 to 26, and increasing the specific heat ratio would lead to a significant increase in theoretical thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Development of a Higher Boost Turbocharged Diesel Engine for Better Fuel Economy in Heavy Vehicles

This paper presents technical solutions and a development process to accomplish not only superior fuel economy but also excellent driveability with a turbocharged diesel engine for heavy duty trucks. For better fuel economy, one of the basic considerations is how to decrease the friction losses of the engine itself while keeping the required horsepower and torque characteristics. A high boost turbocharged small engine offers this possibility, but it has serious disadvantages such as inferior low speed torque, poorer accelerating response, insufficient engine braking performance, and finally not always so good fuel consumption in the engine operating range away from the matching point between engine and turbocharger. These are not acceptable in complicated traffic conditions like those in Japan - a mixture of mountainous and hilly roads, city road with numerous traffic signals, and freeways.
Technical Paper

Effect of Combustion Chamber Configuration on In-Cylinder Air Motion and Combustion Characteristics of D.I. Diesel Engine

A new combustion system for a light duty D. I. diesel engine was developed and introduced (1)*. The combustion chamber, which was used in the combustion system, has 4 concaves on the periphery of the inner wall and was calld HMMS-III. This combustion chamber realized better fuel consumption and lower smoke level over a wide speed range. However, the effects of HMMS-III combustion chamber on in-cylinder air motion and combustion characteristics were not yet clarified in the previous paper. In this study, in order to clarify the effects of HMMS-III combustion chamber on in-cylinder air motion and characteristics, analysis of flow direction and streak line via oil film method was carried out in comparison with flat dish and re-entrant type combustion chambers. Further, measurement of in-cylinder air motion by L.D.V. and observation of mixture formation and burning process via high speed schlieren photography were carried out.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Diesel Soot Suppression with Soluble Fuel Additives

Experiments on a large number of soluble fuel additives were systematically conducted for diesel soot reduction. It was found that Ca and Ba were the most effective soot suppressors. The main determinants of soot reduction were: the metal mol-content of the fuel, the excess air factor, and the gas turbulence in the combustion chamber. The soot reduction ratio was expressed by an exponential function of the metal mol-content in the fuel, depending on the metal but independent of the metal compound. A rise in excess air factor or gas turbulence increased the value of a coefficient in the function, resulting in larger reductions in soot with the fuel additives. High-speed soot sampling from the cylinder showed that with the metal additive, the soot concentration in the combustion chamber was substantially reduced during the whole period of combustion. It is thought that the additive acts as a catalyst not only to improve soot oxidation but also to suppress soot formation.
Technical Paper

The Hino E13C: A Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Developed for Extremely Low Emissions and Superior Fuel Economy

The Hino E13C was developed for heavy-duty truck application to meet Japan's 2003 NOx and 2005 particulate emissions standards simultaneously with significant fuel economy improvement. A combined EGR system consisting of an external EGR system with a highly efficient EGR cooler and an internal EGR system with an electronically controlled valve actuation device was newly developed to reduce NOx emissions for all operating conditions without requiring a larger engine coolant radiator. A Hino-developed DPR was installed to achieve extremely low particulate emissions at the tail pipe. Increased strength of engine structural components and a ductile cast iron piston enabled high BMEP operation at lower engine speeds and reductions of both engine size and weight. This paper describes key technologies developed for the E13C as well as the development results.
Technical Paper

Hino J-Series Diesel Engines Developed for The U.S. 2004 Regulations with Superior Fuel Economy

Hino Motors developed J-series 4.7-liter inline-four cylinder and 7.7-liter inline-six cylinder engines for complying with the 2004 U.S. exhaust emissions regulations. Several technologies were incorporated in the development process to accomplish simultaneous reductions in both exhaust emissions and fuel consumption while the engine performance, reliability, and durability were maintained at the levels acceptable for truck application. Newly developed technologies include a cooled EGR system, a common-rail fuel injection system, a VNT system, and an engine control system for harmonized control of EGR valve and VNT. This paper reports the development approaches and results.
Technical Paper

Effects of High-Boost Turbocharging on Combustion Characteristics and Improving Its Low Engine Speed Torque

This paper describes the experimental studies of turbocharged and intercooled diesel engines with particular emphasis on combustion characteristics following increase of boost pressure. Through these studies, it has become possible to determine the optimum air quantity for minimizing fuel consumption at each engine speed range under the restrictive conditions of NOx emission, exhaust smoke and maximum cylinder pressure. Discussed also is the lack of air quantity in the low engine speed range of high-boost turbocharged diesel engines. Various turbocharging systems to improve air quantity in this speed range are introduced herein. Practically the engine performance of conventional turbocharging, waste gate control turbocharging and variable geometry turbocharging are discussed from the viewpoint of torque recovery in the low engine speed range.
Technical Paper

Tractive Torque Steer for On-Center Stability1 Handling Augmentation with Controlling Differential Gear for Large-Sized Vehicles - A Comparison with Passive Read-Axle Steer

The running direction of a vehicle can be controlled by not only wheel steer but also torque steer. This paper introduces the tractive torque steer effect produced by a newly developed electropneumatic control system, the limited-slip differential for large-sized vehicles. This system enhances the vehicle's running stability and controllability by controlling the tractive force of the drive axle. The tractive force maintains a stable running course against disturbances such as road roughness and wind gusts, thereby enhancing the steering response and providing a better feeling of handling to the driver. The system also improves mobility. especially on low-μ roads. It is expected that a single axle equipped with this system will exhibit good performance comparable to that of tandem axle.
Technical Paper

State-of-the-Art; Hino High Boosted Diesel Engine

In the Japanese heavy duty truck market, demands of improved fuel economy and lighter vehicles to increase load capacity, and further improvements in emissions are constantly increasing. To satisfy these requirements, basically a smaller sized and higher boosted diesel engine is effective, because such an engine has a compact size and light weight, and shows improved fuel consumption due to a relatively lower frictional loss. On the basis of this concept Hino introduced the original EP100 in 1981 as the first Japanese turbocharged and air to air charge-cooled engine. Since then Hino has made many efforts to improve the engines and develop new technologies.
Technical Paper

The Development of Low Noise Engine on Hino New “H” Series

This paper introduces the details of a low noise design realized by fully utilizing the theoretical methods for the prediction of noise and vibration, applied to Hino's new “H07D” engine. In the development of this engine, the reduction of the vehicle interior noise was one of the highest priority aims. For this purpose, the influence of the engine noise on the vehicle noise was firstly investigated to identify the major noise sources. Then, making best use of noise prediction techniques (FEM, etc.), the noise radiation mechanisms were clarified and the components identified as major noise sources were re-designed. In these improvements, the theoretical techniques also predicted carefully the effect of design changes on the related components, including their installation in an engine as required. These procedures achieved a remarkable noise reduction of the engine by cost effective methods.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Thermal Fatigue Evaluation Method for Cast Iron

We have developed a new test method in which temperature of cavity lip of a piston alone during engine rotation is reproduced, cavity lip strain is measured. As the results of strain measurement using the test method in a condition that simulates of conventional engines, a strain behavior was out-of-phase. And in a condition that simulates of high-load engines in future, strain behavior was clockwise-diamond cycle. It was found from the result of the test method developed that strain increased on the cavity lip. The fatigue life of the cavity lip was evaluated using the strain measured and isothermal fatigue curves which obtained by the strain controlled isothermal fatigue test. The result of engine durability test has revealed that the developed method was valid for thermal fatigue evaluation of the cavity lip.
Technical Paper

Experimental Modal Analysis for Cylinder Block-Crankshaft Substructure Systems of Six-cylinder In-line Diesel Engines

A newly developed OHC (Over-Head Camshaft) prototype of a six-cylinder in-line diesel engine (with bore size: 114mm, stroke size: 130mm) was studied, comparing with the previous version of OHV (Over-Head Valve) type engine (with bore size: 110mm, stroke size: 130mm). It was found that the new type of cylinder block (with 130.8 kg of mass) has significantly lower natural frequencies than those for the previous type of cylinder block (with 133.2 kg of mass). Furthermore, slightly more predominant engine noise and vibration were induced in the new engine. The vibration behavior and the excitation force transmission characteristics were investigated by EMA (Experimental Modal Analysis). We performed a series of impact tests for (1) free-free cylinder block, (2) free-free crankshaft substructure with torsional damper and flywheel attached, and (3) the case where (1) and (2) are assembled together.
Technical Paper

Effects of Alloying Elements on Wear Resistance of Automobile Cast Iron Materials

Wear resistance is the important characteristics of cast iron materials for automobile components. Because the phenomenon of wear is a highly complicated mechanism involving many factors such as surface conditions, chemical reactions with lubricants, metals, and physics, it has not been fully explained. Therefore, it will be necessary to confirm and explain the wear mechanism to develop effective improvements. The purpose of this study was to investigate the structural change behavior and effects of alloying elements when the material top surface becomes worn, in order to improve the wear resistance of cylinder liners and other cast iron materials. For this purpose, several types of prototype materials were produced, and the relationship between components and wear resistance was investigated by using a laser microscope for quantitative observation of the degree of pearlite microstructure fineness.
Technical Paper

Development of Energy Management for Small Electric Buses

An energy management method and model for small electric buses was studied. The model consists of a drive motor & inverter, a lithium ion battery, electric auxiliary devices and a mechanical powertrain. A small electric bus was developed based on the short travel distance, high charging frequency concept. Since 2012, two buses have operated as community buses in two different regions, and another bus started operations in a third region in 2013. The development of an energy management model accounting for operating conditions made it possible to keep the lithium ion battery capacity to a minimum. This paper describes energy management for this small electric bus, the design of the vehicle and the results of evaluating actual operation.