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Technical Paper

Gear Tooth Contact Marking Measurement By Image Processing

Tooth contact marking of gears is an important quality characteristic that affects tooth strength and gear noise. Tooth contact marking measurement is generally done by painting the tooth surfaces of two meshed gears, rotating the gears and visually observing contact marks. Since it requires much working hours and experience to judge such a measurement, a method of measuring contact tooth markers by image processing has been developed. In this measurement method, the tooth surfaces of rotating gears are continuously observed by a TV camera, and the images are stored in an image memory device. Such quantities as the tooth surface size and tooth surface brightness level are set as initial settings, and the set values are compared with the observed images by a microcomputer to give the results of the measurement.
Technical Paper

Advanced Semi-Trailer Tractor-Improved Riding Comfort and Simplified Connecting Operations

A new model of 4 × 2 semi-trailer tractor was introduced to the Japanese truck market from HINO MOTORS last year, which has improved riding comfort and remarkable features for trailer connecting/disconnecting operations. This new model has two typical methods of comfortable ride, those are full-floating cab mount system and air ride suspension for the rear axle. Since the analysis of tractor vibrations and the vehicle height control system of this model have given satisfactory results, and their outline is described here.
Technical Paper

The Study of Particle Number Reduction Using After-Treatment Systems for a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

To reduce ultra fine particle number concentration from a heavy-duty diesel engine, the effects of diesel fuel property and after-treatment systems were studied. The reduction of ultra fine particle number concentration over steady state mode using an 8 liter turbocharged and after-cooled diesel engine was evaluated. PM size distribution was measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The evaluation used a commercially available current diesel fuel (Sulfur Content: 0.0036 wt%), high sulfur diesel fuel (Sulfur Content: 0.046 wt%) and low sulfur diesel fuel (Sulfur Content: 0.007 wt%). The after-treatment systems were an oxidation catalyst, a wire-mesh type DPF (Diesel Particle Filter) and a wall-flow type catalyzed DPF. The results show that fine particle number concentration is reduced with a low sulfur fuel, an oxidation catalyst, a wire-mesh type DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) and wall flow type catalyzed DPF, respectively.
Technical Paper

Development of Efficient Urea-SCR Systems for EPA 2010-Compliant Medium Duty Diesel Vehicles

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued new emissions regulations, which came into effect in January, 2010. These EPA 2010 regulations are the most stringent emissions standards in the world, reducing both particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to nearly zero levels. Hino Motors improved upon its previous EPA 2007-compliant engine, developing a new exhaust after-treatment system in which a Diesel Particulate active Reduction System (DPR), a Urea-Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) System and a Burner System are employed to meet EPA 2010 emissions regulations for medium duty commercial vehicles. DPR was already developed and utilized to reduce PM to meet EPA 2007 standards, but the Urea-SCR System is newly developed technology used to reduce NOx emissions to comply with EPA2010 emissions regulations. In addition, a Burner System is used to elevate exhaust gas temperatures in order to improve both SCR performance and DPR active Regeneration.
Technical Paper

Development of a Higher Boost Turbocharged Diesel Engine for Better Fuel Economy in Heavy Vehicles

This paper presents technical solutions and a development process to accomplish not only superior fuel economy but also excellent driveability with a turbocharged diesel engine for heavy duty trucks. For better fuel economy, one of the basic considerations is how to decrease the friction losses of the engine itself while keeping the required horsepower and torque characteristics. A high boost turbocharged small engine offers this possibility, but it has serious disadvantages such as inferior low speed torque, poorer accelerating response, insufficient engine braking performance, and finally not always so good fuel consumption in the engine operating range away from the matching point between engine and turbocharger. These are not acceptable in complicated traffic conditions like those in Japan - a mixture of mountainous and hilly roads, city road with numerous traffic signals, and freeways.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Diesel Soot Suppression with Soluble Fuel Additives

Experiments on a large number of soluble fuel additives were systematically conducted for diesel soot reduction. It was found that Ca and Ba were the most effective soot suppressors. The main determinants of soot reduction were: the metal mol-content of the fuel, the excess air factor, and the gas turbulence in the combustion chamber. The soot reduction ratio was expressed by an exponential function of the metal mol-content in the fuel, depending on the metal but independent of the metal compound. A rise in excess air factor or gas turbulence increased the value of a coefficient in the function, resulting in larger reductions in soot with the fuel additives. High-speed soot sampling from the cylinder showed that with the metal additive, the soot concentration in the combustion chamber was substantially reduced during the whole period of combustion. It is thought that the additive acts as a catalyst not only to improve soot oxidation but also to suppress soot formation.
Technical Paper

Low Emission Combustion influences Durability of Fuel Injection Pipe Line and Treatment of the Pipe

In order to reduce particulate and NOx emission from the direct injection diesel engine, most researchers have been expecting the utilization of higher injection pressure and injection rate for improvement of diesel combustion. In the case of pump-line-nozzle system, the injection pipe line is very important with regard to the high injection pressure. Namely, the pipe line must be able to resist not only high pressure but also cavitation erosion. In this paper, the effect of high injection pressure, injection rate and sharp cutting at the end of fuel injection are discussed along with cavitation phenomena on the injection pipe line. And durability tests on the pipe line system under high injection pressure using a test rig are also described. Regarding durability tests, several measures have been taken for the injection pipe. As a result, the authors have found that the best solution for the injection pipe is a composite pipe made with SUS and steel.
Technical Paper

The Hino E13C: A Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Developed for Extremely Low Emissions and Superior Fuel Economy

The Hino E13C was developed for heavy-duty truck application to meet Japan's 2003 NOx and 2005 particulate emissions standards simultaneously with significant fuel economy improvement. A combined EGR system consisting of an external EGR system with a highly efficient EGR cooler and an internal EGR system with an electronically controlled valve actuation device was newly developed to reduce NOx emissions for all operating conditions without requiring a larger engine coolant radiator. A Hino-developed DPR was installed to achieve extremely low particulate emissions at the tail pipe. Increased strength of engine structural components and a ductile cast iron piston enabled high BMEP operation at lower engine speeds and reductions of both engine size and weight. This paper describes key technologies developed for the E13C as well as the development results.
Technical Paper

Hino J-Series Diesel Engines Developed for The U.S. 2004 Regulations with Superior Fuel Economy

Hino Motors developed J-series 4.7-liter inline-four cylinder and 7.7-liter inline-six cylinder engines for complying with the 2004 U.S. exhaust emissions regulations. Several technologies were incorporated in the development process to accomplish simultaneous reductions in both exhaust emissions and fuel consumption while the engine performance, reliability, and durability were maintained at the levels acceptable for truck application. Newly developed technologies include a cooled EGR system, a common-rail fuel injection system, a VNT system, and an engine control system for harmonized control of EGR valve and VNT. This paper reports the development approaches and results.
Technical Paper

The Study of NOx and PM Reduction Using Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction System for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

To reduce NOx and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine, the effects of urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems were studied. Proto type urea SCR system was composed of NO oxidation catalyst, SCR catalyst and ammonia (NH3) reduction catalyst. The NOx reduction performance of urea SCR system was improved by a new zeolite type catalyst and mixer for urea distribution at the steady state operating conditions. NOx and PM reduction performance of the urea SCR system with DPF was evaluated over JE05 mode of Japan. The NOx reduction efficiency of the urea SCR catalyst system was 72% at JE05 mode. The PM reduction efficiency of the urea SCR catalyst system with DPF was 93% at JE05 mode. Several kinds of un-regulated matters were detected including NH3 and N2O leak from the exhaust gas. It is necessary to have further study for detailed measurements for un-regulated emissions from urea solution.
Technical Paper

Hino's Advanced Low-Emission Technologies Developed to Meet Stringent Emissions Standards

Japan's new 2005 long-term emissions regulation was implemented in October 2005. Both NOx and PM emissions standards were reduced to 2 g/kWh and 0.027 g/kWh, which were 40 and 85 percent lower than the 2003 new short-term emissions standards, respectively. These emissions standards are as stringent as the Euro5 standards that are scheduled for implementation in 2008. In addition, the transient-cycle test procedure for emissions compliance, labeled JE05, was introduced to replace the D13-mode steady-state test procedure. This paper describes exhaust emissions reduction technologies developed for Hino's 13-liter heavy-duty diesel engine so that it meets the above standards. A production catalyzed wall-flow DPF was employed to reduce PM emissions in both mass and small particles. NOx emissions were reduced by improving combustion with cooled EGR and without use of a NOx aftertreatment device.
Technical Paper

Development of Diesel Particulate Trap Systems for City Buses

Diesel particulate trap systems are one of the effective means for the control of particulate emission from diesel vehicles. Hino has been researching and developing various diesel particulate trap systems for city buses. This paper describes two of the systems. One uses a wall flow filter equipped with an electric heater and a sensing device for particulate loading for the purpose of filter regeneration. Another makes use of a special filter named “Cross Flow Filter” with an epoch-making regeneration method called “Reverse Jet Cleaning”, by which it becomes possible to separate the part for particulate burning from the filter. Both systems roughly have come to satisfy the functions of trap systems for city buses, but their durability and reliability for city buses are not yet sufficient.
Technical Paper

Effects of High-Boost Turbocharging on Combustion Characteristics and Improving Its Low Engine Speed Torque

This paper describes the experimental studies of turbocharged and intercooled diesel engines with particular emphasis on combustion characteristics following increase of boost pressure. Through these studies, it has become possible to determine the optimum air quantity for minimizing fuel consumption at each engine speed range under the restrictive conditions of NOx emission, exhaust smoke and maximum cylinder pressure. Discussed also is the lack of air quantity in the low engine speed range of high-boost turbocharged diesel engines. Various turbocharging systems to improve air quantity in this speed range are introduced herein. Practically the engine performance of conventional turbocharging, waste gate control turbocharging and variable geometry turbocharging are discussed from the viewpoint of torque recovery in the low engine speed range.
Technical Paper

Tractive Torque Steer for On-Center Stability1 Handling Augmentation with Controlling Differential Gear for Large-Sized Vehicles - A Comparison with Passive Read-Axle Steer

The running direction of a vehicle can be controlled by not only wheel steer but also torque steer. This paper introduces the tractive torque steer effect produced by a newly developed electropneumatic control system, the limited-slip differential for large-sized vehicles. This system enhances the vehicle's running stability and controllability by controlling the tractive force of the drive axle. The tractive force maintains a stable running course against disturbances such as road roughness and wind gusts, thereby enhancing the steering response and providing a better feeling of handling to the driver. The system also improves mobility. especially on low-μ roads. It is expected that a single axle equipped with this system will exhibit good performance comparable to that of tandem axle.
Technical Paper

Effects of Alloying Elements on Wear Resistance of Automobile Cast Iron Materials

Wear resistance is the important characteristics of cast iron materials for automobile components. Because the phenomenon of wear is a highly complicated mechanism involving many factors such as surface conditions, chemical reactions with lubricants, metals, and physics, it has not been fully explained. Therefore, it will be necessary to confirm and explain the wear mechanism to develop effective improvements. The purpose of this study was to investigate the structural change behavior and effects of alloying elements when the material top surface becomes worn, in order to improve the wear resistance of cylinder liners and other cast iron materials. For this purpose, several types of prototype materials were produced, and the relationship between components and wear resistance was investigated by using a laser microscope for quantitative observation of the degree of pearlite microstructure fineness.
Technical Paper

Development of Energy Management for Small Electric Buses

An energy management method and model for small electric buses was studied. The model consists of a drive motor & inverter, a lithium ion battery, electric auxiliary devices and a mechanical powertrain. A small electric bus was developed based on the short travel distance, high charging frequency concept. Since 2012, two buses have operated as community buses in two different regions, and another bus started operations in a third region in 2013. The development of an energy management model accounting for operating conditions made it possible to keep the lithium ion battery capacity to a minimum. This paper describes energy management for this small electric bus, the design of the vehicle and the results of evaluating actual operation.
Technical Paper

Novel Analysis Approach for Better Understanding of Fuel and Engine Effects on Diesel Exhaust Emission - JCAP Combustion Analysis Working Group Report Part II

1 A novel analysis approach called “Regression Density method” was developed for better understanding of fuel property effects on exhaust emission. The approach was applied to diesel emission data obtained in JCAP programs and emission models were conducted to analyze the effects of fuel properties and engine conditions on emissions. By introducing this analysis method, the relationship between density factor and aromatics factor (chemical composition factor) was identified, however, they have been reported previously as dominant factors in fuel properties. The effects of engine conditions and fuel properties on emissions were investigated quantitatively based on the statistically conducted emission models to clarify universal ways to emission reduction. The mechanism of emission formation of vehicles and engines with characteristic behavior was also examined.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Injection Pressure and Fuel Properties on Particulate Emissions from H.D.D.I. Diesel Engine

For the 1990's diesel engines, particulate control has been an important problem. The purpose of this paper is to discuss emission control needs for heavy duty diesel truck engines for the 1990's. This paper will focus on the factors such as fuel injection pressure and fuel properties which most affect particulate emission. The characteristics of diesel spray in the atmosphere and also actual combustion of a turbocharged and charge-cooled H.D. D.I diesel engine were studied as a function of injection pressure ranging from 50 to 150 MPa. Experimental results show that high pressure injection improves the atomization and air entrainment. Though Bosch smoke level, fuel consumption and combustion period decreased with the rise of injection pressure, particulate emission in EPA transient test cycle did not decrease dut to an increase of SOF.
Technical Paper

An Observation of Combustion Phenomenon on Heat Insulated Turbo-Charged and Inter-Cooled D.I. Diesel Engines

A current unmodified and modified engines with different amounts of thermal insulation have been used to generate data from which changes in bsfc, cooling loss, emissions, exhaust loss were determined. Since legislative requirement exists for allowable emission of NOx, fuel injection timing and other controllable factors were adjusted to maintain constant NOx emission except a test of influence on NOx emission according to the rate of heat insulation (adiabaticity). The effect of higher combustion temperature on the combustion phenomena is discussed.
Technical Paper

The Reduction of Diesel Engine Emissions by Using the Oxidation Catalysts of Japan Diesel 13 Mode Cycle

To reduce emissions from diesel engines, the effects of oxidation catalysts on the emissions reductions were studied. The effectiveness of several oxidation catalysts on both the regulated and unregulated emissions was evaluated. The oxidation activity of the catalysts was varied by changing Pt loading. The regulated emissions include particulate (PM), hydrocarbon (HC), and carbon monoxide (CO), and the unregulated emissions include benzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). An 8 litter, turbocharged and aftercooled diesel engine was operated under the Japan Diesel 13 (D13) mode cycle for the evaluations. As the first step, evaluations were conducted with a commercially available JIS #2 diesel fuel (0.046 wt% sulfur). All the regulated and unregulated emissions except PM were reduced as the Pt loading (i.e. oxidation activity) increased. However, PM emissions were increased by the generation of sulfate when the Pt loading exceeded 0.2 g/l.