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Technical Paper

Experimental Study for High Specific Load Bearings in the Diesel Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-0297
Recently, exhaust emission has been enforced on diesel engines for the countermeasure of environmental problems. Accordingly, the cylinder pressure in the engine is being increased to improve fuel efficiency, the engine bearings must be used under severe conditions of high specific load. Because the connecting rod bearings, particularly of diesel engines, are used at high specific loads that exceed 100 MPa, elastic deformation of the bearing surface occurs, and the oil film thickness decreases at the edges of the bearing length in the axial direction. This causes the bearings to contact with the crankshaft, thus resulting in the wear of the bearings, which could even result in seizure. The following factors contribute to seizure: bearing materials, bearing shapes, machining methods, and incorrect assembly. Focusing on these factors, this study evaluated the behaviors exhibited by connecting rod bearings in actual engines by using the rig testers.
Technical Paper

R&D and Analysis of Energy Consumption Improvement Factor for Advanced Clean Energy HEVs

2005-10-24
2005-01-3828
Ultra-low energy consumption and ultra-low emission vehicle technologies have been developed by combining petroleum-alternative clean energy with a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) system. Their component technologies cover a wide range of vehicle types, such as passenger cars, delivery trucks, and city buses, adsorbed natural gas (ANG), compressed natural gas (CNG), and dimethyl ether (DME) as fuels, series (S-HEV) and series/parallel (SP-HEV) for hybrid types, and as energy storage systems (ESSs), flywheel batteries (FWBs), capacitors, and lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. Evaluation tests confirmed that the energy consumption of the developed vehicles is 1/2 of that of conventional diesel vehicles, and the exhaust emission levels are comparable to Japan's ultra-low emission vehicle (J-ULEV) level.
Journal Article

Development of a Fuel Economy and Exhaust Emissions Test Method with HILS for Heavy-Duty HEVs

2008-04-14
2008-01-1318
The objective of this study was to develop a test method for heavy-duty HEVs using a hardware-in-the-loop simulator (HILS) to enhance the type-approval-test method. To achieve our objective, HILS systems for series and parallel HEVs were actually constructed to verify calculation accuracy. Comparison of calculated and measured data (vehicle speed, motor/generator power, rechargeable energy storage system power/voltage/current/state of charge, and fuel economy) revealed them to be in good agreement. Calculation error for fuel economy was less than 2%.
Technical Paper

Development of Energy Management for Small Electric Buses

2015-04-14
2015-01-0246
An energy management method and model for small electric buses was studied. The model consists of a drive motor & inverter, a lithium ion battery, electric auxiliary devices and a mechanical powertrain. A small electric bus was developed based on the short travel distance, high charging frequency concept. Since 2012, two buses have operated as community buses in two different regions, and another bus started operations in a third region in 2013. The development of an energy management model accounting for operating conditions made it possible to keep the lithium ion battery capacity to a minimum. This paper describes energy management for this small electric bus, the design of the vehicle and the results of evaluating actual operation.
Technical Paper

Mechanism of and Fuel Efficiency Improvement by Dimple Texturing on Liner Surface for Reduction of Friction between Piston Rings and Cylinder Bore

2014-04-01
2014-01-1661
Reducing friction between the piston ring and cylinder is an effective way of meeting the demand for lower fuel consumption in vehicle engines. To that effect, the authors have proposed a new and efficient friction reduction treatment for the cylinder. At first glance, this treatment seems similar to typical microtexture treatments, but it is built on a different approach. Through a rig tester, it was confirmed that optimizing the shape of the dimples and the treatment area for the cylinder improves FMEP between the piston ring and the cylinder liner by 17%. This report presents an analysis of the test results to explain the mechanism by which this effect is achieved. Fuel consumption was measured in an actual engine, and a maximum fuel consumption improvement of 3.2% was confirmed after conversion to the Japanese heavy duty vehicle fuel economy standards (Category T2). Lubricating oil consumption, blow-by and durability were also examined.
Technical Paper

Development of Road's Gradient Anticipatory Algorithm for Hybrid Heavy Duty Truck

2014-09-30
2014-01-2377
For the purpose of reducing fuel consumption, a hybrid heavy duty truck was considered. Generally, HV (Hybrid Vehicle)'s energy is regenerated from deceleration energy in urban area. Hybrid heavy duty truck's energy is regenerated from potential energy on highway. Under this circumstance, some portion of energy may not be accumulated, because capacity of HV battery is limited. In order to maximize accumulating energy in the next descent, HV battery's energy shall be adequately reduced beforehand. This can be achieved by optimizing motor assist torque considering road's altitude and gradient. In this paper, performance of the algorithm is discussed.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Rankine Cycle Generating System for Heavy Duty HV Trucks

2014-04-01
2014-01-0678
In heavy duty (HD) trucks cruising on expressway, about 60% of input fuel energy is wasted as losses. So it is important to recover them to improve fuel economy of them. As a waste heat recovery system, a Rankine cycle generating system was selected. And this paper mainly reports it. In this study, engine coolant was determined as main heat source, which collected energies of an engine cooling, an EGR gas and an exhaust gas, for collecting stable energy as much as possible. And the exergy of heat source was raised by increase coolant temperature to 105 deg C. As for improving the system efficiency, saturation temperature difference was expanded by improving performance of heat exchanger and by using high pressure turbine. And a recuperator which exchanges heat in working fluid between expander outlet and evaporator inlet was installed to recover the heat of working fluid at turbine generator. Then a working fluid pump was improved to reduce power consumption of the system.
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