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Technical Paper

Development of J-Series Engine and Adoption of Common-Rail Fuel Injection System

1997-02-24
970818
Hino has developed new J-series medium-duty diesel engines for trucks and buses. The new J-series comprises four, five and six-cylinder engines with the same cylinder bore and stroke and with both naturally aspirated and charge air cooled. Both output and torque have been enhanced along with fuel efficiency in an engine that is lighter and more compact than ever and reaches new heights of durability and reliability. J-series engine features a 4-valve system and OHC valve train design, which achieved an uniform combustion by a centered nozzle and combustion chamber design. This decreases the maximum combustion temperature and hence improved the NOx,smoke and PM emissions. And a reduced pumping loss results in improving the fuel consumption. J-series engines thus meet the Japanese 1994 emission regulations. Another feature is a fully electronically controlled common-rail fuel injection system, which is equipped in a specified engine of naturally aspirated 6 cylinder.
Technical Paper

Energy Regeneration of Heavy Duty Diesel Powered Vehicles

1998-02-23
980891
The objective of this study is to improve fuel economy and reduce carbon dioxide emissions in diesel-electric hybrid automotive powertrains by developing an exhaust gas turbine generator system which utilizes exhaust gas energy from the turbocharger waste gate. The design of the exhaust gas turbine generator was based on a conventional turbocharger for a direct-injection diesel engine. Data from steady-state bench tests using air indicates about 50% of the turbine input energy can be converted to electric energy. Turbine generator output averaged 3 kW, while a maximum of about 6 kW was observed. Based on this data, we estimate that energy consumption in a vehicle could be reduced between 5% and 10%. Engine tests were conducted under both steady-state and transient conditions. These tests revealed that optimal performance occurred under high-speed, high-load conditions, typical of highway or uphill driving, and that performance at low-speed, low-loads was relatively poor.
Technical Paper

New Medium Duty Truck Model “HINO FA14 Series” for the U.S. Market

1988-10-01
881852
Hino Motors is about to launch a new truck model FA as a family product of the model FB class 5 category trucks which have been sold since 1986, Model FA, a class 3 category cab-over-engine truck has a GVW of 13,500 Lbs. and is powered by a 3.8 liter direct injection turbocharged diesel engine which produces 125 HP in conformity with federal exhaust gas emission regulations for 50 states. The new truck was designed and developed to satisfy several principal design objectives such as excellent maneuverability, driving comfort, superior fuel economy as well as sufficient reliability and durability within the simplest possible structure. This paper describes its design objectives, features focusing on cab and engine and technologies devoted to the development.
Technical Paper

Advanced Boost-up in Hino EP100-II Turbocharged and Charge-Cooled Diesel Engine

1987-02-01
870298
Hino Motors, Ltd. has added to its line of charge-cooled engines for heavy duty trucks a higher power version which is called EP100-II. To meet the recent customers' demands for rapid transportation with better fuel economy, this engine was developed on the uprating program for the original EP100 which was introduced in 1981 as the first Japanese turbo-charged and air to air chrge-cooled engine. EP100-II has the same displacement as the original EP100, 8.8 liters, and is an in-line six cylinder engine with 228kW (310PS)/2,100rpm (JIS) output that provides the world's utmost level specific output of 25.8 kW (35.1PS)/ liter. Also this engine achieved a maximum BMEP of 16.8 bar/1,300 rpm and best BSFC of 199 gr/kWh at 1,500 rpm. This paper describes the advanced technology for increasing horsepower and improving fuel consumption such as the so-called multi harmonized inertia charging system, the electronically controlled waste gate valve of turbocharger.
Technical Paper

State-of-the-Art; Hino High Boosted Diesel Engine

1993-11-01
931867
In the Japanese heavy duty truck market, demands of improved fuel economy and lighter vehicles to increase load capacity, and further improvements in emissions are constantly increasing. To satisfy these requirements, basically a smaller sized and higher boosted diesel engine is effective, because such an engine has a compact size and light weight, and shows improved fuel consumption due to a relatively lower frictional loss. On the basis of this concept Hino introduced the original EP100 in 1981 as the first Japanese turbocharged and air to air charge-cooled engine. Since then Hino has made many efforts to improve the engines and develop new technologies.
Technical Paper

Development of Methanol Engine with Autoignition for Low NOx Emission and Better Fuel Economy

1989-09-01
891842
The spark-assisted methanol engine has disadvantages like poor fuel economy especially at light load and low spark plug durability affected by combustion characteristics. Investigations of combustion characteristics of the spark ignition system and the autoignition system in the methanol engine and discharge characteristics of a spark plug are described in this paper. It is clear that effective autoignition was accomplished by increasing the compression ratio and adopting an EGR system in the spark-assisted methanol engine. This new improved methanol engine which is named HAMS achieved good fuel economy at light load, a low NOx emission and longer spark plug life. And a heat insulated piston with a stainless steel cap is being investigated for further improvement of autoignition combustion characteristics.
Technical Paper

Development of a Combustion System for a Light Duty D.I. Diesel Engine

1983-09-12
831296
A new combustion system for a light duty D.I. diesel engine was developed, and a 3.5 ton payload truck (6.5 ton G.V.W.) equipped with this D.I. diesel engine and this combustion system realized good fuel economy and lower exhaust gas emission. Generally, light duty vehicles have to operate over a wide engine speed range. Therefore application of a D.I. diesel engine to light duty vehicles is difficult because of combustion tuning requirements over a wide engine speed range. Up to now, most of the diesel engines for light vehicles have been of the I.D.I. type. But the D.I. diesel engine has an evident advantage of lower fuel consumption. In these circumstances the authors developed a new combustion chamber shape for a small D.I. diesel engine with turbulence induced intake port and optimum fuel injection equipment. Various combustion chamber geometries were tested and evaluated.
Technical Paper

Development of a Higher Boost Turbocharged Diesel Engine for Better Fuel Economy in Heavy Vehicles

1983-02-01
830379
This paper presents technical solutions and a development process to accomplish not only superior fuel economy but also excellent driveability with a turbocharged diesel engine for heavy duty trucks. For better fuel economy, one of the basic considerations is how to decrease the friction losses of the engine itself while keeping the required horsepower and torque characteristics. A high boost turbocharged small engine offers this possibility, but it has serious disadvantages such as inferior low speed torque, poorer accelerating response, insufficient engine braking performance, and finally not always so good fuel consumption in the engine operating range away from the matching point between engine and turbocharger. These are not acceptable in complicated traffic conditions like those in Japan - a mixture of mountainous and hilly roads, city road with numerous traffic signals, and freeways.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Multigrade Engine Oil for Improved Wear Resistance in Heavy Vehicle Diesel Engines-PART II: Development of a 10W-30 Oil for Diesel Engine Use

1985-10-01
852135
The purpose of the investigation presented here was to develop a high quality SAE 10W-30 engine lubricating oil to meet the heavy duty operating conditions of trucks. The operation of their engines is predicted to become more severe in future because of the trend toward higher power output, nore severe regulation of exhaust emissions and noise as well as the increasing demand for better fuel economy. To meet these demands, an improvement of the wear resistance of engine lubricating oil was considered to be the most important aspect for the development of high performance diesel engines in the future. The engine test developed was able to evaluate various experimental oils by observing wear resistance of the valve train which is considered to be one of the most severe tri-bological conditions. The best oils were determined by optimum selection of the amount and type of detergent, ashless dispersant and zinc dithiophosphate.
Technical Paper

Development of Hino Turbocharged Diesel Engines

1984-02-01
840015
A historical review of Japanese turbocharged diesel engines for heavy duty vehicles is described, and newly developed turbocharged diesel engines of HINO are introduced. The design features of these engines include new turbocharging technologies such as highly backward curved impeller for compressor blade, variable controlled inertia charging and waste gate. Laboratory and field test results demonstrated better fuel economy and improved low speed and transient torque characteristics than the predecessors. Several operational experiences, technical analysis and reliability problems are discussed.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Mechanism of Engine Oil Consumption- Oil Upwards Transport via Piston Oil Ring Gap -

2011-04-12
2011-01-1402
Reduction of oil consumption of engines is required to avoid a negative effect on engine after treatment devices. Engines are required fuel economy for reduction of carbon-dioxide emission, and it is known that reduction of piston frictions is effective on fuel economy. However friction reduction of pistons sometimes causes an increase in engine oil consumption. Therefore reduction of engine oil consumption becomes important subject recently. The ultimate goal of this study is developing the estimation method of oil consumption, and the mechanism of oil upward transport at oil ring gap was investigated in this paper. Oil pressure under the oil ring lower rail was measured by newly developed apparatus. It was found that the piston slap motion and piston up and down motion affected oil pressure rise under the oil ring and oil was spouted through ring-gap by the pressure. The effect of the piston design on the oil pressure generation was also investigated.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Low-Temperature Performance of The NOx Reduction Efficiency on the Urea-SCR Catalysts

2013-04-08
2013-01-1076
Diesel engine has a good fuel economy and high durability and used widely for power source such as heavy duty in the world. On the other hand, it is required to reduce NOx (Nitrogen Oxides) and PM (Particulate Matter) emissions further from diesel exhaust gases to preserve atmosphere. The urea-SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) system is the most promising measures to reduce NOx emissions. DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) system is commercialized for PM reduction. However, in case that a vehicle has a slow speed as an urban area driving, a diesel exhaust temperature is too low to activate SCR catalyst for NOx reduction in diesel emissions. Moreover, the diesel exhaust temperature becomes lower as a future engine has less fuel consumption. The purpose of this study is reduction of NOx emission from a heavy-duty diesel engine using the Urea SCR system at the low temperature.
Technical Paper

Mechanism of and Fuel Efficiency Improvement by Dimple Texturing on Liner Surface for Reduction of Friction between Piston Rings and Cylinder Bore

2014-04-01
2014-01-1661
Reducing friction between the piston ring and cylinder is an effective way of meeting the demand for lower fuel consumption in vehicle engines. To that effect, the authors have proposed a new and efficient friction reduction treatment for the cylinder. At first glance, this treatment seems similar to typical microtexture treatments, but it is built on a different approach. Through a rig tester, it was confirmed that optimizing the shape of the dimples and the treatment area for the cylinder improves FMEP between the piston ring and the cylinder liner by 17%. This report presents an analysis of the test results to explain the mechanism by which this effect is achieved. Fuel consumption was measured in an actual engine, and a maximum fuel consumption improvement of 3.2% was confirmed after conversion to the Japanese heavy duty vehicle fuel economy standards (Category T2). Lubricating oil consumption, blow-by and durability were also examined.
Technical Paper

Development of Fuel Economy Engine Oil for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-2034
More stringent emissions regulations, fuel economy standards, and regulations are currently being discussed to help reduce both CO2 and exhaust emissions. Vehicle manufacturers have been developing new engine technologies, such as downsizing and down-speeding with reduced friction loss, improved engine combustion and efficiency, heat loss recycling, power-train friction loss recycling, and reduced power-train friction loss. The use of more efficient fuel economy 5W-30 engine oils for heavy duty commercial vehicles has started to expand since 2009 in Japan as one technological solution to help reduce CO2 emissions. However, fuel economy 5W-30 oils for use in heavy duty vehicles in Europe are mainly based on synthetic oils, which are much expensive than the mineral oils that are predominantly used in Japan.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Rankine Cycle Generating System for Heavy Duty HV Trucks

2014-04-01
2014-01-0678
In heavy duty (HD) trucks cruising on expressway, about 60% of input fuel energy is wasted as losses. So it is important to recover them to improve fuel economy of them. As a waste heat recovery system, a Rankine cycle generating system was selected. And this paper mainly reports it. In this study, engine coolant was determined as main heat source, which collected energies of an engine cooling, an EGR gas and an exhaust gas, for collecting stable energy as much as possible. And the exergy of heat source was raised by increase coolant temperature to 105 deg C. As for improving the system efficiency, saturation temperature difference was expanded by improving performance of heat exchanger and by using high pressure turbine. And a recuperator which exchanges heat in working fluid between expander outlet and evaporator inlet was installed to recover the heat of working fluid at turbine generator. Then a working fluid pump was improved to reduce power consumption of the system.
Technical Paper

The IP Filter, a DOC-Integrated DPF, for an Advanced PM Aftertreatment System (2): An Evaluation of Fundamental Performance

2007-04-16
2007-01-0654
DPR consists of a multiple fuel-injection system, an electronic engine control unit, and a DPR Cleaner. The DPR cleaner is one assembly unit consisting of a DOC, a catalyzed DPF, and an exhaust silencer. Thus, DPR is a system developed to achieve healthy operation of a DPF with active regeneration regardless of engine operating conditions. The IP Filter was developed to improve the DPR cleaner by reducing the size of the unit and shortening the regeneration time. Both the DOC and DPF are integrated into one unit structure. The IP Filter has open-ended cells on the front face unlike a conventional wall-flow DPF. Instead, the plugs are positioned at the interface between the DOC and DPF. On the rear face of the IP Filter, plugs are installed at the same positions as those of a conventional DPF. The DOC substrate of the IP Filter is made of highly porous, straight honeycomb, the same as that of DPF.
Technical Paper

The Hino E13C: A Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Developed for Extremely Low Emissions and Superior Fuel Economy

2004-03-08
2004-01-1312
The Hino E13C was developed for heavy-duty truck application to meet Japan's 2003 NOx and 2005 particulate emissions standards simultaneously with significant fuel economy improvement. A combined EGR system consisting of an external EGR system with a highly efficient EGR cooler and an internal EGR system with an electronically controlled valve actuation device was newly developed to reduce NOx emissions for all operating conditions without requiring a larger engine coolant radiator. A Hino-developed DPR was installed to achieve extremely low particulate emissions at the tail pipe. Increased strength of engine structural components and a ductile cast iron piston enabled high BMEP operation at lower engine speeds and reductions of both engine size and weight. This paper describes key technologies developed for the E13C as well as the development results.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study for High Specific Load Bearings in the Diesel Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-0297
Recently, exhaust emission has been enforced on diesel engines for the countermeasure of environmental problems. Accordingly, the cylinder pressure in the engine is being increased to improve fuel efficiency, the engine bearings must be used under severe conditions of high specific load. Because the connecting rod bearings, particularly of diesel engines, are used at high specific loads that exceed 100 MPa, elastic deformation of the bearing surface occurs, and the oil film thickness decreases at the edges of the bearing length in the axial direction. This causes the bearings to contact with the crankshaft, thus resulting in the wear of the bearings, which could even result in seizure. The following factors contribute to seizure: bearing materials, bearing shapes, machining methods, and incorrect assembly. Focusing on these factors, this study evaluated the behaviors exhibited by connecting rod bearings in actual engines by using the rig testers.
Journal Article

Diesel Engine Emissions and Performance Optimization for Neat GTL Fuel

2008-04-14
2008-01-1405
The emissions reduction potential of neat GTL (Gas to Liquids: Fischer-Tropsch synthetic gas-oil derived from natural gas) fuels has been preliminarily evaluated by three different latest-generation diesel engines with different displacements. In addition, differences in combustion phenomena between the GTL fuels and baseline diesel fuel have been observed by means of a single cylinder engine with optical access. From these findings, one of the engines has been modified to improve both exhaust emissions and fuel consumption simultaneously, assuming the use of neat GTL fuels. The conversion efficiency of the NOx (oxides of nitrogen) reduction catalyst has also been improved.
Journal Article

Development of a Fuel Economy and Exhaust Emissions Test Method with HILS for Heavy-Duty HEVs

2008-04-14
2008-01-1318
The objective of this study was to develop a test method for heavy-duty HEVs using a hardware-in-the-loop simulator (HILS) to enhance the type-approval-test method. To achieve our objective, HILS systems for series and parallel HEVs were actually constructed to verify calculation accuracy. Comparison of calculated and measured data (vehicle speed, motor/generator power, rechargeable energy storage system power/voltage/current/state of charge, and fuel economy) revealed them to be in good agreement. Calculation error for fuel economy was less than 2%.
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