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Technical Paper

The Study of Particle Number Reduction Using After-Treatment Systems for a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2004-03-08
2004-01-1423
To reduce ultra fine particle number concentration from a heavy-duty diesel engine, the effects of diesel fuel property and after-treatment systems were studied. The reduction of ultra fine particle number concentration over steady state mode using an 8 liter turbocharged and after-cooled diesel engine was evaluated. PM size distribution was measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The evaluation used a commercially available current diesel fuel (Sulfur Content: 0.0036 wt%), high sulfur diesel fuel (Sulfur Content: 0.046 wt%) and low sulfur diesel fuel (Sulfur Content: 0.007 wt%). The after-treatment systems were an oxidation catalyst, a wire-mesh type DPF (Diesel Particle Filter) and a wall-flow type catalyzed DPF. The results show that fine particle number concentration is reduced with a low sulfur fuel, an oxidation catalyst, a wire-mesh type DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) and wall flow type catalyzed DPF, respectively.
Technical Paper

Development of Efficient Urea-SCR Systems for EPA 2010-Compliant Medium Duty Diesel Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-1309
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued new emissions regulations, which came into effect in January, 2010. These EPA 2010 regulations are the most stringent emissions standards in the world, reducing both particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to nearly zero levels. Hino Motors improved upon its previous EPA 2007-compliant engine, developing a new exhaust after-treatment system in which a Diesel Particulate active Reduction System (DPR), a Urea-Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) System and a Burner System are employed to meet EPA 2010 emissions regulations for medium duty commercial vehicles. DPR was already developed and utilized to reduce PM to meet EPA 2007 standards, but the Urea-SCR System is newly developed technology used to reduce NOx emissions to comply with EPA2010 emissions regulations. In addition, a Burner System is used to elevate exhaust gas temperatures in order to improve both SCR performance and DPR active Regeneration.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Diesel Soot Suppression with Soluble Fuel Additives

1987-09-01
871612
Experiments on a large number of soluble fuel additives were systematically conducted for diesel soot reduction. It was found that Ca and Ba were the most effective soot suppressors. The main determinants of soot reduction were: the metal mol-content of the fuel, the excess air factor, and the gas turbulence in the combustion chamber. The soot reduction ratio was expressed by an exponential function of the metal mol-content in the fuel, depending on the metal but independent of the metal compound. A rise in excess air factor or gas turbulence increased the value of a coefficient in the function, resulting in larger reductions in soot with the fuel additives. High-speed soot sampling from the cylinder showed that with the metal additive, the soot concentration in the combustion chamber was substantially reduced during the whole period of combustion. It is thought that the additive acts as a catalyst not only to improve soot oxidation but also to suppress soot formation.
Technical Paper

The Hino E13C: A Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Developed for Extremely Low Emissions and Superior Fuel Economy

2004-03-08
2004-01-1312
The Hino E13C was developed for heavy-duty truck application to meet Japan's 2003 NOx and 2005 particulate emissions standards simultaneously with significant fuel economy improvement. A combined EGR system consisting of an external EGR system with a highly efficient EGR cooler and an internal EGR system with an electronically controlled valve actuation device was newly developed to reduce NOx emissions for all operating conditions without requiring a larger engine coolant radiator. A Hino-developed DPR was installed to achieve extremely low particulate emissions at the tail pipe. Increased strength of engine structural components and a ductile cast iron piston enabled high BMEP operation at lower engine speeds and reductions of both engine size and weight. This paper describes key technologies developed for the E13C as well as the development results.
Technical Paper

Hino J-Series Diesel Engines Developed for The U.S. 2004 Regulations with Superior Fuel Economy

2004-03-08
2004-01-1314
Hino Motors developed J-series 4.7-liter inline-four cylinder and 7.7-liter inline-six cylinder engines for complying with the 2004 U.S. exhaust emissions regulations. Several technologies were incorporated in the development process to accomplish simultaneous reductions in both exhaust emissions and fuel consumption while the engine performance, reliability, and durability were maintained at the levels acceptable for truck application. Newly developed technologies include a cooled EGR system, a common-rail fuel injection system, a VNT system, and an engine control system for harmonized control of EGR valve and VNT. This paper reports the development approaches and results.
Technical Paper

The Study of NOx and PM Reduction Using Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction System for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-1576
To reduce NOx and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine, the effects of urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems were studied. Proto type urea SCR system was composed of NO oxidation catalyst, SCR catalyst and ammonia (NH3) reduction catalyst. The NOx reduction performance of urea SCR system was improved by a new zeolite type catalyst and mixer for urea distribution at the steady state operating conditions. NOx and PM reduction performance of the urea SCR system with DPF was evaluated over JE05 mode of Japan. The NOx reduction efficiency of the urea SCR catalyst system was 72% at JE05 mode. The PM reduction efficiency of the urea SCR catalyst system with DPF was 93% at JE05 mode. Several kinds of un-regulated matters were detected including NH3 and N2O leak from the exhaust gas. It is necessary to have further study for detailed measurements for un-regulated emissions from urea solution.
Technical Paper

Hino's Advanced Low-Emission Technologies Developed to Meet Stringent Emissions Standards

2006-04-03
2006-01-0275
Japan's new 2005 long-term emissions regulation was implemented in October 2005. Both NOx and PM emissions standards were reduced to 2 g/kWh and 0.027 g/kWh, which were 40 and 85 percent lower than the 2003 new short-term emissions standards, respectively. These emissions standards are as stringent as the Euro5 standards that are scheduled for implementation in 2008. In addition, the transient-cycle test procedure for emissions compliance, labeled JE05, was introduced to replace the D13-mode steady-state test procedure. This paper describes exhaust emissions reduction technologies developed for Hino's 13-liter heavy-duty diesel engine so that it meets the above standards. A production catalyzed wall-flow DPF was employed to reduce PM emissions in both mass and small particles. NOx emissions were reduced by improving combustion with cooled EGR and without use of a NOx aftertreatment device.
Technical Paper

Development of Diesel Particulate Trap Systems for City Buses

1991-02-01
910138
Diesel particulate trap systems are one of the effective means for the control of particulate emission from diesel vehicles. Hino has been researching and developing various diesel particulate trap systems for city buses. This paper describes two of the systems. One uses a wall flow filter equipped with an electric heater and a sensing device for particulate loading for the purpose of filter regeneration. Another makes use of a special filter named “Cross Flow Filter” with an epoch-making regeneration method called “Reverse Jet Cleaning”, by which it becomes possible to separate the part for particulate burning from the filter. Both systems roughly have come to satisfy the functions of trap systems for city buses, but their durability and reliability for city buses are not yet sufficient.
Technical Paper

Effects of High-Boost Turbocharging on Combustion Characteristics and Improving Its Low Engine Speed Torque

1992-02-01
920046
This paper describes the experimental studies of turbocharged and intercooled diesel engines with particular emphasis on combustion characteristics following increase of boost pressure. Through these studies, it has become possible to determine the optimum air quantity for minimizing fuel consumption at each engine speed range under the restrictive conditions of NOx emission, exhaust smoke and maximum cylinder pressure. Discussed also is the lack of air quantity in the low engine speed range of high-boost turbocharged diesel engines. Various turbocharging systems to improve air quantity in this speed range are introduced herein. Practically the engine performance of conventional turbocharging, waste gate control turbocharging and variable geometry turbocharging are discussed from the viewpoint of torque recovery in the low engine speed range.
Technical Paper

Impact Study of High Biodiesel Blends on Performance of Exhaust Aftertreatment Systems

2008-10-06
2008-01-2494
Biodiesel Fuel (BDF) Research Work Group works on identifying technological issues on the use of high biodiesel blends (over 5 mass%) in conventional diesel vehicles under the Japan Auto-Oil Program started in 2007. The Work Group conducts an analytical study on the issues to develop measures to be taken by fuel products and vehicle manufacturers, and to produce new technological findings that could contribute to the study of its introduction in Japan, including establishment of a national fuel quality standard covering high biodiesel blends. For evaluation of the impacts of high biodiesel blends on performance of diesel particulate filter system, a wide variety of biodiesel blendstocks were prepared, ranging from some kinds of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) to another type of BDF such as hydrotreated biodiesel (HBD). Evaluation was mainly conducted on blend levels of 20% and 50%, but also conducted on 10% blends and neat FAME in some tests.
Technical Paper

Novel Analysis Approach for Better Understanding of Fuel and Engine Effects on Diesel Exhaust Emission - JCAP Combustion Analysis Working Group Report Part II

2002-10-21
2002-01-2825
1 A novel analysis approach called “Regression Density method” was developed for better understanding of fuel property effects on exhaust emission. The approach was applied to diesel emission data obtained in JCAP programs and emission models were conducted to analyze the effects of fuel properties and engine conditions on emissions. By introducing this analysis method, the relationship between density factor and aromatics factor (chemical composition factor) was identified, however, they have been reported previously as dominant factors in fuel properties. The effects of engine conditions and fuel properties on emissions were investigated quantitatively based on the statistically conducted emission models to clarify universal ways to emission reduction. The mechanism of emission formation of vehicles and engines with characteristic behavior was also examined.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Injection Pressure and Fuel Properties on Particulate Emissions from H.D.D.I. Diesel Engine

1988-09-01
881255
For the 1990's diesel engines, particulate control has been an important problem. The purpose of this paper is to discuss emission control needs for heavy duty diesel truck engines for the 1990's. This paper will focus on the factors such as fuel injection pressure and fuel properties which most affect particulate emission. The characteristics of diesel spray in the atmosphere and also actual combustion of a turbocharged and charge-cooled H.D. D.I diesel engine were studied as a function of injection pressure ranging from 50 to 150 MPa. Experimental results show that high pressure injection improves the atomization and air entrainment. Though Bosch smoke level, fuel consumption and combustion period decreased with the rise of injection pressure, particulate emission in EPA transient test cycle did not decrease dut to an increase of SOF.
Technical Paper

An Observation of Combustion Phenomenon on Heat Insulated Turbo-Charged and Inter-Cooled D.I. Diesel Engines

1986-09-01
861187
A current unmodified and modified engines with different amounts of thermal insulation have been used to generate data from which changes in bsfc, cooling loss, emissions, exhaust loss were determined. Since legislative requirement exists for allowable emission of NOx, fuel injection timing and other controllable factors were adjusted to maintain constant NOx emission except a test of influence on NOx emission according to the rate of heat insulation (adiabaticity). The effect of higher combustion temperature on the combustion phenomena is discussed.
Technical Paper

The Reduction of Diesel Engine Emissions by Using the Oxidation Catalysts of Japan Diesel 13 Mode Cycle

1999-03-01
1999-01-0471
To reduce emissions from diesel engines, the effects of oxidation catalysts on the emissions reductions were studied. The effectiveness of several oxidation catalysts on both the regulated and unregulated emissions was evaluated. The oxidation activity of the catalysts was varied by changing Pt loading. The regulated emissions include particulate (PM), hydrocarbon (HC), and carbon monoxide (CO), and the unregulated emissions include benzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). An 8 litter, turbocharged and aftercooled diesel engine was operated under the Japan Diesel 13 (D13) mode cycle for the evaluations. As the first step, evaluations were conducted with a commercially available JIS #2 diesel fuel (0.046 wt% sulfur). All the regulated and unregulated emissions except PM were reduced as the Pt loading (i.e. oxidation activity) increased. However, PM emissions were increased by the generation of sulfate when the Pt loading exceeded 0.2 g/l.
Technical Paper

The Visualization and Its Analysis of Combustion Flame in a DI Diesel Engine

1998-02-23
980141
Since in-cylinder flame temperature has a direct effect on an engine's NOx characteristics, these phenomena have been studied in detail in a DI diesel engine using a newly developed method allowing the in-cylinder temperature distribution to be measured by the two color method. The flame light introduced from the visualized combustion chamber of the engine is divided into two colors by filters. The images of combustion phenomena using the two wavelengths are recorded with a framing streak camera which includes a CCD camera. The flame temperature is immediately calculated by a computer using two color images from the CCD camera. A parameter study was then carried out to determine the influence of intake valve number of the engine, and fuel injection rate (pilot injection) on the in-cylinder temperature distribution.
Technical Paper

Development of Diesel Combustion for Commercial Vehicles

1997-08-06
972685
Historically the high speed diesel engine for commercial vehicles has been developed along with its combustion system in compliance with political and economical changes. After the 1970's, stricter exhaust emission regulations and fuel economy requirements induced combustion developments and application of turbocharged and inter cooled engines. From the late 1980's, high pressure fuel injection has been investigated and recognized as an essential tool for lowering emissions especially of particulate matter. Although turbulence effects on both in-cylinder air motion and during the combustion process are quite effective, they show different phenomena in conventional and advanced high pressure fuel injection systems. In the 1990's, multiple injection with high pressure has been attempted for further reduction of NOx and particulate matter.
Technical Paper

Nano Particle Emission Evaluation of State of the Art Diesel Aftertreatment Technologies (DPF, urea-SCR and DOC), Gasoline Combustion Systems (Lean Burn / Stoichiometric DISI and MPI) and Fuel Qualities Effects (EtOH, ETBE, FAME, Aromatics and Distillation)

2007-10-29
2007-01-4083
Newly designed laboratory measurement system, which reproduces particle number size distributions of both nuclei and accumulation mode particles in exhaust emissions, was developed. It enables continuous measurement of nano particle emissions in the size range between 5 and 1000 nm. Evaluations of particle number size distributions were conducted for diesel vehicles with a variety of emission aftertreatment devices and for gasoline vehicles with different combustion systems. For diesel vehicles, Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), urea-Selective Catalytic Reduction (urea-SCR) system and catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) were evaluated. For gasoline vehicles, Lean-burn Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI), Stoichiometric DISI and Multi Point Injection (MPI) were evaluated. Japanese latest transient test cycles were used for the evaluation: JE05 mode driving cycle for heavy duty vehicles and JC08 mode driving cycle for light duty vehicles.
Technical Paper

Impact of Oil-derived Sulfur and Phosphorus on Diesel NOx Storage Reduction Catalyst - JCAP II Oil WG Report

2006-10-16
2006-01-3312
Emission regulations for diesel-powered vehicles have been gradually tightening. Installation of after-treatment devices such as diesel particulate filters (DPF), NOx storage reduction (NSR) catalysts, and so on is indispensable to satisfy rigorous limits of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Japan Clean Air Program II Oil Working Group (JCAPII Oil WG) has been investigating the effect of engine oil on advanced diesel after-treatment devices. First of all, we researched the impact of oil-derived ash on continuous regeneration-type diesel particulate filter (CR-DPF), and already reported that the less sulfated ash in oil gave rise to lower pressure drop across CR-DPF [1]. In this paper, impact of oil-derived sulfur and phosphorus on NSR catalyst was investigated using a 4L direct injection common-rail diesel engine with turbo-intercooler. This engine equipped with NSR catalyst meets the Japanese new short-term emission regulations.
Technical Paper

Development of Methanol Engine with Autoignition for Low NOx Emission and Better Fuel Economy

1989-09-01
891842
The spark-assisted methanol engine has disadvantages like poor fuel economy especially at light load and low spark plug durability affected by combustion characteristics. Investigations of combustion characteristics of the spark ignition system and the autoignition system in the methanol engine and discharge characteristics of a spark plug are described in this paper. It is clear that effective autoignition was accomplished by increasing the compression ratio and adopting an EGR system in the spark-assisted methanol engine. This new improved methanol engine which is named HAMS achieved good fuel economy at light load, a low NOx emission and longer spark plug life. And a heat insulated piston with a stainless steel cap is being investigated for further improvement of autoignition combustion characteristics.
Technical Paper

Development of a Pre-Alarm Diagnostic System for a Diesel Emission Analyzer

1989-02-01
890186
Gaseous emission measurements of a diesel engine including hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and oxide of nitrogen (NOx) are made in accordance with the procedures specified in the Federal Register. However, it is very difficult to maintain constantly the accuracy of these emission measurements due to failure of the emission analyzer. The authors have thus developed the Pre-Alarm Diagnostic System for a Diesel Emission Analyzer. Firstly, the authors have carried out analysis of all failure modes that are classified into initial failure, random failure and wearing-out failure, plus tolerance level for prediction of failures and method of predicting failures. Next, the authors have developed the Pre-Alarm Diagnostic System that is able to easily discover these failures before the exhaust emission test. In this system, 40 sensors, such as pressure, temperature, voltage etc, are laid in each pipe line of connection between exhaust emission sampling pump and analyzer.
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