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Technical Paper

A Urea-Dosing Device for Enhancing Low-Temperature Performance by Active-Ammonia Production in an SCR System

2008-04-14
2008-01-1026
A new urea-dosing device with an active-ammonia production function was developed. This function is achieved by an electrically heated bypass passage with a hydrolysis catalyst for urea-to-ammonia conversion. The new device also has the function of mixing ammonia and exhaust gas. It is compact and has low-pressure loss by using the vortex occurring at the back of a static vane. We built a trial device for a small diesel engine and obtained steady state and transient data. The heated-bypass concept can be used in the aftertreatment system of passenger cars. Although active-ammonia production consumes electric power, a predictive calculation of power consumption (based on experimental results) shows that the developed bypass heater can suppress the energy consumption enough not to harm the high-energy efficiency of diesel engines.
Technical Paper

A Study of a New Aftertreatment System (2): Control of Urea Solution Spray for Urea-SCR

2006-04-03
2006-01-0644
The urea-SCR system is one of the most promising aftertreatment systems for future automotive diesel engines. We developed a urea dosing device with twin urea injectors for onboard applications, to enhance the NOx reduction performance at low exhaust temperatures and to lower the electric power consumption of the SCR system. The injectors operate with a single-phase urea solution, without air assist. Of the injectors, one is used to supply urea to a bypass passage routing the exhaust, during low exhaust temperatures. The other injector is located on the wall of the main exhaust duct, directly supplying urea to the exhaust. This direct injection method has a uniform spray distribution problem. A set of impact plates were used to distribute the spray. Impact plates have a high potential for deposition, but use of film boiling was considered. A thermal analysis was conducted and as a result, deposit conditions were theoretically derived. This was confirmed through experiments.
Technical Paper

A Study of a New Aftertreatment System (1): A New Dosing Device for Enhancing Low Temperature Performance of Urea-SCR

2006-04-03
2006-01-0642
In order to reduce diesel NOx emissions, aftertreatment methods including LNT (Lean NOx Trap) and urea SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) have been researched. One of the shortcomings of urea SCR is its NOx reduction performance degradation at low exhaust gas temperatures and possible emission of unregulated byproducts. Here, a new type of a urea-dosing device to overcome these shortcomings is studied. This dosing device actively produces ammonia without depending upon the exhaust gas temperature, and designed for onboard application. The device incorporates an electrically heated bypass with a hydrolysis catalyst. An injector supplies urea solution into the bypass. The bypass is heated only when thermolysis is needed to produce ammonia (NH3). The hydrolysis catalyst further assists in the production of NH3. The ammonia gas obtained is then mixed with the main exhaust gas flow.
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